Timeline of scientific discoveries

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The timeline below shows the date of publication of possible major scientific theories and discoveries, along with the discoverer; in many cases, the discoveries spanned several years.

4th century BCE[edit]

  • 4th century BCE - Mandragora (containing atropin) was described by Theophrastus in the fourth century B.C.E. for treatment of wounds, gout, and sleeplessness, and as a love potion. By the first century C.E. Dioscorides recognized wine of mandrake as an anaesthetic for treatment of pain or sleeplessness, to be given prior to surgery or cautery.[1]

3rd century BCE[edit]

  • 323–283 BCE – Euclid: wrote a series of 13 books on geometry called The Elements
  • 280 BCE - Aristarchus of Samos: used a heliocentric, heliostatic model

2nd century BCE[edit]

1st century[edit]

2nd century[edit]

3rd century[edit]

  • 200s Galen: produced big contributions to medicine.

9th century[edit]

10th century[edit]

11th century[edit]

12th century[edit]

13th century[edit]

14th century[edit]

15th century[edit]

16th century[edit]

17th century[edit]

18th century[edit]

19th century[edit]

20th century[edit]

21st century[edit]


  1. ^ Robert S. Holzman, MD (July 1998). "The Legacy of Atropos". Anesthesiology. 89 (1): 241–249. doi:10.1097/00000542-199807000-00030. PMID 9667313.  citing J. Arena, Poisoning: Toxicology-Symptoms-Treatments, 3rd edition. Springfield, Charles C. Thomas, 1974, p 345
  2. ^ Page 26, (2nd chapter) in: Ronald L. Numbers (ed.) Galileo Goes to Jail, and Other Myths about Science and Religion (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009). Note: the first tree chapters of the book can be found here [1].
  3. ^ "Kirschner, Stefan, "Nicole Oresme", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2009 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)". Plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
  4. ^ L.M. Smith (2008-10-01). "Luca Pacioli: The Father of Accounting". Acct.tamu.edu. Retrieved 2011-08-11. 
  5. ^ "John Napier and logarithms". Ualr.edu. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
  6. ^ "The Roslin Institute (University of Edinburgh) - Public Interest: Dolly the Sheep". www.roslin.ed.ac.uk. Retrieved 14 January 2017. 
  7. ^ "JCVI: First Self-Replicating, Synthetic Bacterial Cell Constructed by J. Craig Venter Institute Researchers". jcvi.org. Retrieved 2013-02-12. 
  8. ^ Anderson, Gina (28 September 2015). "NASA Confirms Evidence That Liquid Water Flows on Today's Mars". NASA. Retrieved 14 January 2017. 
  9. ^ Landau, Elizabeth; Chou, Felicia; Washington, Dewayne; Porter, Molly (16 October 2017). "NASA Missions Catch First Light from a Gravitational-Wave Event". NASA. Retrieved 17 October 2017. 
  10. ^ "Neutron star discovery marks breakthrough for 'multi-messenger astronomy'". csmonitor.com. 2017-10-16. Retrieved 2017-10-17. 
  11. ^ "Hubble makes milestone observation of gravitational-wave source". slashgear.com. 2017-10-16. Retrieved 2017-10-17. 

External links[edit]