Marie-Georges-Jean Méliès, known as Georges Méliès, was a French illusionist and film director who led many technical and narrative developments in the earliest days of cinema. Méliès was well-known for the use of special effects, popularizing such techniques as substitution splices, multiple exposures, time-lapse photography and hand-painted colour, he was one of the first filmmakers to use storyboards. His films include A Trip to the Moon and The Impossible Voyage, both involving strange, surreal journeys somewhat in the style of Jules Verne, are considered among the most important early science fiction films, though their approach is closer to fantasy. Marie-Georges-Jean Méliès was born 8 December 1861 in Paris, son of Jean-Louis-Stanislas Méliès and his Dutch wife, Johannah-Catherine Schuering, his father had moved to Paris in 1843 as a journeyman shoemaker and began working at a boot factory, where he met Méliès' mother. Johannah-Catherine's father had been the official bootmaker of the Dutch court before a fire ruined his business.
She helped to educate Jean-Louis-Stanislas. The two married, founded a high-quality boot factory on the Boulevard Saint-Martin, had sons Henri and Gaston. Georges Méliès attended the Lycée Michelet from age seven until it was bombed during the Franco-Prussian War. In his memoirs, Méliès emphasised his formal, classical education, in contrast to accusations early in his career that most filmmakers had been "illiterates incapable of producing anything artistic." However, he acknowledged that his creative instincts outweighed intellectual ones: "The artistic passion was too strong for him, while he would ponder a French composition or Latin verse, his pen mechanically sketched portraits or caricatures of his professors or classmates, if not some fantasy palace or an original landscape that had the look of a theatre set." Disciplined by teachers for covering his notebooks and textbooks with drawings, young Georges began building cardboard puppet theatres at age ten and moved on to craft more sophisticated marionettes as a teenager.
Méliès graduated from the Lycée with a baccalauréat in 1880. After completing his education, Méliès joined his brothers in the family shoe business, where he learned how to sew. After three years of mandatory military service, his father sent him to London to work as a clerk for a family friend. While in London, he began to visit the Egyptian Hall, run by the London illusionist John Nevil Maskelyne, he developed a lifelong passion for stage magic. Méliès returned to Paris in 1885 with a new desire: to study painting at the École des Beaux-Arts, his father, refused to support him financially as an artist, so Georges settled with supervising the machinery at the family factory. That same year, he avoided his family's desire for him to marry his brother's sister-in-law and instead married Eugénie Génin, a family friend's daughter whose guardians had left her a sizable dowry. Together they had two children: Georgette, born in 1888, André, born in 1901. While working at the family factory, Méliès continued to cultivate his interest in stage magic, attending performances at the Théâtre Robert-Houdin, founded by the magician Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin.
He began taking magic lessons from Emile Voisin, who gave him the opportunity to perform his first public shows, at the Cabinet Fantastique of the Grévin Wax Museum and at the Galerie Vivienne. In 1888, Méliès' father retired, Georges Méliès sold his share of the family shoe business to his two brothers. With the money from the sale and from his wife's dowry, he purchased the Théâtre Robert-Houdin. Although the theatre was "superb" and equipped with lights, trap doors, several automata, many of the available illusions and tricks were out of date, attendance to the theatre was low after Méliès' initial renovations. Over the next nine years, Méliès created over 30 new illusions that brought more comedy and melodramatic pageantry to performances, much like those Méliès had seen in London, attendance improved. One of his best-known illusions was the Recalcitrant Decapitated Man, in which a professor's head is cut off in the middle of a speech and continues talking until it is returned to his body.
When he purchased the Théâtre Robert-Houdin, Méliès inherited its chief mechanic Eugène Calmels and such performers as Jehanne D'Alcy, who would become his mistress and his second wife. While running the theatre, Méliès worked as a political cartoonist for the liberal newspaper La Griffe, edited by his cousin Adolphe Méliès; as owner of the Théâtre Robert-Houdin, Méliès began working more behind the scenes than on stage. He acted as director, writer and costume designer, as well as inventing many of the magical tricks. With the theatre's growing popularity, he brought in magicians including Buatier De Kolta and Raynaly to the theatre. Along with magic tricks, performances included fairy pantomimes, an automaton performance during intermissions, magic lantern shows, special effects such as snowfall and lightning. In 1895, Méliès was elected president of the Chambre Syndicale des Artistes Illusionistes. On 28 December 1895, Méliès attended a special private demonstration of the Lumière brothers' cinematograph, given for owners of Parisian houses of spectacle.
Méliès offered the Lumières 10,000₣ for one of their machines. (For the same reasons, they
Tipu Sultan known as the Tipu Sahab or Tiger of Mysore was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore and India's first freedom fighter. He was the eldest son of Sultan Hyder Ali of Mysore. Tipu Sultan introduced a number of administrative innovations during his rule, including his coinage, a new Mauludi lunisolar calendar, a new land revenue system which initiated the growth of the Mysore silk industry, he expanded the iron-cased Mysorean rockets and commissioned the military manual Fathul Mujahidin, is considered a pioneer in the use of rocket artillery. He deployed the rockets against advances of British forces and their allies during the Anglo-Mysore Wars, including the Battle of Pollilur and Siege of Seringapatam, he embarked on an ambitious economic development program that established Mysore as a major economic power, with some of the world's highest real wages and living standards in the late 18th century. Napoleon Bonaparte, the French commander-in-chief, sought an alliance with Tipu Sultan. Both Tipu Sultan and his father used their French-trained army in alliance with the French in their struggle with the British, in Mysore's struggles with other surrounding powers, against the Marathas and rulers of Malabar, Bednore and Travancore.
Napoleon learned a lot about Islam from Tipu Sultan. Tipu's father, Hyder Ali, rose to power capturing Mysore, Tipu succeeded him as ruler of Mysore upon his father's death in 1782, he won important victories against the British in the Second Anglo-Mysore War and negotiated the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore with them after his father died from cancer in December 1782 during the Second Anglo-Mysore War. Tipu's conflicts with his neighbours included the Maratha–Mysore War which ended with the signing the Treaty of Gajendragad The treaty required that Tipu Sultan pay 4.8 million rupees as a one time war cost to the Marathas, an annual tribute of 1.2 million rupees in addition to returning all the territory captured by Hyder Ali. Tipu remained an implacable enemy of the British East India Company, sparking conflict with his attack on British-allied Travancore in 1789. In the Third Anglo-Mysore War, he was forced into the Treaty of Seringapatam, losing a number of conquered territories, including Malabar and Mangalore.
He sent emissaries to foreign states, including the Ottoman Empire and France, in an attempt to rally opposition to the British. In the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, the imperial forces of the British East India Company were supported by the Nizam of Hyderabad and Marathas, they defeated Tipu, he was killed on 4 May 1799 while defending his fort of Srirangapatna. He was one of the few South Indian kings to provide stiff resistance to British imperialism, along with his father Hyder Ali, he is applauded as a ruler. Tipu has criticized for his repression of Hindus and Christians. Various sources describe the massacres, forced conversion, circumcision of Hindus and Christians and the destruction of churches and temples which are cited as evidence for his religious intolerance. Other sources mention the appointment of Hindu officers in his administration and his endowments to Hindu temples, which are cited as evidence for his religious tolerance. Tipu Sultan was born on 20 November 1750 at Devanahalli, in present-day Bangalore Rural district, about 33 km north of Bangalore city.
He was named "Tipu Sultan" after the saint Tipu Mastan Aulia of Arcot. Being illiterate, Hyder was particular in giving his eldest son a prince's education and a early exposure to military and political affairs. From the age of 17 Tipu was given independent charge of important military missions, he was his father's right arm in the wars from which Hyder emerged as the most powerful ruler of southern India. Tipu's father, Hyder Ali, was a military officer in service to the Kingdom of Mysore who had become the de facto ruler of Mysore in 1761 while his mother Fatima Fakhr-un-Nisa was the daughter of Mir Muin-ud-Din, the governor of the fort of Kadapa. Hyder Ali appointed able teachers to give Tipu an early education in subjects like Urdu, Arabic, Quran, Islamic jurisprudence, riding and fencing. Tipu Sultan was instructed in military tactics by French officers in the employment of his father. At age 15, he accompanied his father against the British in the First Mysore War in 1766, he commanded a corps of cavalry in the invasion of Carnatic in 1767 at age 16.
He distinguished himself in the First Anglo-Maratha War of 1775–1779. Alexander Beatson, who published a volume on the Fourth Mysore War entitled View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tippoo Sultaun, described Tipu Sultan as follows: "His stature was about five feet eight inches. School and college textbooks in India recognize him as the first "freedom-fighter" along with many other rulers of the 18th century who fought European powers. In 1779, the British captured the French-controlled port of Mahé, which Tipu had placed under his protection, providing some troops for its defence. In response, Hyder launched an invasion of the Carnatic, with the aim of driving the British out of Madras. During this campaign in September 1780, Tipu Sultan was dispatched by Hyder Ali with 10,000 men and 18 guns to intercept Colonel Baillie who wa
The Wujing Zongyao, sometimes rendered in English as the Complete Essentials for the Military Classics, is a Chinese military compendium written from around 1040 to 1044. The book was compiled during the Northern Song dynasty by Zeng Gongliang, Ding Du and Yang Weide, whose writing influenced many Chinese military writers; the compendium was published under the auspices of Emperor Renzong of Song, who authored the book's preface. The book covers a wide range of subjects, including everything from naval warships to different types of catapults, it contains the earliest known written chemical formulas for gunpowder, made from saltpeter and charcoal along with many added ingredients. In addition to formulas for gunpowder, the compendium contains details on various other gunpowder weapons such as fire arrows, incendiary bombs and projectiles, grenades and smoke bombs, it describes an early form of the compass, has the oldest illustration of a Chinese Greek fire flamethrower with a double-action dual-piston cylinder-pump capable of shooting a continuous blast of flame.
The Wujing Zongyao was compiled under the sponsorship of Emperor Renzong of Song, concerned that many officials were unfamiliar with the military classics, as a response to the Song dynasty's war with the Tanguts of Western Xia. A team of scholars worked from 1040 to 1044 to compile the Wujing Zongyao with the intent to collect all known military knowledge and to disseminate it to a wider government audience, its chief editor, Zeng Gongliang, was assisted by the scholar Ding Du. After five years, the book was published with a preface authored by Emperor Renzong himself. Lorge remarks that Zeng Gongliang, the chief editor, was a government official rather than a military general, implying that the Wujing Zongyao was written for other government officials. Parts of the Wujing Zongyao were copied from older sources. During the Song dynasty, the Wujing Zongyao was appended to two other books: the Xingjun xuzhi and the Baizhan qifa, both written by anonymous authors; the Wujing Zongyao was one of 347 military treatises listed in the biographical chapters of the History of Song, one of the Twenty-Four Histories.
Of these 347 different military treatises from the Song period, only the Wujing Zongyao, the Huqianjing of Xu Dong in 1004 AD, fragments of similar works found in the Yonglo Datian, have survived. The original text of the Wujing Zongyao was kept in the Imperial Library while a number of hand-written copies were distributed elsewhere, including a copy given to Wang Shao by Emperor Shenzong of Song in 1069 AD; the original copy of the Wujing Zongyao was lost during the Jin–Song wars when the invading Jurchens sacked the Northern Song capital of Kaifeng in 1126 AD. Only a few manuscripts survived as a result of its secretive nature. Few trustees of the government were allowed to read it as increased propagation would have increased the chance of it falling into enemy hands. A remaining copy of the Wujing Zongyao was remade into a newly published edition in 1231 AD in the Southern Song dynasty. During the Ming Dynasty, another book was published in 1439 AD featuring fragments of the Wujing Zongyao of 1231 while omitting some material and combining it with two other books, including a preface by Li Jin.
The entire Wujing Zongyao was reprinted in 1510 AD and this version is the oldest extant copy available. However, the historian Joseph Needham asserts that the 1510 AD edition is the most reliable in its faithfulness to the original version, since it was printed from blocks that were re-carved directly from tracings of the edition made in 1231 AD, rather than recombining fragments of the original with other material. After the Wujing Zongyao of 1510 was printed, other Ming copies were made; this included the Jiajing edition, the Wanli edition of Quanzhou, the Wanli edition of Jinling by Tang Xinyün. During the Qing Dynasty it was reprinted in two different editions during the 18th century, again in 1934 with the Shanghai edition; the Xu Wujing Zongyao is a "continuation" of the Wujing Zongyao written in the late Ming dynasty. The book focuses on army formations and military deployments, it was written by Fan Jingwen, the Vice President of the Board of War. Fan wrote the book because he felt that reprints of the Wujing Zongyao circulating at that time were out of date and did not take into account the technological and strategic changes that had occurred since the Song dynasty.
The only surviving copy of the Xu Wujing Zongyao is held by Fudan University Library. In the 3rd century, the Chinese engineer Ma Jun invented the south-pointing chariot; this was a wheeled vehicle that employed differential gearing in order to lock a figurine of an immortal in place on the end of a long wooden staff, the figure having its arm stretched out and always pointing to the southern cardinal direction. Although the authors of the Wujing Zongyao were mistaken in believing that the design of the south-pointing chariot was not handed down, they described a new device which allowed one to navigate; this was the'south pointing fish' a heated iron object cut in the s
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo
A space gun, sometimes called a Verne gun because of its appearance in From the Earth to the Moon by Jules Verne, is a method of launching an object into space using a large gun- or cannonlike structure. Space guns could thus provide a method of non-rocket spacelaunch, it has been conjectured that space guns could place satellites into Earth's orbit, could launch spacecraft beyond Earth's gravitational pull and into other parts of the Solar System by exceeding Earth's escape velocity of about 11.2 km/s or 40,320 km/h. However, these speeds are too far into the hypersonic range for most practical propulsion systems and would cause most objects to burn up due to aerodynamic heating or be torn apart by aerodynamic drag. Therefore, a more future use of space guns would be to launch objects into near Earth orbit, from where attached rockets could be fired or the objects could be "collected" by maneuverable orbiting satellites. In Project HARP, a 1960s joint United States and Canada defence project, a U.
S. Navy 16 in 100 caliber gun was used to fire a 180 kg projectile at 3600 m/s or 12,960 km/h, reaching an apogee of 180 km, hence performing a suborbital spaceflight. However, a space gun has never been used to launch an object into orbit or out of Earth's gravitational pull; the large g-force to be experienced by a ballistic projectile launched in this manner would mean that a space gun would be incapable of safely launching humans or delicate instruments, rather being restricted to freight, fuel or ruggedized satellites. A space gun by itself is not capable of placing objects into stable orbit around the object from which it launches them; the orbit is a parabolic orbit, a hyperbolic orbit, or part of an elliptic orbit which ends at the planet's surface at the point of launch or another point. This means that an uncorrected ballistic payload will always strike the planet within its first orbit unless the velocity was so high as to reach or exceed escape velocity.. As a result, all payloads intended to reach a closed orbit need at least to perform some sort of course correction to create another orbit that does not intersect the planet's surface.
A rocket can be used for additional boost, as planned in both Project HARP and the Quicklaunch project. The magnitude of such correction may be small. In a three-body or larger system, a gravity assist trajectory might be available such that a aimed escape velocity projectile would have its trajectory modified by the gravitational fields of other bodies in the system such that the projectile would return to orbit the initial planet using only the launch delta-v. Isaac Newton avoided this objection in his thought experiment by positing an impossibly tall mountain from which his cannon was fired. If in a stable orbit, the projectile would circle the planet and return to the altitude of launch after one orbit. A space gun with a "gun barrel" of length, the needed velocity, the acceleration is provided by the following formula: a = v e 2 2 l For instance, with a space gun with a vertical "gun barrel" through both the Earth's crust and the troposphere, totalling ~60 km of length, a velocity enough to escape the Earth's gravity, the acceleration would theoretically be more than 1000 m/s2, more than 100 g-forces, about 3 times the human tolerance to g-forces of maximum 20 to 35 g during the ~10 seconds such a firing would take.
Theoretically, a space gun with a circular track could utilize much lower accelerations because its effective track length is infinite, though the centripetal acceleration could be enormous as the payload neared escape velocity, depending on the track size. The German V-3 cannon program, during the Second World War was an attempt to build something approaching a space gun. Based in the Pas-de-Calais area of France it was planned to be more devastating than the other Nazi'Vengeance weapons'; the cannon was capable of launching 140 kg, 15 cm diameter shells over a distance of 88 km. It was destroyed by RAF bombing using Tallboy blockbuster bombs in July 1944; the V-3 cannon used staged propulsion. The most prominent recent attempt to make a space gun was artillery engineer Gerald Bull's Project Babylon, known as the'Iraqi supergun' by the media. During Project Babylon, Bull used his experience from Project HARP to build a massive cannon for Saddam Hussein, leader of Ba'athist Iraq. Bull was assassinated.
Since Bull's death, few have attempted to build a space gun. Most promisingly, the US Ballistic Missile Defense program sponsored the Super High Altitude Research Project in the 1980s. Developed at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, it is a light-gas gun and has been used to test fire objects at Mach 9. After cancellation of SHARP, lead developer John Hunter founded the Jules Verne Launc
A Trip to the Moon
A Trip to the Moon is a 1902 French adventure film directed by Georges Méliès. Inspired by a wide variety of sources, including Jules Verne's novels From the Earth to the Moon and Around the Moon, the film follows a group of astronomers who travel to the Moon in a cannon-propelled capsule, explore the Moon's surface, escape from an underground group of Selenites, return to Earth with a captive Selenite, it features an ensemble cast of French theatrical performers, led by Méliès himself in the main role of Professor Barbenfouillis, is filmed in the overtly theatrical style for which Méliès became famous. The film was an internationally popular success on its release, was extensively pirated by other studios in the United States, its unusual length, lavish production values, innovative special effects, emphasis on storytelling were markedly influential on other film-makers and on the development of narrative film as a whole. Scholars have commented upon the film's extensive use of pataphysical and anti-imperialist satire, as well as on its wide influence on film-makers and its artistic significance within the French theatrical féerie tradition.
Though the film disappeared into obscurity after Méliès's retirement from the film industry, it was rediscovered around 1930, when Méliès's importance to the history of cinema was beginning to be recognized by film devotees. An original hand-colored print was discovered in 1993 and restored in 2011. A Trip to the Moon was named one of the 100 greatest films of the 20th century by The Village Voice, ranked 84th; the film remains the best-known of the hundreds of films made by Méliès, the moment in which the capsule lands in the Moon's eye remains one of the most iconic and referenced images in the history of cinema. It is regarded as the earliest example of the science fiction film genre and, more as one of the most influential films in cinema history. At a meeting of the Astronomy Club, its president, Professor Barbenfouillis, proposes an expedition to the Moon. After addressing some dissent, five other brave astronomers—Nostradamus, Omega and Parafaragaramus—agree to the plan, they build a space capsule in the shape of a bullet, a huge cannon to shoot it into space.
The astronomers embark and their capsule is fired from the cannon with the help of "marines", most of whom are played by a bevy of young women in sailors' outfits. The Man in the Moon watches the capsule as it approaches, it hits him in the eye. Landing safely on the Moon, the astronomers get out of the capsule without the need of space suits and watch the Earth rise in the distance. Exhausted by their journey, they unroll their blankets and sleep; as they sleep, a comet passes, the Big Dipper appears with human faces peering out of each star, old Saturn leans out of a window in his ringed planet, Phoebe, goddess of the Moon, appears seated in a crescent-moon swing. Phoebe causes a snowfall that awakens the astronomers, they seek shelter in a cavern where they discover giant mushrooms. One astronomer opens his umbrella. At this point, a Selenite appears, but it is killed by an astronomer, as the creatures explode if they are hit with force. More Selenites appear and it becomes difficult for the astronomers to destroy them as they are surrounded.
The Selenites take them to the palace of their king. An astronomer lifts the Selenite King off his throne and throws him to the ground, causing him to explode; the astronomers run back to their capsule while continuing to hit the pursuing Selenites, five get inside. The sixth astronomer, Barbenfouillis himself, uses a rope to tip the capsule over a ledge on the Moon and into space. A Selenite tries to seize the capsule at the last minute. Astronomer and Selenite fall through space and land in an ocean on Earth, where they are rescued by a ship and towed ashore; the final sequence depicts a celebratory parade in honor of the travelers' return, including a display of the captive Selenite and the unveiling of a commemorative statue bearing the motto "Labor omnia vincit". When A Trip to the Moon was made, film actors performed anonymously and no credits were given. Nonetheless, the following cast details can be reconstructed from available evidence: Georges Méliès as Professor Barbenfouillis. Méliès, a pioneering French film-maker and magician now regarded as the first person to recognize the potential of narrative film, had achieved considerable success with his film versions of Cinderella and Joan of Arc.
His extensive involvement in all of his films as director, writer, technician, publicist and actor makes him one of the first cinematic auteurs. Speaking about his work late in life, Méliès commented: "The greatest difficulty in realising my own ideas forced me to sometimes play the leading role in my films... I was a star without knowing I was one, since the term did not yet exist." All told, Méliès took an acting role in at least 300 of his 520 films. Bleuette Bernon as Phoebe. Méliès discovered Bernon in the 1890s, she appeared in his 1899 adaption of Cinderella. François Lallement as the officer of the marines. Lallement was one of the salaried camera operators for the Star Film Company. Henri Delannoy as the captain of the rocket. Jules-Eugène Legris as the parade lea
The Gobelins Manufactory is a historic tapestry factory in Paris, France. It is located at 42 avenue des Gobelins, near Les Gobelins métro station in the 13th arrondissement of Paris, it is best known as a royal factory supplying the court of the French monarchs since Louis XIV, it is now run by the Administration générale du Mobilier national et des Manufactures nationales de tapis et tapisseries of the French Ministry of Culture. The factory is open for guided tours several afternoons per week by appointment, as well as for casual visits every day except Mondays and some specific holidays; the Galerie des Gobelins is dedicated to temporary exhibitions of tapestries from the French manufactures and furnitures from the Mobilier National, built in the gardens by Auguste Perret in 1937. The Gobelins were a family of dyers who, in the middle of the 15th century, established themselves in the Faubourg Saint-Marcel, Paris, on the banks of the Bièvre. In 1602, Henry IV of France rented factory space from the Gobelins for his Flemish tapestry makers, Marc de Comans and François de la Planche, on the current location of the Gobelins Manufactory adjoining the Bièvre river.
In 1629, their sons Charles de Comans and Raphaël de la Planche took over their fathers' tapestry workshops, in 1633, Charles was the head of the Gobelins manufactory. Their partnership ended around 1650, the workshops were split into two. Tapestries from this early, Flemish period are sometimes called pre-gobelins. In 1662, the works in the Faubourg Saint Marcel, with the adjoining grounds, were purchased by Jean-Baptiste Colbert on behalf of Louis XIV and made into a general upholstery factory, in which designs both in tapestry and in all kinds of furniture were executed under the superintendence of the royal painter, Charles Le Brun, who served as director and chief designer from 1663-1690. On account of Louis XIV's financial problems, the establishment was closed in 1694, but reopened in 1697 for the manufacture of tapestry, chiefly for royal use, it rivalled the Beauvais tapestry works until the French Revolution, when work at the factory was suspended. The factory was revived during the Bourbon Restoration and, in 1826, the manufacture of carpets was added to that of tapestry.
In 1871, the building was burned down during the Paris Commune. The factory is still in operation today as a state-run institution. Today, the manufactory consists of a set of four irregular buildings dating to the seventeenth century, plus the building on the avenue des Gobelins built by Jean-Camille Formigé in 1912 after the 1871 fire, they contain Le Brun's residence and workshops that served as foundries for most of the bronze statues in the park of Versailles, as well as looms on which tapestries are woven following seventeenth century techniques. The Gobelins still produces some limited amount of tapestries for the decoration of French governmental institutions, with contemporary subjects. A branch of the manufactory was established in London in the early 18th-century in the area, now Fulham High Street. Around 1753 it appears to have been taken over by the priest and adventurer, Pierre Parisot, but closed only a few years later. List of museums in Paris Beauvais Manufactory Moravská Gobelínová Manufaktura Wolf Burchard, The Sovereign Artist: Charles Le Brun and the Image of Louis XIV, London 2016 Lacordaire, Notice historique sur les Manufactures impériales de tapisseries des Gobelins et de tapis de la Savonnerie, précédée du catalogue des tapisseries qui y sont exposées Genspach, Répertoire détaillé des tapisseries exécutées aux Gobelins, 1662–1892 Jules Guiffrey, Histoire de la tapisserie en France.
Manufacture des Gobelins Gobelins tapestries in the Collections of the Mobilier national Museums of Paris entry Paris.org entry