Timeline of telescopes, observatories, and observing technology

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Timeline of telescopes, observatories, and observing technology.

Before the Common Era (BCE)[edit]

3500s BCE[edit]

1900s BCE[edit]

1500s BCE[edit]

600s BCE[edit]

  • 11th–7th century BCE, Zhou dynasty astronomical observatory (灵台) in today's Xian, China

200s BCE[edit]

100s BCE[edit]

Common Era (CE)[edit]


























  • 2001 – First light at the Keck Interferometer. Single-baseline operations begin in the near-infrared.
  • 2001 – First light at VLTI interferometry array. Operations on the interferometer start with single-baseline near-infrared observations with the 103 m baseline.
  • 2005 – First imaging with the VLTI using the AMBER optical aperture synthesis instrument and three VLT telescopes.
  • 2005 – First light at SALT, the largest optical telescope in the Southern Hemisphere, with a primary mirror diameter of 11 meters.

Under Construction[edit]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ King, David A. (2002), "A Vetustissimus Arabic Text on the Quadrans Vetus", Journal for the History of Astronomy, 33: 237–255 [237–8], Bibcode:2002JHA....33..237K
  2. ^ Kennedy, Edward S. (1962), "Review: The Observatory in Islam and Its Place in the General History of the Observatory by Aydin Sayili", Isis, 53 (2): 237–239, doi:10.1086/349558
  3. ^ Langermann, Y. Tzvi (1985), "The Book of Bodies and Distances of Habash al-Hasib", Centaurus, 28: 108–128 [112], Bibcode:1985Cent...28..108T, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0498.1985.tb00831.x
  4. ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Al-Khujandi", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
  5. ^ David Kahn (March 1980), "On the Origin of Polyalphabetic Substitution", Isis, University of Chicago Press, 71 (1): 122–127 [126], doi:10.1086/352410, JSTOR 230316
  6. ^ Bryan S. Turner (March 1987), "State, Science and Economy in Traditional Societies: Some Problems in Weberian Sociology of Science", British Journal of Sociology, Blackwell Publishing, 38 (1): 1–23 [12], JSTOR 590576
  7. ^ Will Durant (1950). The Story of Civilization IV: The Age of Faith, pp. 239–45.
  8. ^ John Brian Harley; David Woodward; G. Malcolm Lewis (1992). The History of Cartography: Cartography in the traditional Islamic and South Asian societies. 2. Oxford University Press. pp. 28–9. ISBN 0-226-31635-1.
  9. ^ Hassan, Ahmad Y., Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part II: Transmission Of Islamic Engineering, retrieved 2008-01-22
  10. ^ Lorch, R. P. (1976), "The Astronomical Instruments of Jabir ibn Aflah and the Torquetum", Centaurus, 20 (1): 11–34, Bibcode:1976Cent...20...11L, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0498.1976.tb00214.x
  11. ^ Ancient Discoveries, Episode 11: Ancient Robots, History Channel, retrieved 2008-09-06
  12. ^ "History of the sundial". National Maritime Museum. Archived from the original on 2007-10-10. Retrieved 2008-07-02.
  13. ^ Jones, Lawrence (December 2005), "The Sundial And Geometry", North American Sundial Society, 12 (4)
  14. ^ Pedersen, Olaf (2010). A Survey of the Almagest. Springer. p. 20. ISBN 0387848258.
  15. ^ a b Tekeli, Sevim (1997). "Taqi al-Din". Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 0-7923-4066-3.
  16. ^ Savage-Smith, Emilie (1985), Islamicate Celestial Globes: Their History, Construction, and Use, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
  17. ^ A. Rupert Hall (1996). Isaac Newton: Adventurer in Thought. Cambridge University Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-521-56669-8.
  18. ^ Keenan, Philip C. (February 1, 1991). "The Earliest National Observatories in Latin America". Journal for the History of Astronomy. 22 (1): 21–30. Bibcode:1991JHA....22...21K – via SAGE Journals.
  19. ^ Chronology of Science in the United States 1840–1849 (derived from Clark A. Elliott, History of Science in the United States: A Chronology and Research Guide – New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1996, pp. 34–177).
  20. ^ a b Spectrometers, ASTROLab of Mont-Mégantic National Park
  21. ^ J. B. Hearnshaw (1996-05-02). The Measurement of Starlight: Two Centuries of Astronomical Photometry. Cambridge University Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-521-40393-1.
  22. ^ Khosroshai, Habib (1 May 2018). "Linking a noble past to future challenges". Nature Astronomy. 2: 429. doi:10.1038/s41550-018-0465-5. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  23. ^ Public Telescope: Erstes öffentliches Weltraumteleskop
  24. ^ Weltraumteleskop für jedermann welt.de
  25. ^ The first public space telescope Popular Astronomy UK
  • Michael A. Hoskin (1997). The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-41158-5.
  • Edgardo Marcorini (1988). Scienza e tecnica. ISBN 978-0-87196-475-5.
  • George Ochoa; Melinda Corey (1997). The Wilson Chronology of Science and Technology: A Record of Scientific Discovery and Technological Invention, from the Stone Age to the Information Age. New York : H.W. Wilson. ISBN 978-0-8242-0933-9.
  • Rushdī Rāshid; Régis Morelon (1996). Encyclopedia of History of Arabic Science: Astronomy- theoretical and applied. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-12410-2.