Iron Ore Line
The Iron Ore Line is a 398-kilometre long railway line between Riksgränsen and Boden in Norrbotten County, Sweden. The line contains two branches, from Kiruna from Gällivare to Koskullskulle; the term is colloquially used to include the Ofoten Line, from Riksgränsen to Narvik in Norway, the northernmost part of the Main Line Through Upper Norrland from Boden to Luleå. The railway from Narvik to Luleå is 473 kilometres long; the line is dominated by the 8,600-tonne ore freight trains operated by LKAB's subsidiary Malmtrafik from their mines to the Port of Narvik and the Port of Luleå. In addition, SJ operates passenger trains and CargoNet operates container freight trains; the Iron Ore Line is single track, electrified at 15 kV 16.7 Hz AC and has a permitted axle load of 30 tonnes. The Swedish part of the line is the northernmost railway in Sweden and the Norwegian part outside Narvik is the northernmost railway in the whole of Western Europe at 68.452°N. The first section of the line, from Gällivare to Luleå, opened in 1888.
By 1899, the line was extended to Kiruna, from 1903, all the way to Narvik. Electrification took place between 1915 and 1923. Operations of the ore trains was taken over by Malmtrafik from SJ in 1996. Rockfalls from mountains have at times hit the line. LKAB operates iron ore mines in Kiruna and Malmberget in Norrbotten County, Sweden. Most of the output is transported by rail to the ice-free Port of Narvik, a route named the Northern Circuit. A minority of the ore is transported to Luleå on the Southern Circuit. Located on the Baltic Sea, ore is shipped to Baltic customers, or delivered to furnaces operated by SSAB in Luleå and Oxelösund; the Ore and Ofoten Lines are 536 kilometres long, including the branch to Svappavaara, with the route from Kiruna to Narvik being 170 kilometres, from Malmberget to Luleå being 220 kilometres. Operations are handled by LKAB's subsidiary Malmtrafik i Kiruna in Sweden, Malmtrafikk in Norway. Daily there operate 11 to 13 trains in each direction on the Northern Circuit, five to six trains on the Southern Circuit.
The trains hauled by Iore-class locomotives weigh 8,600 tonnes. From Riksgränsen on the national border to the Port of Narvik, the trains use only a fifth of the power they regenerate; the regenerated energy is sufficient to power the empty trains back up to the national border. Although the trains and hopper cars are all owned by LKAB, the line is owned by the Swedish Transport Administration and the Norwegian National Rail Administration; the Ore and Ofoten Lines are used by passenger and container trains. Iron ore is transported from Northland Resources' mine in Kaunisvaara to Narvik, started in small scale December 2012. CargoNet operates two daily container trains from Alnabru Terminal in Oslo, named the Arctic Rail Express; the trains take 27 hours. The trains haul food northbound and fish southbound along a distance of 1,950 kilometres. DB Schenker launched a competing service in January 2011. There is about 0.5 million tonnes of non-ore freight transport on the Ofoten Line each year. SJ operates three daily trains from Narvik to Kiruna Central Station, of which two continue onwards, either to Luleå Central Station or Stockholm Central Station.
Trains to Stockholm are night trains. Travel time from Narvik to Kiruna is 3 hours and 1 minute, travel time to Luleå is 7 hours and 4 minutes, travel time to Stockholm is 18 hours and 25 minutes. In 1847, a concession was granted to build a railway from the mines at Gällivare to Töre in the Gulf of Bothnia; the line was never built, in 1882 a new concession was granted to an English company, who between 1884 and 1888 built a railway from Malmberget to the port at Svartön in Luleå. However, the line was built with an inadequate standard, the mining company lacked sufficient funds to finance the upgrades. In 1891, the line was taken over by the Swedish State Railways. In 1890, Luossavaara–Kiirunavaara AB was established to start mining in Kiruna. By 1899, a railway had been built from Kiruna to Gällivare. In 1898, the Riksdag passed legislation to build a railway from Kiruna to Narvik in Norway; the line was completed in November 1902 and was opened on 14 July 1903 by King Oscar II. To begin with, the line used three conventional steam locomotives for each ore train.
Dedicated ore-hauling steam locomotives were introduced. In 1915, the section from Riksgränsen to Kiruna was finished electrified, with the rest of the line electrified in 1922; the first electric locomotives were Oa, allowed trains weighing 1,900 tonnes. In the 1950s, SJ introduced the Dm locomotives. By the 1960s, the Dm had been rebuilt to Dm3. In combination of upgrades to 25 tonnes maximum permitted axle load, this gave a maximum train weight of 5,000 tonnes. In 1964, the branch from Kiruna to Svappavaara was opened, allowing LKAB to exploit mining there, although this was again closed in 1983. In 1990, a tunnel opened under Nuolja between Björkliden. Passenger trains were essential for the region until 1984, when European Route E10 was constructed between Kiruna and Narvik. In December 1991, LKAB stated that they wanted to take over the operation of the ore trains from NSB and SJ. At the time, they were paying 0.15 Swedish krona per tonne kilometer in Sweden and 0.30 Norwegian krone per tonne kilomet
Railway electrification system
A railway electrification system supplies electric power to railway trains and trams without an on-board prime mover or local fuel supply. Electric railways use electric locomotives to haul passengers or freight in separate cars or electric multiple units, passenger cars with their own motors. Electricity is generated in large and efficient generating stations, transmitted to the railway network and distributed to the trains; some electric railways have their own dedicated generating stations and transmission lines but most purchase power from an electric utility. The railway provides its own distribution lines and transformers. Power is supplied to moving trains with a continuous conductor running along the track that takes one of two forms: overhead line, suspended from poles or towers along the track or from structure or tunnel ceilings. Both overhead wire and third-rail systems use the running rails as the return conductor but some systems use a separate fourth rail for this purpose. In comparison to the principal alternative, the diesel engine, electric railways offer better energy efficiency, lower emissions and lower operating costs.
Electric locomotives are usually quieter, more powerful, more responsive and reliable than diesels. They have an important advantage in tunnels and urban areas; some electric traction systems provide regenerative braking that turns the train's kinetic energy back into electricity and returns it to the supply system to be used by other trains or the general utility grid. While diesel locomotives burn petroleum, electricity can be generated from diverse sources including renewable energy. Disadvantages of electric traction include high capital costs that may be uneconomic on trafficked routes. Different regions may use different supply voltages and frequencies, complicating through service and requiring greater complexity of locomotive power; the limited clearances available under overhead lines may preclude efficient double-stack container service. Railway electrification has increased in the past decades, as of 2012, electrified tracks account for nearly one third of total tracks globally. Electrification systems are classified by three main parameters: Voltage Current Direct current Alternating current Frequency Contact system Third rail Fourth rail Overhead lines Overhead lines plus linear motor Four rail system Five rail systemSelection of an electrification system is based on economics of energy supply and capital cost compared to the revenue obtained for freight and passenger traffic.
Different systems are used for intercity areas. Six of the most used voltages have been selected for European and international standardisation; some of these are independent of the contact system used, so that, for example, 750 V DC may be used with either third rail or overhead lines. There are many other voltage systems used for railway electrification systems around the world, the list of railway electrification systems covers both standard voltage and non-standard voltage systems; the permissible range of voltages allowed for the standardised voltages is as stated in standards BS EN 50163 and IEC 60850. These take into account the number of trains drawing their distance from the substation. Increasing availability of high-voltage semiconductors may allow the use of higher and more efficient DC voltages that heretofore have only been practical with AC. 1,500 V DC is used in Japan, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, France, New Zealand, the United States. In Slovakia, there are two narrow-gauge lines in the High Tatras.
In the Netherlands it is used on the main system, alongside 25 kV on the HSL-Zuid and Betuwelijn, 3000 V south of Maastricht. In Portugal, it is used in Denmark on the suburban S-train system. In the United Kingdom, 1,500 V DC was used in 1954 for the Woodhead trans-Pennine route; the system was used for suburban electrification in East London and Manchester, now converted to 25 kV AC. It is now only used for the Wear Metro. In India, 1,500 V DC was the first electrification system launched in 1925 in Mumbai area. Between 2012-2016, the electrification was converted to 25 kV 50 Hz AC, the countrywide system. 3 kV DC is used in Belgium, Spain, the northern Czech Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, former Soviet Union countries and the Netherlands. It was used by the Milwaukee Road from Harlowton, Montana to Seattle-Tacoma, across the Continental Divide and including extensive branch and loop lines in Montana, by the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad in the United States, the Kolkata suburban railway in India, before it was converted to 25 kV 50 Hz AC. DC volt
NSB El 1
NSB El 1 is the first electric locomotive series used by the Norwegian State Railways, from 1922 until 1973. Twenty-four engines were delivered from ASEA and Thune, twenty-two in 1922 and two in 1930. Based on the German DB E 71 and Swedish SJ Oc it has two two-axle bogies with one motor in each; when the Drammen Line from Oslo West Station to Brakerøya was electrified as the first NSB line in 1922, NSB was in need of electric traction. The engines were used both for passenger- and freight trains. At first it was used on the Drammen Line on Sørlandet Line. In 1966 two of the locos, no. 2001 and 2002, were sold to the Rjukan Line where they served until 1988. Two of the locomotives have been preserved
The Randsfjorden Line is an 87-kilometre-long railway located in Buskerud in Norway connecting Drammen to Hønefoss and Hadeland in Oppland. The railway is used for passenger trains, the only scheduled trains on the stretch are Norwegian State Railways express trains on the Bergen Line between Oslo and Bergen. Freight trains to Bergen go to Hønefoss via the Gjøvik Line; the railway is owned by the Norwegian National Rail Administration. The entire line is standard gauge, the 71 kilometres from Drammen to Hønefoss is electrified at 15 kV 16.7 Hz AC. The remaining 16 kilometres from Hønefoss to Randsfjorden is not electrified and disused; the line gets its name from the lake Randsfjorden. On 11 June 1857, railway director Carl Abraham Pihl was demanded by a Royal Decree to instruct a terrain investigation of the area along the river Drammenselva from Drammen to Randsfjorden, he presented the results of the investigation on 31 May 1858, which concluded that the terrain between Drammen and Randsfjorden was favorable for a rail line.
Pihl thereupon proposed a rail line from Randsfjorden with a branch line to Hen. He argued with forester Thorvald Meiddell. In a meeting on 12 September 1859 in the Drammen chairmanship, the rail line solution was decided upon. On 6 March 1863, the final decision was made, with six against three votes, it was decided to make a government loan of 2,32 million kr. Parliament passed the construction of the rail line on 11 June 1863, with 65 against 44 votes; the construction of the Randsfjord Line was begun on 4 December 1863, and, on 1 September 1866, the line was finished to Vikersund. Two years the entire line to Randsfjord Station was opened. A celebration took place at the station. On 1 December 1867 Skjærdalen and Tyristrand were connected to the line and on 12 October 1868 Hønefoss Station opened and the line could stretch all the way to Randsfjorden; the line was the fifth railway line to be built in Norway. When the Bergen Line was built a new line between Roa on Gjøvikbanen and Hønefoss was opened in 1909, providing two different lines between Hønefoss and Oslo.
Narrow gauge railways in Ulf. På sporet med Krøderkippen. Norwegian Railway Club / Krøderen Line Foundation. ISBN 82-90286-20-1
Trøndelag Commuter Rail
The Trøndelag Commuter Rail is a commuter train service operating in Trøndelag county, Norway. It is operated by Norwegian State Railways with Class 92 diesel multiple units; the service provides a commuter service connecting Trondheim to its suburbs, between towns in Innherred and as an airport rail link for Trondheim Airport, Værnes. Although passenger services have operated along the lines since 1864, the commuter train was created with an increase of service with existing rolling stock in 1993. In 2006, the system had at least 1,180,000 passengers; the main service operates from Lerkendal in Trondheim via Trondheim Central Station and Trondheim Airport Station to Steinkjer on the Nordland Line. The service runs every hour, with additional rush-hour services, reduced service in the evenings and on the weekend. A secondary services runs from Trondheim along the Dovre Line to Støren and along the Røros Line to Røros; the Mittnabotåget service operates twice a day from Trondheim along the Meråker Line and the Central Line in Sweden to Östersund Central Station.
The main hub for the commuter system is Trondheim Central Station. It serves as coach and bus station and the terminus of the intercity trains along the Dovre and Nordland Line; the service runs north-eastwards through Trondheim, stopping at the stations Lademoen/Nedre Elvehavn, Lilleby and Rotvoll. In Malvik, the line serves two stations: Hommelvik. After entering Stjørdal, the first station in Hell, where the Meråker Line branches off from the Nordland Line. Northwards is first Trondheim Stjørdal and Skatval. After entering Levanger, the line serves the villages of Åsen and Skogn, it enters the town center, where there are two stations: Levanger Station serves the town center and bus station and HiNT Røstad serves the campus of Nord-Trøndelag University College. The line enters Verdal, where is serves the suburb at Bergsgrav before the town center at Verdal. Inderøy is served by the village station Røra, before the line enters Steinkjer, where it serves the village of Sparbu before terminating in the town center at Steinkjer.
South of Trondheim S, both the main service and the Røros service runs along the Dovre Line, stopping at Skansen, where there is transfer to the Trondheim Tramway, Marienborg, located beside St. Olavs University Hospital. After Marienborg, the main service branches off along the Stavne–Leangen Line to the terminus at Lerkendal, which serves the Gløshaugen campus of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology and Lerkendal Stadion, the home ground of Rosenborg BK; the Røros service continues south, making two more stops within Trondheim: Heimdal. It continues through Melhus, where it makes five stops, one in the town center at Melhus and in the villages of Kvål, Ler and Hovin. In Midtre Gauldal, the service stops at Støren; the single daily service to Oppdal runs southwards, with an intermediate stop at Berkåk. The Røros service continues along the Røros Line, stopping at Singsås before entering Holtålen, where there are stops at Haltdalen and Ålen; the terminus is at Røros. Mittnabotåget start at Heimdal and operate northwards via Trondheim S to Hell, where they branch off and follow the Meråker Line.
In Stjørdal, it serves Hegra before entering Meråker, where it serves the villages at Meråker and Kopperå before reaching the Swedish border at Storlien. Here the services continues along the Central Line, where stops are made at Enafors, Ånn, Duved, Åre, Undersåker, Järpen, Krokom, Östersund West and Östersund Central Station; the operating deficits are covered through subsidies by the Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications. The trackage and other infrastructure is owned by the government agency Norwegian National Rail Administration, while the rolling stock is owned and operated by the Norwegian State Railways. Rolling stock maintenance is performed by NSB-owned Mantena; the Trondheim–Steinkjer services operates with a fixed, headway during the day with additional rush-hour services giving a half-hour headway. In the evenings and weekends, there is a two-hour headway. Travel time from Lerkendal to Trondheim S is 10 minutes; the Trondheim–Røros service is provided five times per day in each direction.
From Trondheim S, travel time to Melhus is 24 minutes, to Støren 1 hour and to Røros 2 hours and 25 minutes. A single morning one-direction service is offered from Oppdal to Trondheim S; the Mittnabotåget service to Östersund provides two round trips per day, with travel time from Trondheim S to Östersund C 3 hours and 46 minutes. This service is operated jointly between Veolia Transport. NSB operates fourteen Class 92 diesel-electric multiple units, of which most are used for the commuter rail, they were built by Duewag in 1984 and 1985 and consist of two cars, giving a seating capacity of 168 people. A double-unit is 49.45 metres long and weights 92 tonnes. Only the one car is powered, is equipped with a Daimler-Benz OM424A prime mover which powers two electric motors, giving a power output of 714 kilowatts; the tr
The Oslo Tunnel is a 3,632-metre, double-track, railway tunnel which runs between Olav Kyrres plass and Oslo Central Station in Oslo, Norway. The tunnel constitutes the eastern-most section of the Drammen Line and runs below the central business district of Oslo, it features the four-track Nationaltheatret Station, Norway's second-busiest railway station, where the Oslo Tunnels lies directly beneath the Common Tunnel of the Oslo Metro. At Frogner, the Elisenberg Station has never been used; the tunnel is the busiest section of railway line in Norway and serves all west-bound trains from Oslo, including many services of the Oslo Commuter Rail and the Airport Express Train. Traditionally, Oslo had two stations, the larger Oslo East Station and Oslo West Station, which served the Drammen Line; this caused a physical barrier between the two parts of the railway network, only connected by the Oslo Port Line which ran in city streets. Formal planning of a central station and a tunnel connecting the Drammen Line to Oslo Ø started in 1938, the final plans were approved in 1968.
The Oslo Tunnel opened on 1 June 1980, made it possible to close Oslo V in 1989. Nationaltheatret saw a major upgrade in 1999, when it was expanded to four tracks, from 2008 to 2010, the tunnel saw a major technical upgrade. There are plans to build a second tunnel to increase train capacity west of Oslo; the tunnel constitutes the easternmost 3,632 metres of the Drammen Line, runs between Oslo S and Skøyen. At Oslo S, 12 of the 19 tracks connect to the tunnel, shaped as a funnel merging the twelve tracks into two; the tunnel runs below some important heritage buildings in Oslo, including Basarhallene, the Parliament of Norway Building and Oslo Cathedral. Nationaltheatret Station is the second-busiest railway station in the country, is located below the Oslo Metro station with the same name; the station has four tracks and two 250-metre-long island platforms, serving the central business district of Oslo. Through this section, the line runs below the Common Tunnel of the Oslo Metro for 280 metres.
At this point, the line is 18 metres below the surface. Elisenberg Station, located in Frogner, is built, including a 220-metre-long island platform and one of the entrances; the line surfaces just west of Olav Kyrres plass. Afterwards, the Skøyen–Filipstad Line merges into the Drammen Line; the next station along the line is Skøyen Station. The Oslo Tunnel is the most trafficked section of mainline railway in Norway, it has a theoretical capacity of 40 trains per hour in each direction, an applied capacity of 24 trains per hour in each direction. In rush hour, there are up to 20 trains operating through the tunnel, with a capacity of 8,000 passengers per hour. All eight lines of the Oslo Commuter Rail have some or all of their services operate through the tunnel, although many of these terminate at Skøyen; the Airport Express Train operates four hourly services through the tunnel and the Norwegian State Railways operate regional trains along the Vestfold Line and intercity trains along the Sørland Line and Bergen Line through the tunnel.
Freight trains along the Sørland Line operate through the tunnel, although only at night, while freight trains along the Bergen Line do not, instead using the Roa–Hønefoss Line. By the 1930s, Oslo had Oslo East Station and Oslo West Station; the Drammen Line, consisting of commuter trains, regional and intercity trains from the Sørland Line and the Vestfold Line, terminated at Oslo V. The Østfold, Trunk and Gjøvik Lines terminated at Oslo Ø. Between the two stations ran the Oslo Port Line, which in part ran in the city streets and was only used for a limited number of freight trains. Several plans had been launched to connect the two stations, with the most prominent being a line running west of Oslo and merging with the Gjøvik Line at Grefsen, an elevated line from Oslo V to Tordensskiolds plass, in a tunnel under Akershus Fortress and again as an elevated line past Oslo Stock Exchange to Oslo Ø. In 1938, the Station Committee of 1938 was established to look into a possible connection of the Drammen Line to Oslo Ø and extension of the railway station.
Led by Axel Grenholm, the committee recommended one of two alternatives: either establish a branch from the Drammen Line and built a tunnel under the city center, in which all trains would terminate at Oslo Ø. The tunnel was proposed run from Lassons gate west of Oslo V to Fred. Olsens gate, with an intermediate station close to the location of Oslo V; the proposed tunnel would be 1,660 metres long and run through clay, making construction more difficult and expensive. Alternatively, a branch of Drammen Line should be built around the city and connect with the Gjøvik Line at Grefsen. Commuter trains would continue to run to Oslo V, while regional and intercity trains would run to Oslo Ø; the committee stated. In 1946, the Planning Office for Oslo Central Station, led by Fin Hvoslef, was established by the government. In 1950, they presented a new report, which recommended that a new route for the tunnel be considered to ease construction and increase safety; this was in part based on an engineering report from 1949, which had made the first detailed plans for the line.
It was a compromise between the Norwegian State Railways' need for a line as straight as possible, Oslo Municipality's demands that the construction should not be a risk to buildings in the area. The ground in Oslo consists of clay-filled grooves up to 30 metres deep; the area co
Norwegian State Railways
Norges Statsbaner AS, trading as NSB AS and known in English as the Norwegian State Railways, is a government-owned railway company which operates most passenger train services in Norway. Owned by the Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications, it is engaged in real estate through Rom Eiendom, bus transport through Nettbuss, cargo trains through CargoNet and Swedish train transport through Tågkompaniet. NSB transported 52 million train passengers and 104 million bus passengers in 2009; the current company was established on 1 December 1996, when the former Norwegian State Railways was split into the new NSB, the infrastructure company the Norwegian National Rail Administration and the Norwegian Railway Inspectorate. In 2002 the freight operations were split to the subsidiary CargoNet, the maintenance department became Mantena. On 1 December 1996 the largest structural change in Norwegian railway history in the 20th century occurred; the old Norwegian State Railways was split into three separate governmental agencies.
The ownership and construction of the track was transformed to the newly created government agency Norwegian National Rail Administration while a new Norwegian Railway Inspectorate was created to supervise all railway operations in the country. NSB was renamed NSB BA and created as a limited company, wholly owned by the Ministry of Transport and Communications. NSB was made a concern, with NSB Biltrafikk and NSB Eiendom made subsidiaries of NSB. In 1998 the new Oslo Airport, Gardermoen opened, replacing the old Oslo Airport, Fornebu, too small since the 1980s. Part of the political compromise to build the new airport was a twofold consequence for NSB. First of all it was decided that the new airport was to have an as environmentally friendly ground infrastructure as possible, resulting in the decision to build a high speed railway on the 56-kilometre stretch from Oslo Central Station to the airport, which would only take 19 minutes, but at the same time it was a political demand that the new airport not cost the tax payers any money, it was decided that the entire construction was to be financed with loans.
The result was that the airport was to be financed and operated by the Civil Aviation Administration subsidiary Oslo Lufthavn AS while the rail connection was to be financed and operated by the NSB subsidiary NSB Gardermobanen. But problems arose during the construction of the Gardermoen Line because of a leak in the tunnel Romerike Tunnel, resulting in major budget overruns and a delay in the opening of the tunnel. Still, Norway's first high speed railway line opened on time on 8 October 1998 at the same time as the new airport, though Romeriksporten was not opened until 22 October 1999, more than a year after its scheduled opening; the service is operated using 16 custom built Class 71 electric multiple units, with a capacity for 168 passengers and maximum speed of 210 kilometres per hour. NSB tried to modernize itself in the late 1990s through the acquisition of new rolling stock and a new brand image; the first stock to be delivered were 22 El 18 electric locomotives. These were to take over the passenger train traffic in Southern Norway while the El 16s and El 14s were moved to the freight division and the El 17s were scrapped, relegated to shunting or sold to the Flåm Line.
The new locomotives were capable of speeds up to 200 kilometres per hour. For the diesel lines NSB attempted to buy 12 Di 6 from Siemens, but had to return them after they failed to operate sufficiently in the Northern Norwegian cold. NSB decided to re-brand itself with three district brands: NSB Signatur, NSB Agenda and NSB Puls. At the same time NSB ordered new electric multiple units, first of all for the new Airport Express Train service, Class 71; this was followed up with 16 new Signatur trains of Class 73 that were to be used on the express services on the Bergen Line, the Dovre Line and the Sørlandet Line and equipped with tilting technology. This was an attempt to create a high speed railway service using existing rail track, though the operating times between Oslo and the termini were only reduced by about 10 minutes; these trains were painted blue and grey, were the first non-red trains to be operated by NSB in decades. At the same time NSB announced the introduction of the Agenda concept, to replace the NSB InterCity Express services and the diesel services.
While the Class 70s were repainted, the diesel services on the Nordland Line, the Rauma Line and the Røros Line were upgrades with 15 new Class 93 units in 2001, though criticized for lack of comfort, have increased the speed on the railways. NSB discontinued night train services on the Rauma Line and Røros Line. NSB received, starting in 2002 36 new electrical local trains, Class 72; these were put in the Oslo Commuter Rail and Jæren Commuter Rail. NSB has now discontinued the use of brand names on its rail products. By 2002 the Bondevik's Second Cabinet wanted to further deregulate the Norwegian railway sector, made NSB a limited company NSB AS on 1 July. NSB had been through a process of making the company more of a corporation, with the IT section made the subsidiary Arrive and the maintenance transformed to Mantena. NSB purchased part of the Swedish Tågkompaniet while the old freight train section NSB Gods was transformed to CargoNet. 45% of the subsidiary was sold to the Statens Järnvägar successor Green Cargo.
In 2004 the government split NSB Gardermobanen in two, deleting the companies debt, transferring the track it owned to Jernbaneverket and the train operations to a new, government-own