Per Olof Christopher Aurivillius
Per Olof Christopher Aurivillius was a Swedish entomologist. Christopher Aurivillius was born at Sweden, he was the director of the Natural History Museum in Stockholm and he specialised in Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. He was, for a long time, the secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Science, his brother was the zoologist Carl Wilhelm Samuel Aurivillius and his son the zoologist Sven Magnus Aurivillius. He was the author of Part 39 Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae and Parts 73 and 74. Cerambycidae: Lamiinae in: S. Schenkling, Coleopterorum Catalogus. W. Junk, Berlin, 1000 + pages. Rhopalocera Aethiopica, major contributions to Adalbert Seitz's Die Großschmetterlinge der Erde Band 13: Abt. 2, Die exotischen Großschmetterlinge, Die afrikanischen Tagfalter, 1925 and many papers on the Lepidoptera of Africa and Über sekundäre Geschlechtscharaktere nordischer Tagfalter Stockholm a work on moths. In 1922, he discovered the beetle called the Ozineus dimidiatus, part of the Cerambycidae family. Aurivillius was the permanent secretary of Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences from 1901–1923.
Aurivillius, 1893 "Diagnosen neuer lepidopteren aus Afrika" Entomologisk tidskrift 14: 199-214 ———, 1894 "Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Insektenfaun von Kamerun. 2. Tagfalter" Entomologisk tidskrift. 15: 273-314 ———, 1898 "Diagnosen neuer Lepidopteren aus Afrika" Entomologisk tidskriftr. 19: 177-186 ———, 1898 "Neue Nymphaliden aus dem Congogebiete Öfvers" K. Vetensk Akad. Förh. Stockh. 54: 279-286 ———, 1901 "Diagnosen neuer Lepidopteren aus Afrika" Entomologisk tidskrift. 22: 113-128 Anthony Musgrave. Bibliography of Australian Entomology, 1775-1930, With Biographical Notes on Authors and Collectors, Royal Zoological Society of News South Wales: viii + 380. BHL Digital version of Rhopalocera Aethiopica PDF Digital version of Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae African Butterfly Database Complete list of Aurivillius' publications on African butterflies
Mario Bezzi was an Italian professor of zoology at the University of Turin. He was director of the Turin Museum of Natural History, he was a Doctor of Science. Bezzi worked with Paul Stein, Theodor Becker and Kálmán Kertész on Katalog der Paläarktischen dipteren published in Budapest from 1903. Diptera Brachycera and Athericera of the Fiji islands based on material in the British Museum. British Museum, London: viii + 220 pp.. Einige neue paläarrktische Empis-Arten. Pt. 1 18pp. Report on a collection of Bombyliidae from Central Africa 52 p. 1 pl Riduzione e scomparsa delle ali negli insetti ditteri 98 p. 11 figs Voyage Alluaud en Afrique Orientale. Bombyliidae & Syrphidae 35 p Ulteriori notizie sulla ditterofauna delle caverne. Atti Soc. Ven. -Trent. Sci. nat. 46: 177-187. Ditteri Eritrei raccolti dal Dott. Andreini e dal Prof. Tellini. Parte Seconda. Boll. Soc. ent. ital. 39: 3-199. 1908 Diptères suivi d'un Appendic e sur les Diptères cavernicoles recueillis par le Dr Absolon dans les Balcans. Arch. Zool. Exp.
Gèn. 48: 1-87. Ditteri raccolti dal Prof. F. Silvestri durante il suo viaggio in Africa. Boll. Lab. Zool. gen. agr. Portici 8: 279-. Contributo allo studio della fauna Libica. Materiali raccolti nelle zone di Misurata e Homs dal Dott. Alfredo Andreini, Capitano Medico. Ditteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia naturale di Genova, Serie 3. A 6: 1-17. Ditteri di Cirenaica raccolti dal Prof. Alessandro Ghigi durante l'escursione organaizzata dal Touring Club Italiano nel mese d'Aprile 1920. Atti Soc. Ven. -Trent. Sci. nat. 60: 1921:. Materiali per lo studio della fauna Tunisia raccolti da G. e L. Doria. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 3a 10 1922: 1-43.. Materiali per una fauna dell'Arcipelago Toscano. XVII. Ditteri del Giglio. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 3a 10 1925: 291-354 1925:. Bezzi, M. & C. G. Lamb, 1926: XXIII. Diptera from the Island of Rodriguez. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 3/4]: 537-573. Bezzi, M. & T. de Stefani-Perez,: Enumerazione dei Ditteri fino ad ora raccolti in Sicilia.
Naturalista Siciliano An. II 1-3: 1-48.. Groll, E. K.: Biografien der Entomologen der Welt: Datenbank. Version 4.15: Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, 2010 at archive. Org/details/SIL-036-002-02 Katalog der Paläarktischen dipteren Volume 2 archive. Org/details/SIL-036-002-03 Katalog der Paläarktischen dipteren Volume 3
The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma
The Fauna of British India with long titles including The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma, The Fauna of British India Including the Remainder of the Oriental Region is a series of scientific books, published by the British government in India and printed by Taylor and Francis of London. The series was started sometime in 1881 after a letter had been sent to the Secretary of State for India signed by Charles Darwin, Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker and other "eminent men of science" forwarded by P. L. Sclater to R. H. Hobart. W. T. Blanford began work on the volume on mammals. In the volume on the mammals, Blanford notes: The idea was to cover the vertebrates, taking seven volumes, this was followed by a proposal to cover the invertebrates in about 15 to 20 volumes and projected to cost ₤11250 to ₤15000. Blanford suggested that restricting it to 14 volumes would make it possible to limit the cost to ₤10500. After Blanford's death, Arthur Everett Shipley became the editor; the first series was followed by a second edition of some of the volumes such as the mammals, birds and butterflies.
In 1922-23, Nelson Annandale sought to move the process of preparation of the books and its publication to India. The second edition is sometimes called the "new fauna". There were changes incorporated in this that included for instance the usage of trinomials for the birds. Following Shipley's death in 1927, Lieutenant Colonel John Stephenson of the Indian Medical Service was appointed editor in May 1928. After Indian Independence in 1947 a few volumes were published under the new name of Fauna of India but some of the volumes that were under preparation were never published; the 1953 volume on polychaetes by Pierre Fauvel was published by the Indian Press from Allahabad. Bhatia, B. L. Vol. I Protozoa:Ciliophora Bhatia, B. L. Vol. II Protozoa: Sporozoa Annandale, Nelson Freshwater sponges, Hydroids & Polyzoa Burton M Porifera Stephenson, J. Oligochaeta xxiv + 518 p - 261 figs Harding, W. A. & John Percy Moore Hirudinea xxxviii + 302 p - 63 figs - 8 pl - T. Cestoda. Volume 1. Cestodaria, Bucestoda Southwell, T. Cestoda.
Volume 2. Taenioidia Baylis, H. A. Nematoda. 1. Ascaroidea and Strongyloidea Baylis, H. A. Nematoda. 2. Filarioidea and Trichinelloidea Fauvel, Pierre Polychaeta Bhalerao, DG Trematoda Although these volumes were sanctioned, they were never published. Nilsson-Cantell, CA Cirripedia Chopra BN Brachyura Seymour Sewell, RB Copepoda Mortensen, Theodor Echinoidea Blanford W. T. & Godwin-Austen H. H. 1908. Mollusca. Testacellidae and Zonitidae. Taylor & Francis, London. 311 pp. Gude G. K. 1914. Mollusca.−II.. Xii + 520 pp. 164 figs. Gude G. K. 1921. Mollusca.−III. Land operculates. 386 pp. Preston H B 1915. Mollusca. Freshwater Gastropoda & Pelecypoda. Taylor & Francis, London, 244 pp. 29 figs. Prashad, Baini Mollusca 5. Pelecypoda Pocock, R. I. Arachnida Sharif M Ticks. Distant, W. L. Rhynchota 1. Heteroptera. Pentatomidae, Berytidae Distant, W. L. Rhynchota 2. Heteroptera. Family 4 to 16. Distant, W. L. Rhynchota 3. Heteroptera - Homoptera Heteroptera-family 17 to 24. / Cicadidae, Fulgoridae. Distant, W. L. Rhynchota 4. Homoptera: Membracidae, Jassidae & Heteroptera: Appendix Distant, W.
L. Rhynchota 5. Heteroptera: Appendix Distant, W. L. Rhynchota 6. Homoptera. Appendix Distant, W. L. Rhynchota 7. Homoptera:Appendix to Jassidae, Heteroptera:Addenda Burr, M. Dermaptera Fraser, F. C. Odonata. 1 Introduction, Coenagriidae 423 p Fraser, F. C. Odonata. 2 Agriidae, Gomphidae 398 p - 120 figs - 4 col. pl. Fraser, F. C. Odonata. 3 Cordulegasteridae, Libellulidae. 461 p. Kirby, WF AcridiidaeSecond editionUvarov, BP Acridiidae Chopard L; the Fauna of India and the Adjacent Countries. Orthoptera. Vol.2: Grylloidea. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press. Henry G M Tettigoniidae Shelford, R. Blattidae Andrewes, H. Carabidae 1. Carabinae Andrewes, H. Carabidae 2. Harpalinae Arrow, G. J. Lamellicornia 1. Cetoniinae and Dynastinae Arrow, G. J. Lamellicornia 2. Rutelinae, Euchirinae Arrow, G. J. Lamellicornia 3. Coprinae Arrow, G. J. Lamellicornia 4. Lucanidae & Passalidae Arrow, G. J. Clavicornia: Erotylidae, Languriidae & Endomychidae Beeson, C. F. C. Platypodidae Browne, J Balfour Dytiscidae and Haliplidae Cameron, M. Staphylinidae 1.
Cameron, M. Staphylinidae. 2. 257 p - 2 col. pl. Cameron, M. Staphylinidae 3. 443 p - 4 col. pl. Cameron, M. Staphylinidae 4. Part 1. Subfam. Pseudopernthinae and Aleocharinae
Theodor Becker was a German civil engineer and entomologist known for his work with flies. He worked with Paul Stein, Mario Bezzi, Kálmán Kertész on Katalog der Paläarktischen dipteren published in Budapest from 1903. 1902. Die Meigenschen Typen der sog. Musciden Acalyptratae. Zeitschrift für systematische Hymenopterologie und Dipterologie 2: 209-256, 289-320, 337-349. 1903. Die Typen der v. Roser’schen Dipteren-Sammlung in Stuttgart. Diptera Cyclorrhapha Schizophora. Jahreshefte des Vereins für Vaterländische Naturkunde in Württemberg 59: 52-66. 1903. Aegyptische Dipteren gesammelt und beschrieben. Mitteilungen aus dem zoologischen Museum in Berlin 2: 67-192. 1905. Cyclorrhapha Schizophora: Holometopa. In Becker, T. Bezzi, M. Kertész, K.& Stein, P.: Katalog der paläarktischen Dipteren. Vol. 4, 272 pp. G. Wesselényi in Hódmezövásárhely, Budapest. Bibliography 330 1907 Zur Kenntnis der Dipteren von Zentral Asien. - I. Cyclorrhapha Schizophora,Holometopa und Orthorrhapha Brachycera. Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de l.
Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg 12: 253-317. 1907 Die Ergebnisse meiner dipterologischen Frühjahrsreise nach Algier und Tunis 1906. Zeitschrift für systematische Hymenopterologie und Dipterologie 7: 369-407. 1907. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Dipterenfauna Nordsibiriens. Résultats scientifiques de l’Expédition polaire Russe en 1900-1903, sous la direction du Baron E. Toll. Section E: Zoologie. Volume I. Livr.10. Mémoires de l. Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg, VIII Série, Classe Physico-Mathématique 18: 1-6. 1908. Dipteren der Kanarischen Inseln. Mitteilungen aus dem zoologischen Museum in Berlin 4: 1-180. 1908. Dipteren der Insel Madeira. Mitteilungen aus dem zoologischen Museum in Berlin 4: 181-206. 1909. Collectionis recueillis. Insectes: Diptères nouveaux. Bulletin du Muséum National d. Histoire Naturelle,Paris 15: 113-121. 1910. Voyage de M. Maurice de Rothschild en Éthiopie et dans l’Afrique orientale. Diptères nouveaux. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 79: 22-30.
1910. Dipteren aus Südarabien und von der Insel Sokótra. Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse,71: 1-30. 1910. Dipterologische Sammelreise nach Korsika. I. Orthorrhapha brachycera. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 6: 635-665. 1910. 1910 Chloropidae. Eine monographische Studie. Archivum Zoologicum Budapest 1:23-174 1913. Dipteren aus Marokko. Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de l. Académie Impériale de Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg 18: 62-95. 1916. Fauna Faeröensis. Orthorrhapha Brachycera, Cyclorrhapha aschiza und Schizophora. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographieund Biologie der Tiere, Jena 39:121-134. 1920. Diptères brachycères. Mission du Service Géographique de l. Armée pour la mesure d.un arc de Méridien Equatorial en Amérique du Sud, 1899-1906, 10:163-215. 1922. Diptères. In: Extrait du voyage de M. le Baron Maurice de Rothschild en Éthiopie et en Afrique Orientale Anglaise. Pp. 796–836, Imprimerie Nationale, Paris. Becker’s collection is in the Natural History Museum of Berlin.
Works by or about Theodor Becker at Internet Archive Obituary
Charles W. Woodworth
Charles William Woodworth was an American entomologist. He published extensively in entomology and founded the Entomology Department at the University of California, Berkeley, he was the first person to breed the model organism Drosophila melanogaster in captivity and to suggest to early genetic researchers at Harvard its use for scientific research. He spent four years at the University of Nanking, where he effected the practical control of the city's mosquitoes, he administered the law for 12 years. The Pacific Branch of the Entomological Society of America named its annual career achievement award the C. W. Woodworth Award, he was born in Champaign, Illinois on April 28, 1865 to Alvin Oakley Woodworth and Mary Celina Woodworth. His father died when Charles was four; some years his mother married Alvin's older brother Stephen Elias Woodworth to help raise Charles and his older brother Howard. Stephen had earlier been a resident of Seneca Falls, New York and was a signatory of the 1848 Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments.
Charles graduated with a BS in 1885 and an MS in 1886 from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The funds received from the judgment in the 1884 U. S. Supreme Court Case, New England Mutual Life Ins. Co. v. Woodworth, may have helped pay for his education. During the period of 1884–1886, he was assistant to S. A. Forbes. From 1886 to 1888 he studied at Harvard University under Hermann August Hagen, who, at the time, was the leading entomologist of the U. S, he worked under William E. Castle. In 1888, he was appointed entomologist and botanist at the University of Arkansas's Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station. On September 4, 1889, he married Leonora Stern in Rolla, the city where her parents, Edward Stern and Lizzie Hardin Evans Stern, lived. Charles suffered from successive attacks of malaria while in Arkansas, he left there in 1891 to become assistant in entomology at the University of California where he founded and built up the Division of Entomology. He participated in the development of the Agricultural Experiment Station, now known as UC Davis, is considered the founder of the Entomology Department there.
At Berkeley, he rose to be Assistant Professor in 1891, Associate Professor in 1904, Professor in 1913, was named Emeritus Professor upon his retirement in 1930. Woodworth is credited with first breeding Drosophila in quantity. Thomas Hunt Morgan's Nobel Prize biography says that Woodworth suggested to William E. Castle that Drosophila might be used for genetical work. Castle and his associates used it for their work on the effects of inbreeding, through them F. E. Lutz became interested in it and the latter introduced it to Morgan, looking for a species that could be bred in the limited space at his command. While on sabbatical leave in 1918, he was a lecturer at the University of Nanking and honorary professor of entomology at the National Southeastern University at Nanking, China. During his year there he effected a practical control of mosquitoes for the first time in that city's history, he returned for a three-year period in 1921-1924. During this period he organized the Kiangsu Provincial Bureau of Entomology as well as many other things.
In the words of the president of the University of Nanking, "He served China in a magnificent way." His publications were extensive and included nearly every field of entomology. A few of his most outstanding works are: "A List of the Insects of California, The Wing Veins of Insects", "Guide to California Insects", "School of Fumigation", he was the first editor and first contributor to the University of California Publications in Entomology. He had much to do with the responsible use of pesticides, he proposed and drafted the first California Insecticide Law in 1906, was instrumental in securing its passage in 1911, administered the law until July 1, 1923. Entomological campaigns which he conducted in California concerned the codling moth, the peach twig-borer, citrus insects and citrus white fly eradication. Charles and Leonora had four children: Lawrence, Harold and Elizabeth, his son, Dr. Charles E. Woodworth became an entomologist, their home at 2237 Carleton Street in Berkeley, that he designed, was designated a Berkeley Landmark in 1993.
He had many avocations including making telescopes, analyzing chess positions, researching his extended family's genealogy. C. W. was an 1889 charter member of the American Association of Economic Entomologists. The Pacific Branch of the Entomological Society of America selects a member of the society to win the C. W. Woodworth Award based on "outstanding accomplishments in entomology over at least the past 10 years." Here is a nearly complete list of winners since 1969. This award is principally sponsored by his great-grandson, Brian Holden, his wife, Joann Wilfert, with additional support by Dr. Craig and Kathryn Holden, Dr. Jim and Betty Woodworth. History of model organisms Timeline of Entomology - Post 1900 11/21/1940 NY Times Obituary 12/20/1940 Science Magazine Obituary History of Entomology at UC Berkeley History of Entomology at UC Davis History of Entomology at the University of Arkansas T. H. Morgan's Nobel Prize biography mentioning C. W. Woodworth City of Berkeley Landmark listing of his home Photo of the
Mosquitoes are a group of about 3500 species of small insects that are a type of fly. Within that order they constitute the family Culicidae; the word "mosquito" is Spanish for "little fly". Mosquitoes have a slender segmented body, a pair of wings, three pairs of long hair-like legs, feathery antennae, elongated mouthparts. Mosquitoes diverged from other insects about 226 million years ago. Fossils of primitive mosquitoes have been found; the life cycle consists of the egg, larva and adult. Eggs are laid on the water surface. Females of most species have tube-like mouthparts which can pierce the skin of the host in order to extract blood, which contains protein and iron needed to produce eggs. Thousands of mosquito species feed on the blood of various hosts — vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles and some fish; this loss of blood is of any importance to the host. The saliva of the mosquito transmitted to the host with the bite can cause a rash. In addition, many species of mosquitoes inject or ingest disease-causing organisms with the bite and are thus a vector for the transmission of diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, West Nile virus, dengue fever, Zika virus and other arboviruses.
Mosquitoes kill more people than any other animal: over 700,000 each year. The oldest known mosquito with an anatomy similar to modern species was found in 79-million-year-old Canadian amber from the Cretaceous. An older sister species with more primitive features was found in Burmese amber, 90 to 100 million years old. Two mosquito fossils have been found that show little morphological change in modern mosquitoes against their counterpart from 46 million years ago; these fossils are the oldest found to have blood preserved within their abdomens. Despite no fossils being found earlier than the Cretaceous, recent studies suggest that the earliest divergence of mosquitoes between the lineages leading to Anophelinae and Culicinae occurred 226 million years ago; the mosquito Anopheles gambiae is undergoing speciation into the M and S molecular forms. Some pesticides that work on the M form no longer work on the S form. Over 3,500 species of the Culicidae have been described, they are divided into two subfamilies which in turn comprise some 43 genera.
These figures are subject to continual change, as more species are discovered, as DNA studies compel rearrangement of the taxonomy of the family. The two main subfamilies are the Anophelinae and Culicinae, with their genera as shown in the subsection below; the distinction is of great practical importance because the two subfamilies tend to differ in their significance as vectors of different classes of diseases. Speaking, arboviral diseases such as yellow fever and dengue fever tend to be transmitted by Culicine species, not in the genus Culex; some transmit various species of avian malaria, but it is not clear that they transmit any form of human malaria. Some species do however transmit various forms of filariasis, much as many Simuliidae do. Mosquitoes are members of a family of nematocerid flies: the Culicidae. Superficially, mosquitoes resemble. Anophelinae Culicinae Over 3,500 species of mosquitoes have thus far been described in the scientific literature. Like all flies, mosquitoes go through four stages in their lifecycles: egg, larva and adult or imago.
The first three stages—egg and pupa—are aquatic. These stages last 5 to 14 days, depending on the species and the ambient temperature, but there are important exceptions. Mosquitoes living in regions where some seasons are freezing or waterless spend part of the year in diapause. For instance, Wyeomyia larvae get frozen into solid lumps of ice during winter and only complete their development in spring; the eggs of some species of Aedes remain unharmed in diapause if they dry out, hatch when they are covered by water. Eggs hatch to become larvae; the adult mosquito emerges from the mature pupa. Bloodsucking mosquitoes, depending on species and weather conditions, have potential adult lifespans ranging from as short as a week to as long as several months; some species can overwinter as adults in diapause. In most species, adult females lay their eggs in stagnant water: some lay near the water's edge while others attach their eggs to aquatic plants; each species selects the situation of the water into which it lays its eggs and does so according to its own ecological adaptations.
Some are generalists and are not fussy. Some breed in some in temporary puddles; some breed in some in salt-marshes. Among those that breed in salt water, some are at home in fresh and salt water up to about one-third the concentration of seawater, whereas others must acclimatize themselves to the salinity; such differences are important because certain ecological pre
Sir Ronald Ross, was a British medical doctor who received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on the transmission of malaria, becoming the first British Nobel laureate, the first born outside Europe. His discovery of the malarial parasite in the gastrointestinal tract of a mosquito in 1897 proved that malaria was transmitted by mosquitoes, laid the foundation for the method of combating the disease, he was a polymath, writing a number of poems, published several novels, composed songs. He was an amateur artist and natural mathematician, he worked in the Indian Medical Service for 25 years. It was during his service. After resigning from his service in India, he joined the faculty of Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, continued as Professor and Chairman of Tropical Medicine of the institute for 10 years. In 1926 he became Director-in-Chief of the Ross Institute and Hospital for Tropical Diseases, established in honour of his works, he remained there until his death.
Ronald Ross was born in Almora, North West of Nepal, the eldest of ten children of Sir Campbell Claye Grant Ross, General in the British Indian Army, Matilda Charlotte Elderton. At age eight he was sent to England to live with his uncle on the Isle of Wight, he attended Primary schools at Ryde, for secondary education he was sent to a boarding school at Springhill, near Southampton, in 1869. From his early childhood he developed passion for poetry, music and mathematics. At fourteen years of age he won a prize for mathematics, a book titled Orbs of Heaven which sparked his interest in mathematics. In 1873, at sixteen, he secured first position in the Oxford and Cambridge local examination in drawing. Although he wanted to become a writer, his father arranged enrollment at St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College in London, in 1874. Not committed, he spent most of his time composing music, writing poems and plays, he left in 1880. In 1879 he had passed the examinations for the Royal College of Surgeons of England, he worked as a ship's surgeon on a transatlantic steamship while studying for the licenciate of the Society of Apothecaries.
He qualified on second attempt in 1881, after a four-month training at Army Medical School, he entered Indian Medical Service in 1881. Between June 1888 and May 1889 he took study leave to obtain the Diploma in Public Health from the Royal College of Physicians and Royal College of Surgeons, took a course in bacteriology under Professor E. E. Klein. Ross embarked for India on 22 September 1881 on the troopship Jumma. Between 1881 and 1894 he was variously posted in Madras, Baluchistan, Andaman Islands and Secunderabad. In 1883, he was posted as the Acting Garrison Surgeon at Bangalore during which he noticed the possibility of controlling mosquitoes by limiting their access to water. In March 1894 he went to London with his family. On 10 April 1894 he met Sir Patrick Manson for the first time. Manson who became Ross's mentor, introduced him to the real problems in malaria research. Manson always had a firm belief. Ross returned to India on P&O Ferries' Ballaarat on 20 March 1895 and landed in Secunderabad on 24 April.
Before his luggage was cleared in the custom office, he went straight for Bombay Civil Hospital, looking for malarial patients and started making blood films. Ross made his first important step in May 1895 when he observed the early stages of malarial parasite inside a mosquito stomach. However, his enthusiasm was interrupted as he was deployed to Bangalore to investigate an outbreak of cholera. Bangalore had no regular cases of malaria, he confided to Manson stating, "I am thrown out of employment and have'no work to do'." But in April he had a chance to visit Sigur Ghat near the hill station of Ooty, where he noticed a mosquito on the wall in a peculiar posture, for this he called it "dappled-winged" mosquito, not knowing the species. In May 1896, he was given a short leave that enabled him to visit a malaria-endemic region around Ooty. In spite of his daily quinine prophylaxis, he was down with severe malaria three days after his arrival. In June he was transferred to Secunderabad. After two years of research failure, in July 1897, he managed to culture 20 adult "brown" mosquitoes from collected larvae.
He infected the mosquitoes from a patient named Husein Khan for a price of 8 annas. After blood-feeding, he dissected the mosquito and found an "almost circular" cell from the gut, not of the mosquito. On 20 August he confirmed the presence of the malarial parasite inside the gut of mosquito, which he identified as "dappled-wings"; the next day, on 21 August, he confirmed the growth of the parasite in the mosquito. In the evening he composed the following poem for his discovery: This day relenting God Hath placed within my hand A wondrous thing. At His command, Seeking His secret deeds With tears and toiling breath, I find thy cunning seeds, O million-murdering Death. I know this little thing. O Death, where is thy sting? Thy victory, O Grave? In September 1897, Ross was transferred to Bombay, from where he was subsequently sent to a malaria-free Kherwara in Rajputana. Frustrated of lack of work he threatened to resign from service as he felt that it was a death blow to his pursuit, it was only on the representati