Sir William Huggins was an English astronomer best known for his pioneering work in astronomical spectroscopy together with his wife Margaret Lindsay Huggins. William Huggins was born at Cornhill, Middlesex, in 1824. In 1875, he married Margaret Lindsay, daughter of John Murray of Dublin, who had an interest in astronomy and scientific research, she helped to put their research on a systematic footing. Huggins built a private observatory at 90 Upper Tulse Hill, from where he and his wife carried out extensive observations of the spectral emission lines and absorption lines of various celestial objects. On 29 August 1864, Huggins was the first to take the spectrum of a planetary nebula when he analysed NGC 6543, he was the first to distinguish between nebulae and galaxies by showing that some had pure emission spectra characteristic of gas, while others like the Andromeda Galaxy had the spectral characteristics of stars. Huggins was assisted in the analysis of spectra by the chemist William Allen Miller.
Huggins was the first to adopt dry plate photography in imaging astronomical objects. With observations of Sirius showing a redshift in 1868, Huggins hypothesized that a radial velocity of the star could be computed. Huggins won the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1867, jointly with William Allen Miller, he served as President of the Royal Astronomical Society from 1876 to 1878, received the Gold Medal again in 1885. He served as an officer of the Royal Astronomical Society for a total of 37 years, more than any other person. Huggins was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in June 1865, was awarded their Royal Medal, Rumford Medal and Copley Medal and delivered their Bakerian Lecture in 1885, he served as President of the Royal Society from 1900 to 1905. For example, his Presidential Address in 1904 praised the fallen Fellows and distributed the prizes of that year, he died at his home in Tulse Hill, after an operation for a hernia in 1910 and was buried at Golders Green Crematorium.
Honours Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in the 1897 Diamond Jubilee Honours list on 22 June 1897. Huggins was among the original recipients of the Order of Merit in the 1902 Coronation Honours list published on 26 June 1902, received the order from King Edward VII at Buckingham Palace on 8 August 1902. Awards Royal Medal Lalande Prize Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society Rumford Medal Valz Prize Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Janssen Medal Copley Medal Henry Draper Medal from the National Academy of Sciences Bruce Medal Named after him Huggins Huggins Asteroid 2635 Huggins 1870: Spectrum analysis in its application to the heavenly bodies. Manchester, 1872: Spectrum analysis in its application to terrestrial substances and the physical constitution of heavenly bodies by H. Schellen, translated by Jane and Caroline Lassell, link from HathiTrust. 1899:: An Atlas of Representative Stellar Spectra from λ 4870 to λ 3300, together with a discussion of the evolution order of the stars, the interpretation of their spectra.
London, 1906: The Royal Society, or, Science in the state and in the schools. London. 1909: The Scientific Papers of Sir William Huggins. London, Planetary nebula#Observations Huggins, Sir William Barbara J. Becker, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004 Audio description of Huggins' work Eclecticism and the Evolution of a New Research Agenda: William and Margaret Huggins and the Origins of Astrophysics Barbara J. Becker William Wallace Campbell Sir William Huggins, K. C. B. O. M. Astronomical Society of the Pacific link from Internet Archive
Arno Allan Penzias
Arno Allan Penzias is an American physicist, radio astronomer and Nobel laureate in physics, co-discoverer of the cosmic microwave background radiation along with Robert Woodrow Wilson, which helped establish the Big Bang theory of cosmology. Penzias was born in Munich, the son of Justine and Karl Penzias, who ran a leather business, his grandparents had come to Munich from Poland and were among the leaders of the Reichenbach Strasse Shul. At age six, he and his brother Gunther were among the Jewish children evacuated to Britain as part of the Kindertransport rescue operation; some time his parents fled Nazi Germany for the U. S. and the family settled in the Garment District of New York City in 1940. In 1946, Penzias became a naturalized citizen of the United States, he graduated from Brooklyn Technical High School in 1951 and after enrolling to study chemistry at the City College of New York, he changed majors and graduated 1954 with a degree in physics, ranked near the top of his class. Following graduation, Penzias served for two years as a radar officer in the U.
S. Army Signal Corps; this led to a research assistantship in the Columbia University Radiation Laboratory, heavily involved in microwave physics. Penzias worked under Charles Townes, who invented the maser. Next, Penzias enrolled as a graduate student at Columbia in 1956, he earned a Ph. D. in physics from Columbia University in 1962. Penzias went on to work at Bell Labs in Holmdel, New Jersey, with Robert Woodrow Wilson, he worked on ultra-sensitive cryogenic microwave receivers, intended for radio astronomy observations. In 1964, on building their most sensitive antenna/receiver system, the pair encountered radio noise which they could not explain, it was far less energetic than the radiation given off by the Milky Way, it was isotropic, so they assumed their instrument was subject to interference by terrestrial sources. They tried, rejected, the hypothesis that the radio noise emanated from New York City. An examination of the microwave horn antenna showed it dove droppings. After the pair removed the dung buildup the noise remained.
Having rejected all sources of interference, Penzias contacted Robert Dicke, who suggested it might be the background radiation predicted by some cosmological theories. The pair agreed with Dicke to publish side-by-side letters in the Astrophysical Journal, with Penzias and Wilson describing their observations and Dicke suggesting the interpretation as the cosmic microwave background radiation, the radio remnant of the Big Bang; this allowed astronomers to confirm the Big Bang, to correct many of their previous assumptions about it. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences in 1975. Penzias and Wilson received the 1978 Nobel Prize. In 1977, the two had received the Henry Draper Medal of the National Academy of Sciences. Penzias is the recipient of The International Center in New York's Award of Excellence. In 1998, he was awarded the IRI Medal from the Industrial Research Institute. Penzias has been a resident of Highland New Jersey.
He has a son and two daughters, Mindy Penzias Dirks, PhD, Rabbi Shifra Weiss-Penzias. He serves as a venture partner at New Enterprise Associates. Wilson, R. W.. A.. "Isotropy of Cosmic Background Radiation at 4080 Megahertz". Science. 156: 1100–1101. Bibcode:1967Sci...156.1100W. Doi:10.1126/science.156.3778.1100. PMID 17774056. Penzias, A. A.. "Microwave Noise from Rainstorms". Science. 169: 583–584. Bibcode:1970Sci...169..583P. Doi:10.1126/science.169.3945.583. PMID 17746031. Penzias, Arno A.. "The Origin of the Elements". Science. 205: 549–554. Bibcode:1979Sci...205..549P. Doi:10.1126/science.205.4406.549. PMID 17729659. Penzias, Arno A.. "Nuclear Processing and Isotopes in the Galaxy". Science. 208: 663–669. Bibcode:1980Sci...208..663P. Doi:10.1126/science.208.4445.663. PMID 17771085. Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation List of Jewish Nobel laureates The first part of an article authored by Arno Penzias, published in Science Reporter magazine The second part of an article authored by Arno Penzias entitled Ideas A Whisper From Space
Robert Woodrow Wilson
For the accelerator physicist and founding director of Fermilab, see Robert R. Wilson. For the American president, see Woodrow Wilson. Robert Woodrow Wilson is an American astronomer who, along with Arno Allan Penzias, discovered cosmic microwave background radiation in 1964; the pair won the 1978 Nobel laureate in physics for their discovery. While working on a new type of antenna at Bell Labs in Holmdel Township, New Jersey, they found a source of noise in the atmosphere that they could not explain. After removing all potential sources of noise, including pigeon droppings on the antenna, the noise was identified as CMB, which served as important corroboration of the Big Bang theory. Robert Woodrow Wilson was born on January 1936, in Houston, Texas, he graduated from Lamar High School in River Oaks, in Houston, studied as an undergraduate at Rice University in Houston, where he was inducted into the Phi Beta Kappa society. He earned a PhD in physics at California Institute of Technology. Wilson and Penzias won the Henry Draper Medal of the National Academy of Sciences in 1977.
Wilson remained at Bell Laboratories until 1994, when he was named a senior scientist at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Wilson has been a resident of New Jersey. Wilson married Elizabeth Rhoads Sawin in 1958. "Distinguished HISD Alumni", Houston Independent School District, Texas, 2008. Cite Video | BBC/WGBH BOSTON | NOVA #519 | A Whisper From Space | Copyright 1978 | Available With Permission | Consolidated Aircraft - Ronkonkoma, New York Robert Woodrow Wilson: Official Nobel page
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of 1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element in the periodic table. Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting 75% of all baryonic mass. Non-remnant stars are composed of hydrogen in the plasma state; the most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium, has no neutrons. The universal emergence of atomic hydrogen first occurred during the recombination epoch. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Since hydrogen forms covalent compounds with most nonmetallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water or organic compounds. Hydrogen plays a important role in acid–base reactions because most acid-base reactions involve the exchange of protons between soluble molecules. In ionic compounds, hydrogen can take the form of a negative charge when it is known as a hydride, or as a positively charged species denoted by the symbol H+.
The hydrogen cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds are always more complex. As the only neutral atom for which the Schrödinger equation can be solved analytically, study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom has played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics. Hydrogen gas was first artificially produced in the early 16th century by the reaction of acids on metals. In 1766–81, Henry Cavendish was the first to recognize that hydrogen gas was a discrete substance, that it produces water when burned, the property for which it was named: in Greek, hydrogen means "water-former". Industrial production is from steam reforming natural gas, less from more energy-intensive methods such as the electrolysis of water. Most hydrogen is used near the site of its production, the two largest uses being fossil fuel processing and ammonia production for the fertilizer market. Hydrogen is a concern in metallurgy as it can embrittle many metals, complicating the design of pipelines and storage tanks.
Hydrogen gas is flammable and will burn in air at a wide range of concentrations between 4% and 75% by volume. The enthalpy of combustion is −286 kJ/mol: 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O + 572 kJ Hydrogen gas forms explosive mixtures with air in concentrations from 4–74% and with chlorine at 5–95%; the explosive reactions may be triggered by heat, or sunlight. The hydrogen autoignition temperature, the temperature of spontaneous ignition in air, is 500 °C. Pure hydrogen-oxygen flames emit ultraviolet light and with high oxygen mix are nearly invisible to the naked eye, as illustrated by the faint plume of the Space Shuttle Main Engine, compared to the visible plume of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, which uses an ammonium perchlorate composite; the detection of a burning hydrogen leak may require a flame detector. Hydrogen flames in other conditions are blue; the destruction of the Hindenburg airship was a notorious example of hydrogen combustion and the cause is still debated. The visible orange flames in that incident were the result of a rich mixture of hydrogen to oxygen combined with carbon compounds from the airship skin.
H2 reacts with every oxidizing element. Hydrogen can react spontaneously and violently at room temperature with chlorine and fluorine to form the corresponding hydrogen halides, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, which are potentially dangerous acids; the ground state energy level of the electron in a hydrogen atom is −13.6 eV, equivalent to an ultraviolet photon of 91 nm wavelength. The energy levels of hydrogen can be calculated accurately using the Bohr model of the atom, which conceptualizes the electron as "orbiting" the proton in analogy to the Earth's orbit of the Sun. However, the atomic electron and proton are held together by electromagnetic force, while planets and celestial objects are held by gravity; because of the discretization of angular momentum postulated in early quantum mechanics by Bohr, the electron in the Bohr model can only occupy certain allowed distances from the proton, therefore only certain allowed energies. A more accurate description of the hydrogen atom comes from a purely quantum mechanical treatment that uses the Schrödinger equation, Dirac equation or the Feynman path integral formulation to calculate the probability density of the electron around the proton.
The most complicated treatments allow for the small effects of special relativity and vacuum polarization. In the quantum mechanical treatment, the electron in a ground state hydrogen atom has no angular momentum at all—illustrating how the "planetary orbit" differs from electron motion. There exist two different spin isomers of hydrogen diatomic molecules that differ by the relative spin of their nuclei. In the orthohydrogen form, the spins of the two protons are parallel and form a triplet state with a molecular spin quantum number of 1. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen gas contains about 25% of the para form and 75% of the ortho form known as the "normal form"; the equilibrium ratio of orthohydrogen to parahydrogen depends on temperature, but because the ortho form is an excited state and has a higher energy
William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse
William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse HFRSE, was an Anglo-Irish astronomer who had several telescopes built. His 72-inch telescope, built in 1845 and colloquially known as the "Leviathan of Parsonstown", was the world's largest telescope, in terms of aperture size, until the early 20th century. From April 1807 until February 1841, he was styled as Baron Oxmantown, he was born in York, the son of Sir Lawrence Parsons. He was educated at Trinity College and Oxford University's Magdalen College, graduating with first-class honours in mathematics in 1822, he inherited an earldom and a large estate in King's County in Ireland when his father, Lawrence, 2nd Earl of Rosse, died in February 1841. Lord Rosse married Mary Field, daughter of John Wilmer Field, on 14 April 1836, they had a total of thirteen children, but only four sons survived to adulthood: Lawrence, 4th Earl of Rosse. The Rev. Randal Parsons; the Hon. Richard Clere Parsons known for developing railways in South America; the Hon. Sir Charles Algernon Parsons, known for inventing the steam turbine.
In addition to his astronomical interests, Rosse served as a Member of Parliament for King's County from 1821 to 1834, president of the British Association in 1843–1844, an Irish representative peer after 1845, president of the Royal Society, chancellor of Trinity College, Dublin. During the 1840s, he had the Leviathan of Parsonstown built, a 72-inch telescope at Birr Castle, County Offaly; the 72-inch telescope replaced a 36-inch telescope. He had to invent many of the techniques he used for constructing the Leviathan, both because its size was without precedent and because earlier telescope builders had guarded their secrets or had failed to publish their methods. Details of the metal, casting and polishing of the 3-ton'speculum' were presented in 1844 at the Belfast Natural History Society. Rosse's telescope was considered a marvellous technical and architectural achievement, images of it were circulated within the British commonwealth. Building of the Leviathan began in 1842 and it was first used in 1845.
It was the world's largest telescope, until the early 20th century. Using this telescope Rosse catalogued a large number of nebulae. Lord Rosse performed astronomical studies and discovered the spiral nature of some nebulas, today known to be spiral galaxies. Rosse's telescope Leviathan was the first to reveal the spiral structure of M51, a galaxy nicknamed as the "Whirlpool Galaxy", his drawings of it resemble modern photographs. Rosse named the Crab Nebula, based on an earlier drawing made with his older 36-inch telescope in which it resembled a crab. A few years when the 72-inch telescope was in service, he produced an improved drawing of different appearance, but the original name continued to be used. A main component of Rosse's nebular research was his attempt to resolve the nebular hypothesis, which posited that planets and stars were formed by gravity acting on gaseous nebulae. Rosse himself did not believe that nebulas were gaseous, arguing rather that they were made of such an amount of fine stars that most telescopes could not resolve them individually.
In 1845 Rosse and his technicians claimed to have resolved the Orion nebula into its individual stars using the Leviathan, a claim which had considerable cosmological and philosophical implications, as at the time there was considerable debate over whether or not the universe was "evolved", a concept which the nebular hypothesis supported and with which Rosse disagreed strongly. Rosse's primary opponent in this was John Herschel, who used his own instruments to claim that the Orion nebula was a "true" nebula, discounted Rosse's instruments as flawed. Neither man could establish sufficiently scientific results to resolve the question. One of Rosse's telescope admirers was Thomas Langlois Lefroy, a fellow Irish MP, who said, "The planet Jupiter, which through an ordinary glass is no larger than a good star, is seen twice as large as the moon appears to the naked eye... But the genius displayed in all the contrivances for wielding this mighty monster surpasses the design and execution of it; the telescope weighs sixteen tons, yet Lord Rosse raised it single-handed off its resting place, two men with ease raised it to any height."Lord Rosse's son published his father's findings, including the discovery of 226 NGC objects in the publication Observations of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars Made With the Six-foot and Three-foot Reflectors at Birr Castle From the Year 1848 up to the Year 1878, Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society Vol. II, 1878.
Lord Rosse had a variety of optical reflecting telescopes built. Rosse's telescopes used cast speculum metal ground parabolically and polished. 15-inch 24-inch 36-inch 72-inch, started in 18
A coronal cloud is the cloud of hot plasma gas surrounding a coronal mass ejection. It is made up of protons and electrons; when a coronal mass ejection occurs at the Earth's Sun, it is the coronal cloud that reaches Earth and causes damage to electrical equipment and space satellites, not the ejection or flare itself. The damage is the result of the high amount of electricity moving through the atmosphere. A coronal cloud is released. A coronal mass ejection occurs when a solar flare becomes so hot that it snaps and breaks in two, becoming a "rope" of heat and magnetism that stretches between two sunspots; the resulting coronal mass ejection can be compared to a horseshoe magnet, the sunspots being the poles and the oscillating magnetic connector the handle. Coronal mass ejections do not last long, because they cool down as the coronal cloud of gas is released and begins to hurtle away from the Sun; when a coronal cloud occurs, it can take several days for the plasma to grow cool enough to detach from the Sun.
This happens before the coronal mass ejection is able to cool enough for the magnetism to dissipate, at which point the solar flare cycle begins again. While the gas cloud is still cool enough to be in a semi-liquid plasma state, it clings to the mass ejection, insulating it from the cold temperature of extra-solar space; as the outer edges of the cloud begin to cool, the mass ejection's magnetic rope begins to cool, thereby decentralizing what remains of the flare by weakening its magnetic pull. After the cloud begins to cool, it cools further and further into its core; the mass ejection expands into space as its insulating cloud weakens, weakening the magnet more. By this point, the sunspots are all but gone; when the coronal cloud changes from gas to liquid, the cycle of detachment begins. The inner, liquid plasma area of the cloud is small and being heated by the mass ejection, not the other way around; the mass ejection loses its magnetism immediately, cools to gas form or falls back into the Sun within hours.
However, the coronal cloud is still attached to it. The coronal cloud and what is left of the mass ejection detach from the Sun; the cloud of gas, radioactive particles, electrons, however, is still in the Sun's gravitational pull. One of two things can happen: The cloud can be pulled back into the Sun, causing the cycle to restart; the cloud can begin hurtling out into space. If the cloud begins hurtling into space, it becomes trapped in the planets' orbital gravity. By the time it gets to Earth, enough of the cloud has been absorbed by Mercury and Venus that the Earth's magnetosphere can deflect what's left into the outer Solar System. Though, an abnormally large and fast cloud can pass a portion of its mass into the upper atmosphere. A magnetic cloud can travel toward Earth at speeds. On average, it takes them about 13½ hours to reach Earth; the cloud hurtling through space is called a solar wind. As many as five can be ejected from the Sun during solar maximum; when they reach the Earth, the large amounts of radioactive and electric energy can temporarily disrupt or destroy electrical grids, communications devices, electric appliances, near anything electric.
Minor damage may be done to living organisms due to the low level radiation that gets through the magnetosphere. Specific reasons as to why these clouds are dangerous to electronic and communication equipment include the overloading of large power transformers, which can cause lengthy power outages over wide geographical areas. Long, metallic structures like oil and gas pipes, water pipes, communications antennae can carry excessive electric current from the air, causing them to corrode faster than normal; this can lead to early, unexpected ruptures. These signals create anomalies in the ionosphere, disrupting wireless technologies such as GPS, cellular phones and radio. September 1, 1859: English astronomers Richard Carrington and Richard Hodgson observed solar flares for the first time in recorded history, working independently and in ignorance of each other. We now know that one of the resulting coronal clouds was the largest and most powerful produced in historical times; the resulting electric storm was so powerful that the Aurora Borealis and Australis could both be seen far from the poles, extending to near the equator.
Telegraph equipment users reported so much electric energy that their equipment delivered an electrical shock when touched as current flowed through the person inadvertently acting as a ground. After the devices were disconnected from their batteries, because telegraphs were simple switches to make or break the circuit between stations, that is, they contained no electronic components, like micro-circuitry to be destroyed, they could still be used to send messages, thanks to the electric current induced in the wires by the storm. November 17, 1882: This cloud was first witnessed by two men, Dr. Brendel and Herr Raschen, in the Alten Fjörd, Finland who came there to study auroras in January of that year, it was nicknamed "The Transit of Venus Storm", caused telegraph systems in the Ohio River valley region to cease to function, which incapacitated the Chicago Stock Exchange. On November 17, an aurora occurred the most famous example of the phenomenon in history; this aurora's most prominent feature was a round beam of green light shaped like a cigar.
It appeared in the eastern sky and crossed to the west at an