Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa and a founding member of the East African Community. Its capital and largest city is Nairobi and it is bordered by Tanzania to the south and southwest, Uganda to the west, South Sudan to the north-west, Ethiopia to the north and Somalia to the north-east. Kenya covers 581,309 km2, and had a population of approximately 48 million people in January 2017, Kenya has a warm and humid tropical climate on its Indian Ocean coastline. The climate is cooler in the grasslands around the capital city and especially closer to Mount Kenya. Further inland are highlands in Central and Rift Valley regions where tea, in the West are Nyanza and Western regions, there is an equatorial and dry climate which becomes humid around Lake Victoria, the largest tropical fresh-water lake in the world. This gives way to temperate and forested areas in the neighbouring western region. The north-eastern regions along the border with Somalia and Ethiopia are arid and semi-arid areas with near-desert landscapes, Kenya is known for its world class athletes in track and field and rugby.
The African Great Lakes region, which Kenya is a part of, has been inhabited by humans since the Lower Paleolithic period, by the first millennium AD, the Bantu expansion had reached the area from West-Central Africa. Bantu and Nilotic populations together constitute around 97% of the nations residents and Arab presence in coastal Mombasa dates to the Early Modern period, European exploration of the interior began in the 19th century. The British Empire established the East Africa Protectorate in 1895, which starting in 1920 gave way to the Kenya Colony, Kenya obtained independence in December 1963. Following a referendum in August 2010 and adoption of a new constitution, Kenya is now divided into 47 semi-autonomous counties, the capital, Nairobi, is a regional commercial hub. The economy of Kenya is the largest by GDP in East, agriculture is a major employer, the country traditionally exports tea and coffee and has more recently begun to export fresh flowers to Europe. The service industry is an economic driver.
Additionally, Kenya is a member of the East African Community trading bloc, the Republic of Kenya is named after Mount Kenya. The origin of the name Kenya is not clear, but perhaps linked to the Kikuyu and Kamba words Kirinyaga, Kirenyaa, if so, the British may not so much have mispronounced it, as misspelled it. In the 19th century, the German explorer Johann Ludwig Krapf was staying with the Bantu Kamba people when he first spotted the mountain. On asking for the name of the mountain, he was told Kĩ-Nyaa or Kĩĩma- Kĩĩnyaa probably because the pattern of black rock, the Agikuyu, who inhabit the slopes of Mt. Kenya, call it Kĩrĩma Kĩrĩnyaga in Kikuyu, which is quite similar to the Kamba name. Ludwig Krapf recorded the name as both Kenia and Kegnia believed by most to be a corruption of the Kamba version, others say that this was—on the contrary—a very precise notation of a correct African pronunciation /ˈkɛnjə/
Collapse of the World Trade Center
Two of the four hijacked airliners crashed into the Twin Towers, one into the North Tower and the other into the South Tower. The collapse of the Twin Towers destroyed the rest of the complex, the South Tower collapsed at 9,59 am, less than an hour after being hit by the second hijacked airliner, and at 10,28 am the North Tower collapsed. Later that day,7 World Trade Center collapsed at 5,21 pm from fires that had started when the North Tower collapsed, as a result of the attacks to the towers, a total of 2,763 people died. Of the people who died in the towers,2,192 were civilians,343 were firefighters, aboard the two airplanes,147 civilians and 10 hijackers died. They presented recommendations for more detailed engineering studies of the disaster, the BPS team investigation was followed by a more detailed investigation conducted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, which consulted outside engineering entities. This investigation was completed in September 2005. S, the cleanup of the site involved round-the-clock operations, many contractors and subcontractors, and cost hundreds of millions of dollars.
As of 2014, One World Trade Center,4 World Trade Center and 7 World Trade Center have been replaced, the towers were designed as tube in tube structures, which provided tenants with open floor plans uninterrupted by columns or walls. Numerous, closely spaced perimeter columns provided much of the strength to the structure, above the tenth floor, there were 59 perimeter columns along each face of the building, and there were 47 heavier columns in the core. All of the elevators and stairwells were located in the core, the floors consisted of 4-inch-thick lightweight concrete slabs laid on a fluted steel deck. A grid of lightweight bridging trusses and main trusses supported the floors with shear connections to the concrete slab for composite action, the trusses had a span of 60 feet in the long-span areas and 35 feet in the short-span area. The trusses connected to the perimeter at alternate columns, and were therefore on 6. 8-foot centers, the top chords of the trusses were bolted to seats welded to the spandrels on the exterior side and a channel welded to interior box columns on the interior side.
The floors were connected to the perimeter spandrel plates with viscoelastic dampers, the towers incorporated a hat truss or outrigger truss located between the 107th and 110th floors, which consisted of six trusses along the long axis of core and four along the short axis. The structural engineers working on the World Trade Center considered the possibility that an aircraft could crash into the building, in July 1945, a B-25 bomber that was lost in the fog had crashed into the 79th floor of the Empire State Building. A year later, a C-45F Expeditor crashed into the 40 Wall Street building, however, in an interview with the BBC, Robertson states, with the 707, the fuel load was not considered in the design, I dont know how it could have been considered. There would be a horrendous fire, a lot of people would be killed, he said. The building structure would still be there, in April 1970, the New York City Department of Air Resources ordered contractors building the World Trade Center to stop the spraying of asbestos as an insulating material.
Fireproofing was incorporated in the construction and more was added after a fire in 1975 that spread to six floors before being extinguished. After the 1993 bombing, inspections found fireproofing to be deficient, jet fuel from the impact traveled down at least one elevator shaft and exploded on the 78th floor of the North Tower, as well as in the main lobby
American Airlines Flight 11
American Airlines Flight 11 was a domestic passenger flight that was hijacked by five al-Qaeda members on September 11,2001, as part of the September 11 attacks. Mohamed Atta deliberately crashed the plane into the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City, killing all 92 people aboard and an unknown number in the buildings impact zone. Fifteen minutes into the flight, the injured at least three people, forcibly breached the cockpit, and overpowered the captain and first officer. Atta, a member and licensed commercial pilot, took over the controls. Air-traffic controllers noticed the flight was in distress when the crew was no longer responding and they realized the flight had been hijacked when Mohamed Attas announcements for passengers were transmitted to air traffic control. On board, flight attendants Amy Sweeney and Betty Ong contacted American Airlines, the aircraft crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Center at 08,46,40 local time. Countless people in the streets of New York City witnessed the strike, documentary film maker Jules Naudet captured the only known footage of the initial impact from start to finish.
Before the hijacking was confirmed, news began to report on the incident. The impact and subsequent fire caused the North Tower to collapse 102 minutes after the crash, during the recovery effort at the World Trade Center site, workers recovered and identified dozens of remains from Flight 11 victims, but many body fragments could not be identified. The American Airlines Flight 11 aircraft was a Boeing 767-223ER delivered in 1987, the capacity of the aircraft was 158 passengers, but the September 11 flight carried 81 passengers and 11 crew members. This was a load at 58.2 percent capacity. All 92 people on board were killed, including David Angell, his wife Lynn Angell, and actress Berry Berenson, family Guy creator Seth MacFarlane had been scheduled to be on the flight but arrived at the airport late. Actor Mark Wahlberg was scheduled to be on the flight, actress Leighanne Littrell, wife of Backstreet Boys singer Brian Littrell, had previously been booked on the flight, but like Wahlberg, changed her plans at the last minute.
Mohamed Atta, the ringleader of the attacks, and a fellow hijacker, Abdulaziz al-Omari and they boarded Colgan Air Flight 5930, which was scheduled to depart at 06,00 from Portland and fly to Boston. Both hijackers had first class tickets with a flight to Los Angeles. When they checked in, the Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System selected Atta for extra luggage scrutiny, the flight from Portland departed on time and arrived in Boston at 06,45. Three other hijackers, Waleed al-Shehri, Wail al-Shehri, and Satam al-Suqami, arrived at Logan Airport at 06,45, having left their rental car in the airport parking facility. At 06,52, Marwan al-Shehhi, the pilot of United Airlines Flight 175
American Airlines Flight 77
The Boeing 757-223 aircraft serving the flight was hijacked by five men affiliated with al-Qaeda on September 11,2001, as part of the September 11 attacks. Less than 35 minutes into the flight, the hijackers stormed the cockpit and they forced the passengers and pilots to the rear of the aircraft. Hani Hanjour, one of the hijackers who was trained as a pilot, unknown to the hijackers, passengers aboard made telephone calls to friends and family and relayed information on the hijacking. The hijackers crashed the aircraft into the side of the Pentagon at 09,37 EDT. Many people witnessed the crash, and news sources began reporting on the incident within minutes, the impact severely damaged an area of the Pentagon and caused a large fire. A portion of the building collapsed, firefighters spent days working to fully extinguish the blaze, the damaged sections of the Pentagon were rebuilt in 2002, with occupants moving back into the completed areas that August. The 184 victims of the attack are memorialized in the Pentagon Memorial adjacent to the crash site, the 1. 93-acre park contains a bench for each of the victims, arranged according to their year of birth and ranging from 1930 to 1998.
The hijackers on American Airlines Flight 77 were led by Hani Hanjour, Hanjour first came to the United States in 1990. Hanjour trained at the CRM Airline Training Center in Scottsdale, Arizona and he had wanted to be a commercial pilot for the Saudi national airline but was rejected when he applied to the civil aviation school in Jeddah in 1999. Hanjours brother explained that, frustrated at not finding a job, Hanjour increasingly turned his attention toward religious texts and cassette tapes of militant Islamic preachers. Hanjour returned to Saudi Arabia after being certified as a pilot, Hanjour likely went to Afghanistan, where Al-Qaeda recruits were screened for special skills they might have. Already having selected the Hamburg cell members, Al Qaeda leaders selected Hanjour to lead the team of hijackers. Two FBI agents inside the unit tried to alert FBI headquarters, in December 2000, Hanjour arrived in San Diego, joining muscle hijackers Nawaf al-Hazmi and Khalid al-Mihdhar, who had been there since January 2000.
Soon after arriving and Hazmi left for Mesa, Arizona, in April 2001, they relocated to Falls Church, where they awaited the arrival of the remaining muscle hijackers. One of these men, Majed Moqed, arrived on May 2,2001 and they moved into an apartment with Hazmi and Hanjour. On May 21,2001, Hanjour rented a room in Paterson, New Jersey, the last Flight 77 muscle hijacker, Salem al-Hazmi, arrived on June 29,2001, with Abdulaziz al-Omari at John F. Kennedy International Airport from the United Arab Emirates. Hanjour received ground instruction and did practice flights at Air Fleet Training Systems in Teterboro, New Jersey, Hanjour moved out of the room in Paterson and arrived at the Valencia Motel in Laurel, Maryland, on September 2,2001. While in Maryland and fellow hijackers trained at Golds Gym in Greenbelt, on September 10, he completed a certification flight, using a terrain recognition system for navigation, at Congressional Air Charters in Gaithersburg, Maryland
It operates as a network made up of Islamic extremist, Salafist jihadists. Al-Qaeda has mounted attacks on civilian and military targets in various countries, including the 1998 U. S. embassy bombings, the September 11 attacks, the U. S. government responded to the September 11 attacks by launching the War on Terror. Characteristic techniques employed by al-Qaeda include suicide attacks and the bombing of different targets. Al-Qaeda ideologues envision a complete break from all foreign influences in Muslim countries, among the beliefs ascribed to al-Qaeda members is the conviction that a Christian–Jewish alliance is conspiring to destroy Islam. Al-Qaeda opposes what it regards as man-made laws, and wants to replace them with a form of sharia law. Al-Qaeda has carried out attacks on targets it considers kafir. Al-Qaeda is responsible for instigating violence among Muslims. Al-Qaeda leaders regard liberal Muslims, Shias and other sects as heretics and have attacked their mosques, examples of sectarian attacks include the Yazidi community bombings, the Sadr City bombings, the Ashoura massacre and the April 2007 Baghdad bombings.
Since the death of bin Laden in 2011, the group has been led by the Egyptian Ayman al-Zawahiri, al-Qaedas management philosophy has been described as centralization of decision and decentralization of execution. Many terrorism experts do not believe that the global jihadist movement is driven at every level by al-Qaedas leadership, marc Sageman, a psychiatrist and former Central Intelligence Agency officer, said that al-Qaeda is now just a loose label for a movement that seems to target the west. We like to create an entity called in our minds. This view mirrors the account given by Osama bin Laden in his October 2001 interview with Tayseer Allouni and this matter isnt about any specific person and. is not about the al-Qaidah Organization. We are the children of an Islamic Nation, with Prophet Muhammad as its leader, and all the true believers are brothers. So the situation isnt like the West portrays it, that there is an organization with a specific name and that particular name is very old.
It was born without any intention from us, created a military base to train the young men to fight against the vicious, brutal, terrorizing Soviet empire. So this place was called The Base, as in a base, so this name grew. We arent separated from this nation, and so we discuss the conscience of this nation. Bruce Hoffman, sees al-Qaeda as a network that is strongly led from the Pakistani tribal areas
Operation Infinite Reach
Operation Infinite Reach was the codename for American cruise missile strikes on al-Qaeda bases in Khost and the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum, Sudan, on August 20,1998. Operation Infinite Reach was the first time the U. S. acknowledged a preemptive strike against a violent non-state actor. U. S. intelligence suggested financial ties between the Al-Shifa plant and Osama bin Laden, and a sample collected from Al-Shifa allegedly contained a chemical used in VX nerve gas manufacturing. Suspecting that Al-Shifa was linked to, and producing weapons for, bin Laden and his al-Qaeda network. The failure of the attacks to kill bin Laden enhanced his image in the Muslim world. Further strikes were planned but not executed, as a 2002 congressional inquiry noted, in which the CIA or U. S. military carried out an operation directly against Bin Ladin before September 11. Deploring the stationing of U. S. troops in Saudi Arabia, the alleged U. S. aim to fragment Iraq, and U. S. In June 1998, Al Mukhabarat Al Aamah director Prince Turki bin Faisal Al Saud traveled to Tarnak Farms to meet with Taliban leader Mullah Omar to discuss the question of bin Laden.
Turki demanded that the Taliban either expel bin Laden from Afghanistan or hand him over to the Saudis, American analysts believed Turki offered a large amount of financial aid to resolve the dispute over bin Laden. Omar agreed to the deal, and the Saudis sent the Taliban 400 pickup trucks, while the Taliban sent a delegation to Saudi Arabia in July for further discussions, the negotiations stalled by August. Around the same time, the U. S. was planning its own actions against bin Laden, michael Scheuer, chief of the CIAs bin Laden unit, considered using local Afghans to kidnap bin Laden, exfiltrate him from Afghanistan in a modified Lockheed C-130 Hercules. Documents recovered from Wadih el-Hages Nairobi computer suggested a link between bin Laden and the deaths of U. S. troops in Somalia and these were used as the foundation for the June 1998 New York indictment of bin Laden, although the charges were dropped. Al-Qaeda began reconnoitering Nairobi for potential targets in December 1993, using a team led by Ali Mohamed, in January 1994, bin Laden was personally presented with the teams surveillance reports, and he and his senior advisers began to develop a plan to attack the American embassy there.
While U. S. authorities had investigated al-Qaeda activities in Nairobi, on August 7, al-Qaeda teams in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam, attacked the cities U. S. embassies simultaneously with truck bombs. In Nairobi, the explosion collapsed the nearby Ufundi Building and destroyed the embassy, killing 213 people, including 12 Americans, another 4,000 people were wounded. In Dar es Salaam, the bomber was unable to get enough to the embassy to demolish it. National Security Advisor Sandy Berger called President Bill Clinton at 5,35 AM on August 7 to notify him of the bombings, the groups objective was to plan a military response to the East Africa embassy bombings. Based on electronic and phone intercepts, physical evidence from Nairobi, in an August 10 Small Group meeting, the principals agreed to use Tomahawk cruise missiles, rather than troops or aircraft, in the retaliatory strikes
Los Angeles International Airport
It is most often referred to by its IATA airport code LAX, with the letters pronounced individually. LAX is in the southwestern Los Angeles area along the Pacific Ocean between the neighborhood of Westchester to its north and the city of El Segundo to its immediate south. It is owned and operated by Los Angeles World Airports, an agency of the government of Los Angeles, formerly known as the Department of Airports. In 2015, LAX handled 74,936,256 passengers, the airport holds the claim for the worlds busiest origin and destination airport, and has for many years. To wit, relative to airports, many more travelers begin or end their trips in Los Angeles than use it as a connection. The airport was the third busiest by aircraft movements. It is the airport to rank among the top five U. S. airports for both passenger and cargo traffic. It is notable for being one of the few U. S. airports with four parallel runways, LAX serves as a hub for Alaska Airlines, American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, United Airlines, and Virgin America.
The airport serves as a city for Allegiant Air, Air New Zealand, Southwest Airlines, Spirit Airlines. LAX serves as either a hub or focus city for more Mainline US Carriers than any airport in the Country and is the only airport that all three legacy carriers have designated a hub. As the largest international airport on the U. S, West Coast, LAX is a major gateway to and from Europe, Latin America and Oceania. With its deep connections to Asia and Latin America in particular, in 1928, the Los Angeles City Council selected 640 acres in the southern part of Westchester for a new airport. The fields of wheat and lima beans were converted into dirt landing strips without any terminal buildings and it was named Mines Field for William W. Mines, the real estate agent who arranged the deal. 1, was erected in 1929 and is in the National Register of Historic Places, Mines Field opened as the airport of Los Angeles in 1930 and the city purchased it to be a municipal airfield in 1937. The name became Los Angeles Airport in 1941 and Los Angeles International Airport in 1949, in the 1930s the main airline airports were Burbank Airport in Burbank and the Grand Central Airport in Glendale.
Mines Field did not extend west of Sepulveda Boulevard, Sepulveda was rerouted circa 1950 to loop around the west ends of the extended east–west runways, which by November 1950 were 6,000 feet long. A tunnel was completed in 1953 allowing Sepulveda Boulevard to revert to straight, for the next few years the two runways were 8,500 feet long. Before the 1930s, existing airports used a two-letter abbreviation based on the stations at the airports
Tanzania /ˌtænzəˈniːə/, officially the United Republic of Tanzania, is a country in Eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region. Parts of the country are in Southern Africa, Mount Kilimanjaro, Africas highest mountain, is in northeastern Tanzania. Tanzanias population of 51.82 million is diverse, composed of ethnic, linguistic. Dar es Salaam, the capital, retains most government offices and is the countrys largest city, principal port. Tanzania is a one party dominant state with the Chama Cha Mapinduzi party in power, from its formation until 1992, it was the only legally permitted party in the country. Elections for president and all National Assembly seats were last held in October 2015, the CCM holds approximately 75% of the seats in the assembly. Prehistoric population migrations include Southern Cushitic speakers, who are ancestral to the Iraqw and Burunge and who moved south from Ethiopia into Tanzania. Based on linguistic evidence, there may have two movements into Tanzania of Eastern Cushitic people at about 4,000 and 2,000 years ago.
These movements took place at about the time as the settlement of the iron-making Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the Lake Victoria. They brought with them the west African planting tradition and the staple of yams. They subsequently migrated out of these regions across the rest of Tanzania, European colonialism began in mainland Tanzania during the late 19th century when Germany formed German East Africa, which gave way to British rule following World War I. The mainland was governed as Tanganyika, with the Zanzibar Archipelago remaining a separate colonial jurisdiction, following their respective independence in 1961 and 1963, the two entities merged in April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania. Tanzania is mountainous and densely forested in the northeast, where Mount Kilimanjaro is located, three of Africas Great Lakes are partly within Tanzania. To the north and west lie Lake Victoria, Africas largest lake, and Lake Tanganyika, the eastern shore is hot and humid, with the Zanzibar Archipelago just offshore.
The Menai Bay Conservation Area is Zanzibars largest marine protected area, over 100 different languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa. Among the languages spoken in Tanzania are all four of Africas language families, Cushitic, Nilotic and English are Tanzanias official languages. In connection with his Ujamaa social policies, President Nyerere encouraged the use of Swahili, approximately 10% of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a first language, and up to 90% speak it as a second language. Most Tanzanians thus speak both Swahili and a language, many educated Tanzanians are trilingual, speaking English
The Star-Spangled Banner
The Star-Spangled Banner is the national anthem of the United States of America. Key was inspired by the large American flag, the Star-Spangled Banner, the poem was set to the tune of a popular British song written by John Stafford Smith for the Anacreontic Society, a mens social club in London. To Anacreon in Heaven, with lyrics, was already popular in the United States. Set to Keys poem and renamed The Star-Spangled Banner, it became a well-known American patriotic song. With a range of one octave and one fifth, it is known for being difficult to sing, although the poem has four stanzas, only the first is commonly sung today. Before 1931, other songs served as the hymns of American officialdom, Columbia served this purpose at official functions for most of the 19th century. My Country, Tis of Thee, whose melody is identical to God Save the Queen, following the War of 1812 and subsequent American wars, other songs emerged to compete for popularity at public events, among them The Star-Spangled Banner, as well as America the Beautiful.
Beanes was accused of aiding the arrest of British soldiers, because Key and Skinner had heard details of the plans for the attack on Baltimore, they were held captive until after the battle, first aboard HMS Surprise and back on HMS Minden. On the morning of September 14, the flag had been lowered. During the bombardment, HMS Terror and HMS Meteor provided some of the bombs bursting in air, Key was inspired by the American victory and the sight of the large American flag flying triumphantly above the fort. This flag, with fifteen stars and fifteen stripes, had made by Mary Young Pickersgill together with other workers in her home on Baltimores Pratt Street. The flag came to be known as the Star-Spangled Banner and is today on display in the National Museum of American History and it was restored in 1914 by Amelia Fowler, and again in 1998 as part of an ongoing conservation program. Aboard the ship the day, Key wrote a poem on the back of a letter he had kept in his pocket. At twilight on September 16, he and Skinner were released in Baltimore and he completed the poem at the Indian Queen Hotel, where he was staying, and titled it Defence of Fort MHenry.
Much of the idea of the poem, including the flag imagery and some of the wording, is derived from a song by Key. The song, known as When the Warrior Returns, was written in honor of Stephen Decatur, absent elaboration by Francis Scott Key prior to his death in 1843, some have speculated in modern times about the meaning of phrases or verses. Professor Mark Clague has stated that the two verses of Keys lyric vilify the British enemy in the War of 1812 and in no way glorifies or celebrates slavery. Clague asserts that the used to refer to British professional soldiers but the Corps of Colonial Marines which Key viewed as scoundrels
At 33 years of age, he was the oldest hijacker to take part in the attacks. Born in 1968 in a town in Egypts Nile Delta, Atta moved with his family to the Abdeen section of Cairo at the age of 10. Atta studied architecture at Cairo University, graduating in 1990, and continued his studies in Hamburg, in Hamburg, Atta became involved with the al-Quds Mosque, where he met Marwan al-Shehhi, Ramzi bin al-Shibh, and Ziad Jarrah, together forming the Hamburg cell. Atta disappeared from Germany for periods of time, spending time in Afghanistan, including several months in late 1999 and early 2000 when he met Osama bin Laden. Atta and the other Hamburg cell members were recruited by bin Laden, Atta returned to Hamburg in February 2000, and began inquiring about flight training in the United States. Atta arrived in the United States, together with Marwan al-Shehhi, both ended up in Venice, Florida at Huffman Aviation, where they entered the Accelerated Pilot Program. Atta and Shehhi obtained instrument ratings in November 2000, and continued training on simulators, beginning in May 2001, Atta assisted with the arrival of the muscle hijackers.
In July 2001, Atta traveled to Spain where he met with bin al-Shibh to exchange information, in August 2001, Atta traveled as a passenger on several surveillance flights, to establish in detail how the attacks could be carried out. In early September 2001, Atta traveled to Prince Georges County, Atta traveled to Boston, and on September 10, with Abdulaziz al-Omari to Portland, Maine. They spent the night at the Comfort Inn in South Portland, on the morning of September 11, Atta and Omari traveled on Colgan Air back to Boston, where they boarded American Airlines Flight 11. Fifteen minutes into the flight, the team of hijackers attacked, Atta crashed the Boeing 767 into the North Tower of the World Trade Center, killing everyone on board. The crash led to the collapse of the tower 102 minutes at 10,28 A. M. ultimately causing the deaths of over 1600 civilians and first responders in the North Tower. In Germany, he registered his name as Mohamed el-Amir Awad el-Sayed Atta, in his will, written in 1996, Atta gives his name as Mohamed the son of Mohamed Elamir awad Elsayed.
When he came to the United States, he used the name Mohamed Atta, Atta claimed different nationalities, sometimes Egyptian and other times telling people he was from the United Arab Emirates. Atta was born on September 1,1968 in Kafr el-Sheikh and his father, Mohamed el-Amir Awad el-Sayed Atta, was a lawyer, educated in both sharia and civil law. His mother, Bouthayna Mohamed Mustapha Sheraqi, came from a farming and trading family and was educated. Bouthayna and Mohamed married when she was 14, via an arranged marriage, the family had few relatives on the fathers side and kept a distance from Bouthaynas family. In-laws characterized Attas father as austere and private, Atta was the only son, he had two older sisters who are both well-educated and successful in their careers—one as a medical doctor and the other as a professor
Yemen, officially known as the Republic of Yemen, is an Arab country in Western Asia, occupying South Arabia, the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. Yemen is the second-largest country in the peninsula, occupying 527,970 km2, the coastline stretches for about 2,000 km. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea to the south, although Yemens constitutionally stated capital is the city of Sanaa, the city has been under rebel control since February 2015. Because of this, Yemens capital has been relocated to the port city of Aden. Yemens territory includes more than 200 islands, the largest of these is Socotra, Yemen was the home of the Sabaeans, a trading state that flourished for over a thousand years and probably included parts of modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea. In 275 AD, the region came under the rule of the Jewish-influenced Himyarite Kingdom, Christianity arrived in the fourth century, whereas Judaism and local paganism were already established.
Islam spread quickly in the century and Yemenite troops were crucial in the expansion of the early Islamic conquests. Administration of Yemen has long been notoriously difficult, several dynasties emerged from the ninth to 16th centuries, the Rasulid dynasty being the strongest and most prosperous. The country was divided between the Ottoman and British empires in the twentieth century. The Zaydi Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen was established after World War I in North Yemen before the creation of the Yemen Arab Republic in 1962, South Yemen remained a British protectorate known as the Aden Protectorate until 1967 when it became an independent state and later, a Marxist state. The two Yemeni states united to form the modern republic of Yemen in 1990, Yemen is a developing country, and the poorest country in the Middle East. Under the rule of President Ali Abdullah Saleh, Yemen was described as a kleptocracy, according to the 2009 international corruption Perception Index by Transparency International, Yemen ranked 164 out of 182 countries surveyed.
President Saleh stepped down and the powers of the presidency were transferred to Vice President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi, the transitional process was disrupted by conflicts between the Houthis and al-Islah, as well as the al-Qaeda insurgency. In September 2014, the Houthis took over Sanaa, declaring themselves in control of the government in a coup détat, since then, a Saudi-led intervention has taken place, however, it could not stop the civil war. Instead, the Saudis and the others have destroyed some hospitals and homes, Yemen was mentioned in Old South Arabian inscriptions as Yamnat. In Arabic literature, the term includes much greater territory than that of the republic of Yemen. It stretches from the northern Asir Region in southwestern Saudi Arabia to Dhofar Governorate in southern Oman, one etymology derives Yemen from yumn, meaning felicity, as much of the country is fertile. The Romans called it Arabia Felix, as opposed to Arabia Deserta, al-Yaman significantly plays on the notion of the land to the right, when in Mecca facing the dawn, complementary to Al-Sham, the Land to the Left, referring to the Levant
San Francisco International Airport
San Francisco International Airport is an international airport 13 miles south of downtown San Francisco, United States, near Millbrae and San Bruno in unincorporated San Mateo County. It has flights to points throughout North America and is a gateway to Europe. SFO is the largest airport in Northern California and the second busiest in California, in 2014, it was the seventh busiest in the United States and the twenty-first busiest airport in the world by passenger count. It is the fifth largest hub for United Airlines and functions as United Airliness primary transpacific gateway and it serves as Virgin Americas principal base of operations. It is the sole hub of United Airlines, and houses the Louis A. Turpen Aviation Museum. SFO is owned and policed by the City and County of San Francisco, between 1999 and 2004 the San Francisco Airport Commission operated city-owned SFO Enterprises, Inc. to oversee its business purchases and operations of ventures. San Francisco held a ceremony for Mills Field Municipal Airport on May 7,1927 on 150 acres of cow pasture.
The land was leased from Ogden L. Mills who had leased it from his grandfather Darius O. Mills, San Francisco International Airport was named Mills Field Municipal Airport until 1931, when it became San Francisco Municipal Airport. Municipal was replaced by International in 1955, United Airlines served SFO and Oakland Municipal Airport beginning in the 1930s. The March 1939 Official Aviation Guide shows 18 airline departures on weekdays— seventeen United flights, the aerial view c.1940 looks west along the runway that is now 28R, the seaplane harbor at right is still recognizable north of the airport. Earlier aerial looking NW1943 vertical aerial The August 1952 chart shows runway 1L7000 feet long, 1R7750 feet, 28L6500 feet and 28R8870 feet. Competition with United led Pacific Seaboard to move all of its operations to the eastern U. S. and rename itself Chicago and it became a large domestic and international air carrier. Chicago & Southern was acquired by and merged into Delta Air Lines in 1953 thus providing Delta with its first international routes, United Airlines Douglas DC-6 propliners flying to and from Hawaii used the Pan American World Airways terminal beginning in 1947.
The first nonstops to the U. S. east coast were flown by United with Douglas DC-7 propliners in 1954, in 1954 the airports Central Passenger Terminal opened on August 27 of that year. Included in the static display of aircraft on that day was a Convair B-36 Peacemaker bomber. The Central Passenger Terminal was heavily rebuilt as the terminal in 1984. As for international flights, Pan American had 21 departures a week, Japan Airlines had five, the jet age arrived at SFO in March 1959 when TWA introduced Boeing 707-131 jetliners with nonstop service to New York Idlewild Airport. United constructed a large facility at San Francisco for its new Douglas DC-8 jets