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Timeline of medicine and medical technology

This is a timeline of the history of medicine and medical technology. 3300 BC – During the Stone Age, early doctors used primitive forms of herbal medicine. 3000 BC – Ayurveda The origins of Ayurveda have been traced back to around 4,000 BCE. c. 2600 BC – Imhotep the priest-physician, deified as the Egyptian god of medicine. 2500 BC – Iry Egyptian inscription speaks of Iry as and 1900 BC – 1600 BC Akkadian clay tablets on medicine survive as copies from Ashurbanipal's library at Nineveh. 1800 BC – Code of Hammurabi sets out fees for surgeons and punishments for malpractice 1800 BC – Kahun Gynecological Papyrus 1600 BC – Hearst papyrus and magic 1551 BC – Ebers Papyrus and magic 1500 BC – Saffron used as a medicine on the Aegean island of Thera in ancient Greece 1500 BC – Edwin Smith Papyrus, an Egyptian medical text and the oldest known surgical treatise no magic 1300 BC – Brugsch Papyrus and London Medical Papyrus 1250 BC – Asklepios 9th century – Hesiod reports an ontological conception of disease via the Pandora myth.

Disease is of divine origin. 8th century – Homer tells that Polydamna supplied the Greek forces besieging Troy with healing drugs Homer tells about battlefield surgery Idomeneus tells Nestor after Machaon had fallen: A surgeon who can cut out an arrow and heal the wound with his ointments is worth a regiment. 700 BC – Cnidos medical school. They were invented so that measured amounts of a medicinal substance could be delivered to a patient. 510–430 BC – Alcmaeon of Croton scientific anatomic dissections. He studied the optic nerves and the brain, arguing that the brain was the seat of the senses and intelligence, he distinguished veins from the arteries and had at least vague understanding of the circulation of the blood. Variously described by modern scholars as Father of Anatomy. There is little evidence to support the claims but he is, important. Fl. 425 BC – Diogenes of Apollonia c. 484 – 425 BC – Herodotus tells us Egyptian doctors were specialists: Medicine is practiced among them on a plan of separation.

Thus the country swarms with medical practitioners, some undertaking to cure diseases of the eye, others of the head, others again of the teeth, others of the intestines,and some those which are not local. 496–405 BC – Sophocles "It is not a learned physician who sings incantations over pains which should be cured by cutting." 420 BC – Hippocrates of Cos maintains that diseases have natural causes and puts forth the Hippocratic Oath. Origin of rational medicine. C. 400 BC – 1 BC – The Huangdi Neijing is published, laying the framework for traditional Chinese medicine 4th century BC – Philistion of Locri Praxagoras distinguishes veins and arteries and determines only arteries pulse 375–295 BC – Diocles of Carystus 354 BC – Critobulus of Cos extracts an arrow from the eye of Phillip II, treating the loss of the eyeball without causing facial disfigurement. 3rd century BC – Philinus of Cos founder of the Empiricist school. Herophilos and Erasistratus practice androtomy. 280 BC – Herophilus Dissection studies the nervous system and distinguishes between sensory nerves and motor nerves and the brain.

Also the anatomy of the eye and medical terminology such as (in Latin translation "net like" becomes retiform/retina. 270 – Huangfu Mi writes the Zhenjiu Jiayijing, the first textbook focusing on acupuncture 250 BC – Erasistratus studies the brain and distinguishes between the cerebrum and cerebellum physiology of the brain and eyes, in the vascular, nervous and reproductive systems. 219 – Zhang Zhongjing publishes Shang Han Lun. 200 BC – the Charaka Samhita uses a rational approach to the causes and cure of disease and uses objective methods of clinical examination 124–44 BC – Asclepiades of Bithynia 116–27 BC – Marcus Terentius Varro Germ theory of disease No one paid any attention to it. 1st century AD – Rufus of Ephesus. The resulting integrated and comprehensive system, offering a complete medical philosophy dominated medicine throughout the Middle Ages and until the beginning of the modern era. D. 260 – Gargilius Martialis, short Latin handbook on Medicines from Vegetables and Fruits 4th century Magnus of Nisibis, Alexandrian doctor and professor book on urine 325–400 – Oribasius 70 volume encyclopedia 362 – Julian orders xenones built, imitating Christian charity 369 – Basil of Caesarea founded at Caesarea in Cappad

Male reproductive alliances

Male reproductive alliances can best be understood within the context of traditional male-male competition, as a specific case of cooperative competition. Such cooperative behavior, does not result in the equal sharing of resources among cooperating individuals. Cooperation requires that individuals decrease their own fitness to increase the fitness of another; this behavior becomes more striking when it occurs within the context of cooperative reproduction, where individuals decrease their own reproductive fitness to improve the reproductive fitness of another. In some species, males cooperate by forming alliances between related or non-related individuals to gain access to females and prevent other males from mating; such alliances result in the monopolization of mating opportunities by one dominant male. The resulting unequal sharing of mating opportunities contradicts the traditional male-male competition over access to females that natural selection implies, making male reproductive alliances an ideal case to study the costs and benefits associated with subordinate individual cooperation.

The cost of cooperation makes it difficult to reconcile the principles of natural selection and cooperation unless there are specific circumstances that make cooperation favorable. Despite the apparent contradictory nature of cooperation, it does occur in a variety of species. Male reproductive alliances have been documented in bottlenose dolphins, slender mongooses, lions and other primates. However, such behavior may not have evolved within the context of reproduction. Alliances may improve an individuals’ fitness by either improving foraging capabilities or lessening the cost of defending territories; the reproductive tradeoffs for males participating in reproductive alliances depends on the extent to which mating is shared among alliance members, the extent to which alliance membership incurs a reproductive fitness advantage over competing as a single male. Three mechanisms have been hypothesized to reconcile the principles of natural selection and cooperation: kin selection, direct reciprocity and mutualism.

Separate cases have provided evidence supporting all three of the routes described. Male alliances have been hypothesized to have evolved within the context of kin selection in red howler monkeys, within the context of direct reciprocity in savanna baboons and within the context of mutualism in lions. Determining the evolutionary context of cooperative behavior can be difficult. Two things to consider regarding male alliances are whether the coalition comprises related or unrelated individuals and how stable the coalitions are. Male alliances involve complex interactions with many costs and benefits, making the study of such cooperative behavior both difficult and fascinating; when coalitions are composed of relatives, the contradictory nature of male reproductive alliances is resolved through inclusive fitness theory. The theory of inclusive fitness, proposed by Hamilton states that individuals can enhance their own reproductive fitness by securing the reproductive success of their relatives 10.

For kin selection to increase the reproductive fitness of the altruist, according to Hamilton as cited in Nowak the coefficient of relatedness, between the donor and recipient of the altruistic act, must be greater than the cost-to-benefit ratio of the altruist act. In other words, the reproductive benefit gained by the recipient of the altruistic act times the coefficient of relatedness must be greater than the reproductive cost of the individual performing the altruistic act. Therefore, in alliances composed of related individuals, where there is a large coefficient of relatedness, it is believed that inclusive fitness has been the principal driving force for the evolution of male reproductive cooperation. Pope demonstrated that it was advantageous for both dominant and subordinate male red howler monkeys to be members of a male alliance. While males formed coalitions of both related and unrelated individuals, related troops were more stable and lasted longer than unstable troops; such findings indicate that despite the low reproductive success of subordinate males, given that dominant males secured all mating opportunities, it was still beneficial to be in a group as opposed to being alone if that coalition was composed of related individuals.

The study suggested that for red howler monkey coalitions, kin selection was the primary mechanism involved in the formation of male alliances. While subordinate males decreased their direct fitness by cooperating with dominant males, they increased their inclusive fitness by cooperating with relatives. Male philopatry, or the behavior of remaining in natal groups, in many cases sets the stage for such alliances among relatives. Pope discovered that the reproductive success of males within coalitions increases with increasing relatedness; that being said, while being a member of a male alliance has direct reproductive benefits for individuals, alliances come with a cost. Status shifts and mate guarding behavior result in injury to the participants. Coalitions can provide a reproductive benefit without comprising related individuals. In some species, coalitions of nonrelatives are stable over time providing valuable reproductive benefits for the individuals involved. Lion collations composed of 2–6 individuals were thought to be made up of related individuals.

Such findings indicate that kin selection is not the only driving force behind the formation of male coalitions

2017 Torneo Descentralizado

The 2017 Torneo Descentralizado de Fútbol Profesional was the 101st season of the highest division of Peruvian football. A total of 16 teams competed in the season. Alianza Lima were the champions; the season was divided into four phases, Torneo de Verano, Torneo Apertura, Torneo Clausura, the Play-offs final. The first phase was the Torneo de Verano where all the teams were divided into two groups and played each team in their group twice at home and away; the winner of each group qualified to a home-and-away final. The group winner with the most points in the aggregate table chose which leg they played as the home team; the winner of this tournament earned access to the second round of the 2018 Copa Libertadores as long as it was not relegated at the end of the season. If the Torneo de Verano champion was to win either the Apertura or Clausura tournaments the runner-up would take their Copa Libertadores berth; the second and third stages were two smaller Clausura tournaments of 15 games each.

Each team played all other teams once during the Apertura tournament and once during the Clausura tournament in reversed order for a total of 30 matches. Points earned during the Apertura did not carry over during the Clausura; the winners of the Apertura and Clausura stages were to qualify to the Playoff final and to the 2018 Copa Libertadores group stage as long as they were not relegated at the end of the season. The playoffs were to be contested by the Clausura champions; the team with the most points on the aggregate table would choose which leg they would play as the home team. If teams were tied in points, a third match on neutral ground would be played to decide the national champion. If a team won both the Apertura and Clausura tournaments it would be automatically declared the tournament champion and the runners-up from the Apertura and Clausura tournaments would play two play-off matches to decide which team would enter the 2018 Copa Libertadores group stage; the two teams with the fewest points at the end of the third stage were relegated.

The berth to the Copa Libertadores first stage and the four 2018 Copa Sudamericana berths were awarded to the teams with the best record in the aggregate table that had not qualified for the Copa Libertadores. A total of 16 teams played in the 2017 Torneo Descentralizado. Fourteen teams from the previous season, plus the 2016 Segunda División champion and the 2016 Copa Perú champion; the champion will be the one with the most points. In case they are tie on points, the team with the best goal different over the two legs will be declared the champion; the away goal rule will not apply. In case both teams score the same number of goals, there will be 30 minutes of extra time and penalties. Melgar defeated UTC 4–3 on penalties after being tied on aggregate and secured a spot in the 2018 Copa Libertadores second stage; as Alianza Lima and Real Garcilaso finished both as champions and runners-up of the Apertura and Clausura tournaments, no playoff games were played. Alianza Lima were the overall champions and Real Garcilaso were the overall runners-up, both teams qualified for the 2018 Copa Libertadores group stage.

All stages of the 2017 season were aggregated into a single league table throughout the season to determine the teams that would qualify for the Copa Libertadores and Copa Sudamericana, as well as those to be relegated at the end of the season. 2017 Torneo de Promoción y Reserva 2017 Peruvian Segunda División 2017 Copa Perú Official website Tournament regulations Torneo Descentralizado news at Peru.com Torneo Descentralizado statistics and news at Dechalaca.com

Loew's Theatre, New Rochelle

Loew's Theatre is a historic movie theater located on Main Street in the Downtown section of the city of New Rochelle in Westchester County, New York. During the 1920s, the "Golden Age" of the movies, there was a tremendous boom in the construction of motion picture houses and theaters built in New Rochelle during this period were only less elaborate than the grand movie palaces found in big cities. Loew's Theatre at 585–599 Main Street was built in 1926, the RKO Proctor's Theater across the street was built the following year. Both buildings share the basic design of a long, two-story facade containing shops at the street level, with the entrance to the theater itself emphasized by decorative elements and the marquee; the design inspiration for the Loew's is Spanish, interpreted through elements such as clay tile roofs and a baroque parapet over the entrance. The 2,500 seat building was designed by leading theater architect Herbert J. Krapp; the theater featured vaudeville and live stage shows with renown performers and celebrities such as Bob Hope, Lucille Ball, Bette Davis and Gracie Burns, Sophie Tucker, George and Gracie Burns, Sophie Tucker, George M. Cohen, Olivia de Havilland and Will Rogers.

The Loews Theatre site mirrors the tale of many early American suburbs. New Rochelle known as a bedroom community serving New York, saw tremendous growth and success during the first half of the 20th century. At that time the Loews theater was part of a flourishing downtown benefitting from its affluent residents and proximity to the city; the theater has since been made obsolete by inventions such as the television and VCR, by newer, larger movie facilities with multiple screens and cutting edge technology. In July 2012 the New Rochelle Business Improvement Program won a $500,000 grant from the New York State Main Street Program to further the restoration of significant buildings in the downtown business district; the restoration of the Loew's Theatre facade was the first project to be funded by this grant. Extensive terracotta and other original architectural details, hidden for decades were uncovered and restored to their original state. In June 2016, developer RXR Realty proposed a $120 million plan for a “28-story building with 280 apartments, a 277-space parking garage and retail storefronts."

Leasing began in June 2019. The developer has "restored the historic facade and marquee" and added "a new 10,000-square-foot arts and cultural space" including a black box theater, but has been criticized for the "mixed space" not including municipal-income-generating "things like hotel space," "office and residential," and adequate public parking. Loew's Theatre Cinema Treasures

French Defence

The French Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves: 1. E4 e6This is most followed by 2.d4 d5, with Black intending...c5 at a stage, attacking White's centre and gaining space on the queenside. White has extra space in the centre and on the kingside and plays for a breakthrough with f4–f5; the French has a reputation for solidity and resilience, although some lines such as the Winawer Variation can lead to sharp complications. Black's position is somewhat cramped in the early game. Following the opening moves 1.e4 e6, the game continues 2.d4 d5. White makes a claim to the centre, while Black challenges the pawn on e4. White's options include defending the e4-pawn with 3. Nc3 or 3. Nd2, exchanging it with 3.exd5, or advancing the pawn with 3.e5, each of which lead to different types of positions. Note that 3. Bd3 allows 3...dxe4 4. Bxe4 Nf6, after which White must concede to Black either a tempo or the advantage of the two bishops; the diagram shows the pawn structure most typical of the French.

Black has more space on the queenside, so tends to focus on that side of the board always playing...c7–c5 at some point to attack White's pawn chain at its base, may follow up by advancing his a- and b-pawns. Alternatively or Black will play against White's centre, cramping his position; the flank attack...c7–c5 is insufficient to achieve this, so Black will play...f7–f6. If White supports the pawn on e5 by playing f2–f4 Black has two common ideas. Black may strike directly at the f-pawn by playing...g7–g5. The pawn on g5 may threaten to advance to g4 to drive away a white knight on f3, augmenting Black's play against the white centre. Another idea is to play...fxe5, if White recaptures with fxe5 Black gains an open f-file for his rook. As White has a knight on f3 guarding his pawns on d4 and e5, Black may sacrifice the exchange with... Rxf3 to destroy the white centre and attack the king. On the other hand, if White plays dxe5 the a7–g1 diagonal is opened, making it less desirable for White to castle kingside.

White tries to exploit his extra space on the kingside, where he will play for a mating attack. White tries to do this in the Alekhine–Chatard Attack, for example. Another example is the following line of the Classical French: 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3. Nc3 Nf6 4. Bg5 Be7 5.e5 Nfd7 6. Bxe7 Qxe7 7.f4 0-0 8. Nf3 c5 9. Bd3. White's light-square bishop eyes the weak h7-pawn, defended by a knight on f6 but here it has been pushed away by e5. If 9...cxd4, White can play the Greek gift sacrifice 10. Bxh7+ Kxh7 11. Ng5+ Qxg5! 12.fxg5 dxc3 13. Qh5+! where Black has three minor pieces for the queen, which gives him a slight material superiority, but his king is vulnerable and White has good attacking chances. Apart from a piece attack, White may play for the advance of his kingside pawns, which involves f2–f4, g2–g4 and f4–f5 to use his natural spatial advantage on that side of the board. A white pawn on f5 can be strong as it may threaten to capture on e6 or advance to f6. Sometimes pushing the h-pawn to h5 or h6 may be effective.

A modern idea is for White to gain space on the queenside by playing a2–a3 and b2–b4. If implemented this will further restrict Black's pieces. One of the drawbacks of the French Defence for Black is his queen's bishop, blocked in by his pawn on e6 and can remain passive throughout the game. An often-cited example of the potential weakness of this bishop is S. Tarrasch–R. Teichmann, San Sebastián 1912, in which the diagrammed position was reached after fifteen moves of a Classical French. Black's position is passive because his light-square bishop is hemmed in by pawns on a6, b5, d5, e6 and f7. White will try to exchange Black's knight, the only one of his pieces that has any scope. Although it might be possible for Black to hold on for a draw, it is not easy and, barring any mistakes by White, Black will have few chances to create counterplay. Bb4 began to be seen more after World War I, due to the efforts of Nimzowitsch and Botvinnik. In Tarrasch–Teichmann, White won after 41 moves. In order to avoid this fate, Black makes it a priority early in the game to find a useful post for the bishop.

Black can play... Bd7–a4 to attack a pawn on c2, which occurs in many lines of the Winawer Variation. If Black's f-pawn has moved to f6 Black may consider bringing the bishop to g6 or h5 via d7 and e8. If White's light-square bishop is on the f1–a6 diagonal, Black can try to exchange it by playing...b6 and... Ba6, or... Qb6 followed by... Bd7–b5. Played in over 40% of all games after 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5, 3. Nc3 is the most seen line against the French. Black has three main options, 3... Bb4, 3... Nf6, 3...dxe4. An eccentric idea is 3... Nc6!? 4. Nf3 Nf6 with the idea of 5.e5 Ne4. This variation, named after Szymon Winawer and pioneered by Nimzowitsch and Botvinnik, is one of the main systems in the French, due chiefly to the latter's efforts in the 1940s, becoming the most seen rejoinder to 3. Nc3, though in the 1980s, the Classical Variation with 3... Nf6 began a revival, has since become more popular. 3... Bb4 pins the knight on c3. White clarifies the central situation for the moment with 4. E5, gaining space and hoping to show that Black's b4

Marshal Royal

Marshal Walton Royal Jr. was an American jazz clarinettist and alto saxophonist best known for his work with Count Basie, with whose band he played for nearly twenty years. Marshal Royal Jr. was born into a musical family in Oklahoma. Royal's first professional gig was with Lawrence Brown's band at Danceland in Los Angeles, he soon had a regular gig at the Apex, working for Curtis Mosby in Mosby's Blue Blowers, a 10-piece band, he began an eight-year stint with the Les Hite orchestra at Sebastian's Cotton Club, near the MGM studios in Los Angeles. He spent 1940 to 1942 until the war interrupted his career. With his brother, Ernie, he served in the U. S. Navy in the 45-piece regimental band, attached to the Navy's preflight training school for pilots at St. Mary's College in Moraga, California; the band played for bond rallies, regimental reviews, at football games, in concerts for the cadets and the community. Two swing bands were organized from the larger regimental band, they played for smokers and dances at USOs and officers clubs.

Royal was leader of the Bombardiers, one of those bands, which included his brother, Jackie Kelson, Buddy Collette, Jerome Richardson, Vernon Alley. When he left Basie in 1970, Royal settled permanently in Los Angeles, continuing to play and record, working with Bill Berry's big band, Frank Capp and Nat Pierce, Earl Hines, Duke Ellington. Royal recorded as a soloist with Dave Frishberg in 1977, with Warren Vache in 1978, he co-led a band with Snooky Young in the 1970s and 1980s, recording with it in 1978. Marshal died in Culver City, California, in 1995, aged 82. 1960: Gordon Jenkins Presents 1978: First Chair 1978: Snooky and Marshal's Album with Snooky Young 1980: Royal Blue With Count Basie The Count! Basie Jazz Dance Session Dance Session Album #2 Basie Count Basie Swings, Joe Williams Sings with Joe Williams April in Paris The Greatest!! Count Basie Plays, Joe Williams Sings Standards with Joe Williams Metronome All-Stars 1956 with Ella Fitzgerald and Joe Williams Hall of Fame Basie in London One O'Clock Jump with Joe Williams and Ella Fitzgerald Count Basie at Newport The Atomic Mr. Basie aka Basie and E=MC2 Basie Plays Hefti Sing Along with Basie - with Joe Williams and Lambert, Hendricks & Ross Basie One More Time Breakfast Dance and Barbecue Everyday I Have the Blues - with Joe Williams Dance Along with Basie Not Now, I'll Tell You When The Count Basie Story Kansas City Suite Back with Basie Basie in Sweden On My Way & Shoutin' Again!

Sinatra - Basie This Time by Basie! More Hits of the 50's and 60's Pop Goes the Basie Basie Meets Bond Live at the Sands Sinatra at the Sands with Frank Sinatra Basie's Beatle Bag Broadway Basie's... Way Hollywood... Basie's Way Basie's Beat Basie's in the Bag The Happiest Millionaire Half a Sixpence The Board of Directors with The Mills Brothers Manufacturers of Soul with Jackie Wilson The Board of Directors Annual Report with The Mills Brothers Basie Straight Ahead How About This with Kay Starr Standing Ovation Basic Basie Basie on the Beatles With Kenny Burrell Heritage With Clifford Coulter Do It Now! With Coleman Hawkins The Saxophone Section With Monk Montgomery Monk Montgomery in Africa... Live! With Joe Newman Joe Newman with Woodwinds Royal, Marshal. Marshal Royal: Jazz Survivor. A&C Black. ISBN 9780826458049. Carr, Ian. Jazz. Rough Guide. Metzler. ISBN 978-3476015846. Review of Jazz Survivor Kelsey, Chris. "Marshal Royal: Artist Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 2015-04-11. Interview of Marshal Royal, Center for Oral History Research, UCLA Library Special Collections, University of California, Los Angeles.

Recorded Telephone Interview of Frank Foster — alumnus of the Basie band recalls how Marshal Royal would read Jet magazine on his stand while he performed