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Timeline of microscope technology

Timeline of microscope technology c. 700 BCE — The "Nimrud lens" of Assyrians manufacture, a rock crystal disk with a convex shape believed to be a burning or magnifying lens. 167 BCE — The Chinese use simple microscopes made of a lens and a water-filled tube to visualize the unseen. 13th century — The increase in use of lenses in eyeglasses led to the wide spread use of simple microscopes with limited magnification. 1590 — earliest date of a claimed Hans Martens/Zacharias Janssen invention of the compound microscope. After 1609 — Galileo Galilei is described as being able to close focus his telescope to view small objects close up and/or looking through the wrong end in reverse to magnify small objects. A telescope used in this fashion is the same as a compound microscope but historians debate whether Galileo was magnifying small objects or viewing near by objects with his terrestrial telescope reversed. 1619 — Earliest recorded description of a compound microscope, Dutch Ambassador Willem Boreel sees one in London in the possession of Dutch inventor Cornelis Drebbel, an instrument about eighteen inches long, two inches in diameter, supported on 3 brass dolphins.

1621 — Cornelis Drebbel presents, in London, a compound microscope with a convex objective and a convex eyepiece. C.1622 — Drebbel presents his invention in Rome. 1624 — Galileo improves on a compound microscope he sees in Rome and presents his occhiolino to Prince Federico Cesi, founder of the Accademia dei Lincei. 1625 — Francesco Stelluti and Federico Cesi publish Apiarium, the first account of observations using a compound microscope 1625 — Giovanni Faber of Bamberg of the Linceans, after seeing Galileo's occhiolino, coins the word microscope by analogy with telescope. 1655 — In an investigation by Willem Boreel, Dutch spectacle-maker Johannes Zachariassen claims his father, Zacharias Janssen, invented the compound microscope in 1590. Zachariassen's claimed dates are so early it is sometimes assumed, for the claim to be true, that his grandfather, Hans Martens, must have invented it. Findings are published by writer Pierre Borel. Discrepancies in Boreel's investigation and Zachariassen's testimony has led some historians to consider this claim dubious.

1665 — Robert Hooke publishes Micrographia, a collection of biological micrographs. He coins the word cell for the structures. 1674 — Antonie van Leeuwenhoek improves on a simple microscope for viewing biological specimens. 1825 — Joseph Jackson Lister develops combined lenses that cancelled spherical and chromatic aberration. 1846 — Carl Zeiss founded Carl Zeiss AG, to mass-produce microscopes and other optical instruments. 1850s — John Leonard Riddell, Professor of Chemistry at Tulane University, invents the first practical binocular microscope. 1863 — Henry Clifton Sorby develops a metallurgical microscope to observe structure of meteorites. 1860s — Ernst Abbe, a colleague of Carl Zeiss, discovers the Abbe sine condition, a breakthrough in microscope design, which until was based on trial and error. The company of Carl Zeiss exploited this discovery and becomes the dominant microscope manufacturer of its era. 1928 — Edward Hutchinson Synge publishes theory underlying the near-field scanning optical microscope 1931 — Ernst Ruska starts to build the first electron microscope.

It is a transmission electron microscope 1936 — Erwin Wilhelm Müller invents the field emission microscope. 1938 — James Hillier builds another TEM 1951 — Erwin Wilhelm Müller invents the field ion microscope and is the first to see atoms. 1953 — Frits Zernike, professor of theoretical physics, receives the Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention of the phase-contrast microscope. 1955 — George Nomarski, professor of microscopy, published the theoretical basis of differential interference contrast microscopy. 1957 — Marvin Minsky, a professor at MIT, invents the confocal microscope, an optical imaging technique for increasing optical resolution and contrast of a micrograph by means of using a spatial pinhole to block out-of-focus light in image formation. This technology is a predecessor to today's used confocal laser scanning microscope. 1967 — Erwin Wilhelm Müller adds time-of-flight spectroscopy to the field ion microscope, making the first atom probe and allowing the chemical identification of each individual atom.

1981 — Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer develop the scanning tunneling microscope. 1986 — Gerd Binnig and Gerber invent the atomic force microscope 1988 — Alfred Cerezo, Terence Godfrey, George D. W. Smith applied a position-sensitive detector to the atom probe, making it able to resolve materials in 3-dimensions with near-atomic resolution. 1988 — Kingo Itaya invents the Electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope 1991 — Kelvin probe force microscope invented

Mimusops zeyheri

Mimusops zeyheri is a medium-sized evergreen tree belonging to the family Sapotaceae and distributed in rocky places from the east coast of southern Africa and northwards to tropical Africa. It is known as milkwood or Transvaal red milkwood, it is related to Mimusops obovata and M. caffra, both of which are South African trees. Its leaves are entire. Petioles and young leaves are covered in short rusty red hairs. Small amounts of latex can be seen on bruised petioles; the ripe yellow fruits have a glossy, brittle skin and are sweet and edible, floury in texture and astringent. The wood is reddish-brown in colour and tough, was traditionally used in the making of wagons. Clusters of fragrant white flowers appear from October to January. Given sufficient space, this species can grow into a large, densely shady tree; some enormous specimens are to be seen amongst the Zimbabwe Ruins. This species is found in association with Englerophytum magalismontanum. List of Southern African indigenous trees "Mimusops zeyheri".

PlantzAfrika. Retrieved 2010-02-02

South Sudanese pound

The South Sudanese pound is the official currency of the Republic of South Sudan. It is subdivided into 100 piasters, it was approved by the Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly before secession on 9 July 2011 from Sudan. It was introduced on 18 July 2011, replaced the Sudanese pound at par; the banknotes feature the image of John Garang de Mabior, the deceased leader of South Sudan's independence movement. Six different denominations in the form of banknotes have been confirmed, five denominations will be issued in the form of coins. Three new banknotes for 5, 10, 25 piasters were issued 19 October 2011; the first circulation coins of the South Sudanese pound denominated in 10, 20, 50 piasters were issued 9 July 2015, on occasion of the fourth anniversary of independence from Sudan. In 2016, the Bank of South Sudan issued a 20 South Sudanese pound banknote to replace the 25 South Sudanese pound banknote. In 2018, the Bank of South Sudan introduced a 500 South Sudanese pounds banknote to ease daily cash transactions following years of inflation.

As part of a currency redesign to reduce confusion, a 1 Pound coin was released to replace the 1 Pound banknote, a coin for 2 Pounds has been released at the same time as the 2 Pound banknote. The 10, 20 and 100 pound notes were all redesigned. In November 2016 the Governor of the Bank of South Sudan issued a statement dismissing as false reports claiming that the bank was printing new notes in denominations of 200, 500 and 1,000 pounds. Coins denominated 10, 20, 50 Piasters were put into circulation on 9 July 2015; as of 2016, South Sudan's coins are being struck at the South African Mint. Bimetallic coins denominated 1 Pound and 2 Pounds has been put into circulation during 2016; the Coat of arms of South Sudan with the country name'REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN' and the date will appear on the obverses. The various coins will include the following: 10 Piasters - Copper-plated Steel - Oil rig. 20 Piasters - Brass-plated Steel - Shoebill stork. 50 Piasters - Nickel-plated Steel - Northern white rhino.

1 Pound - Bronze-plated Steel centre / Nickel-plated Steel ring - Nubian giraffe. 2 Pounds - Nickel-plated Steel centre / Bronze-plated Steel ring - African Shield. Articles about the banknotes of South Sudan. Banknotes of South Sudan

Young Engineers / Future Leaders

The World Federation of Engineering Organizations Executive Board Meeting in Paris, culminated in the acceptance of the Committee for Capacity Building proposal to establish a Young Engineers/ Future Leaders Task Group. The current chair is Zainab Garashi from Kuwait. Vice Chair is Kathryn Johnson from United States and secretary is Christopher Chukwunta from Nigeria; the YE/FL was to be constituted by young engineers of the WFEO member countries and its council members are to be official delegates by national engineering associations of WFEO countries. CCB’s goal is the involvement of young engineers in the world’s leading activities to gain and share knowledge and experience, to get the YE/FL abreast of global policies, which prepares them to take on future leadership roles. At the World Engineers Congress in Kuwait, 2009, the CCB encouraged the WFEO member countries to organise their young engineers for participation at the first YEFL council meeting at the WEC 2010 held in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Aligning with the CCB YEFL vision, the Executive Committees of the engineering organizations of respective national member countries nominated and sponsored young engineers to the first YE/FL task group and council meetings in Argentina, September 2010. Young Engineers / Future Leaders is a now standing technical committee of the WFEO gathering young engineers and council members as official members from the engineering associations of national member countries. YE/FL is democratic committee, which decision taking process is based on majority votes by the YE/FL council; the YE/FL Council is the highest decision making board. Each national engineering association is asked to appoint one official delegate for the YE/FL Council; the Council meets at the regular committee meeting. While absence of the YE/FL council the chair manages the main tasks, which are to guide the committee through its work, take care of administrative YE/FL responsibilities in between official meetings, to moderate official meetings, set mile stones to help handle matters on time.

Argentina Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Belize Brazil Costa Rica China Egypt Germany Honduras India Italy Kenya Kuwait Lebanon Nigeria Pakistan Peru Sierra Leone Singapore South Africa Switzerland Taiwan, China Tanzania UAE United States United States Zimbabwe Official YE/FL website

Prepa Tec

PrepaTec is a group of high schools located through Mexico, which branch off from the Tec de Monterrey system. The first high school, Campus Eugenio Garza Sada, was launched in 1975 as a preparation for the university program. Eugenio Garza Sada died shortly before the first school began operations and the campus was named after him. Students are offered between three study plans: Bilingual, directed towards students that still need to improve their English skills, take that subject as an intensive course, with the remaining subjects in Spanish, Multicultural, in which classes are offered in English and students can take up a third language if they prove their English skills are sufficient through a TOEFL test, or the IB Diploma, an educational program developed by the International Baccalaureate Organization recognized around the globe; the following campuses are located in Monterrey: Campus Eugenio Garza Sada is one of the first campuses of the Tecnológico de Monterrey, it began operations on August 1975.

It is the oldest of the five PrepaTec campuses in Monterrey. It is located about 4 miles west of the city center within the colonia of Del Carmen, between the districts of Valle and San Jerónimo, in the bank of the Santa Catarina river; the current principal of this campus is Erika Calles Barrón. This school was accredited an International Baccalaureate school in 1991; this campus has: 44 classrooms for 35 students each, all of them equipped to use the most modern technology. Computer and Learning Space classrooms. Evaluation Center Collaborate-style classrooms with connections to the campus web. Library Cafeteria Cyber Cafe Cultural Hall Auditorium Gymnasium with exercise equipment Basketball and volleyball courts Handball and tennis courts Soccer field Softball field FIRST Team Botbusters’ Robotics Workshop, led by Head Coach Francisco Guerra Campus Eugenio Garza Lagüera is located in the southern part of Monterrey City, 10 minutes away from Campus Monterrey. Named Preparatoria Eugenio Garza Sada Sur from its foundation until 1989 and known as Preparatoria Eugenio Garza Lagüera, the school was renamed Campus Eugenio Garza Lagüera in 2001.

The current principal of this campus is Alfredo Peña Marín. This school was accredited an IB World School in 2005; this campus has: 57 classrooms for 35 students each, equipped to use the most modern technology. Library Auditorium Cafeteria 5 Computer Classrooms Evaluation Center Cultural Hall Gymnasium with basketball and volleyball courts Gymnasium with exercise equipment Aerobics Room Jazz & Hip-Hop Room Football and Soccer Field Softball Field Track and Field installations Cyber Cafe 3 Parking lots Innovaction Gym Campus Santa Catarina was inaugurated in 1996 to cover the San Pedro Garza García area, it is located in the district of Santa Catarina, N. L; the current principal of this campus is Rafael Abrego Hinojosa. This school was accredited an IB World School in 2005. On August 2001 Campus Cumbres began its operations; the current principal of this campus is Oscar Flores Cano. This school was accredited an IB World School in 2005; this campus has: 23 classrooms for 35 students each, equipped to use the most modern technology Library Evaluation Center Computer and Learning Space classrooms Cultural Hall Gymnasium with exercise equipment Aerobics room Cafeteria Soccer and Football Field 4 multi-purpose courts for basketball and indoor soccer Outdoor terraces in each floor of the building Recreational Patios On August 2005 Campus Valle Alto began its operations.

The current principal of this campus is Rebeca Barragan. This school was accredited an IB World School in 2006; this campus has: 13 classrooms for 32 students each, equipped to use the most modern technology Library Cafeteria 2 Computer classrooms Gymnasium with exercise equipment 2 outdoor basketball courts, which can double as volleyball and tennis courts Soccer field Evacuation Center Parking Lot Cultural Hall PrepaTec Official Web Page

2016 Ohio's 8th congressional district special election

A special election to the United States House of Representatives for Ohio's 8th congressional district was held to determine the successor to John Boehner, who resigned his seat on October 31, 2015. Republican Governor of Ohio John Kasich set the primary election for March 15, 2016, the general election for June 7; the winner of the June special election ran for reelection in November 2016 but served the remainder of Boehner's two-year term, which ended in early January 2017. Before John Boehner announced his retirement in October 2015, J. D. Winteregg and Eric Gurr both entered the race during the summer with the intention of challenging Boehner. After Boehner's retirement, over twenty Republicans pulled a petition with the Board of Elections to run for the vacant seat. Butler County Auditor Roger Reynolds was considered the front-runner for the nomination but surprised everyone when he suspended his campaign for the seat in December 2015. Matthew Ashworth Bill Beagle, state senator Warren Davidson, businessman Tim Derickson, state representative Scott George, human resources executive Eric J. Haemmerle, high school government teacher Terri King, attorney Joseph Matvey Edward R. Meer John W. Robbins Michael Smith Jim Spurlino, businessman Kevin F. White, airline pilot and retired USAF officer J. D. Winteregg, former adjunct French instructor and candidate in 2014 George Wooley Eric Gurr and candidate in 2014 Roger Reynolds, Butler County Auditor Bill Coley, state senator Joe Deters, Hamilton County Prosecutor and former Ohio State Treasurer Keith Faber, President of the Ohio Senate Richard K. Jones, Butler County Sheriff Wes Retherford, state representative Lee Wong, West Chester Township Trustee At age 25, Corey Foister is the youngest candidate in America to win the nomination of a major U.

S. political party for United States Congress. Corey Foister, podcaster & activist Connie Pillich, former state representative and nominee for Ohio State Treasurer in 2014 Tom Poetter and nominee in 2014 P. G. Sittenfeld, Cincinnati City Councilman Jerry Springer, talk show host, former mayor of Cincinnati, nominee for OH-02 in 1970 and candidate for governor in 1982 James J. Condit, Jr. a frequent candidate for public office as a member of the Constitution Party, ran unopposed for the Green Party's nomination. Due to his controversial remarks on Jewish Americans belief that the September 11 attacks were an inside job, his candidacy was disavowed by the Green Party of Ohio. James J. Condit, Jr. perennial candidate Warren Davidson, businessman Corey Foister, podcaster James J. Condit, Jr. perennial candidate List of special elections to the United States House of Representatives Speaker of the United States House of Representatives election, October 2015 Matthew Ashworth for Congress Bill Beagle for Congress Jim Condit, Jr. for Congress Warren Davidson for Congress Tim Derickson for Congress Corey Foister for Congress Scott George for Congress Eric Haemmerle for Congress Terri King for Congress Jim Spurlino for Congress Kevin White for Congress J.

D. Winteregg for Congress