Timeline of the Tibetan Empire

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This is a timeline of the Tibetan Empire

7th century[edit]

Year Date Event
618 Namri Songtsen dies and his son Songtsen Gampo succeeds him, at which point their kingdom becomes "Tibet", otherwise known as "Bod" in the country's native language[1][2]
627 Tang dynasty and Uyghur forces engage in battle with the Turks and Tibetans[3][4]
634 Songtsen Gampo of the Tibetan Empire sends an embassy to the Tang[5]
Songtsen Gampo of the Tibetan Empire annexes Zhangzhung[6]
635 Narendradeva of Licchavi flees to Tibet[6]
637 Songtsen Gampo of the Tibetan Empire defeats Tuyuhun and subjugates the Tanguts and White Wolf people[7]
638 Tibetan attack on Songzhou: Songtsen Gampo of the Tibetan Empire attacks the city of Songzhou, now modern Songpan in Sichuan[8]
Gar Tongtsen Yulsung of the Tibetan Empire arrives in Tang to ask for a princess bride[9]
640 Gar Tongtsen Yulsung of the Tibetan Empire arrives in Tang with tribute and successfully requests for a princess bride[10]
641 Songtsen Gampo of the Tibetan Empire sends Narendradeva back to Licchavi with an army and subjugates Nepal[8]
Princess Wencheng, an imperial sororal kin of the Tang dynasty, arrives in Tibet as Songtsen Gampo's bride[11]
648 Songtsen Gampo of the Tibetan Empire attacks Arjuna, usurper of Harsha of Mithila, for accosting the Tang ambassador Wang Xuance[12]
649 Songtsen Gampo dies and his grandson Mangsong Mangtsen succeeds him as emperor of Tibet; Gar Tongtsen Yulsung becomes regent[13]
655 Gar Tongtsen Yulsung of the Tibetan Empire writes a code of laws[14]
656 Tibetan Empire attacks Lesser Bolü[15]
660 Gar Tongtsen Yulsung of the Tibetan Empire defeats Tuyuhun, conquers Wakhan, and their Turkic allies attack Shule, however the Tang army under Su Dingfang withdrew and did not engage in combat[15][16]
663 Tibetan Empire conquers Tuyuhun and attacks Khotan but is repelled[17][15]
665 Tibetan Empire and Turkic allies attack Khotan[15]
667 Gar Tongtsen Yulsung dies[18]
670 Battle of Dafei River: Gar Trinring Tsendro of the Tibetan Empire destroys Tang general Xue Rengui's allegedly 100,000 strong army, captures Kucha, and attacks Aksu[19][20]
673 Tang recaptures Kucha[21]
676 Tibetan Empire attacks Diezhou, Fuzhou, and Jingzhou. Fengtian and Wugong are sacked.[22]
677 Mangsong Mangtsen dies and his son Tridu Songtsen succeeds him[23]
Tibetan Empire captures Kucha[24][15]
678 Gar Trinring Tsendro of the Tibetan Empire defeats a Tang army in the Qinghai region[20]
679 Tang general Pei Xingjian defeats the Tibetans and re-establishes control over the Western Regions[24][15]
680 Tibetan Empire captures of the fortress of Anrong in Sichuan[20]
681 Tibetan Empire invades the Qinghai region but is defeated by a Tang army[25]
687 Tibetan Empire establishes control over the Western Regions[26]
690 Gar Trinring Tsendro of the Tibetan Empire defeats Tang general Wei Daijia's army at Issyk-Kul[26]
692 Tang forces reconquer the Four Garrisons of Anxi from Tibetan Empire[27]
694 Tibetan Empire attacks the Stone City and suffers a defeat[28][29]
696 Tibetan Empire defeats a Tang army at Taozhou and attacks Liangzhou[29]
699 Gar Trinring Tsendro dies in a confrontation with the emperor Tridu Songtsen and his army flees to Tang[30]

8th century[edit]

Year Date Event
700 Tridu Songtsen of the Tibetan Empire attacks Hezhou and Liangzhou[31]
701 Tridu Songtsen of the Tibetan Empire allies with Turks and attacks Liangzhou, Songzhou, and Taozhou[31]
702 Tibetan Empire attacks Maozhou[32]
703 Tridu Songtsen of the Tibetan Empire subjugates the White and Black Mywa of Nanzhao[32]
704 Tibetan Empire attacks Termez[33]
Tridu Songtsen dies and his son Lha of Tibet succeeds him[34]
705 Khri ma lod dethrones Lha of Tibet and installs Me Agtsom, another son of Tridu Songtsen
710 Tibetan Empire conquers Lesser Bolü[35]
Princess Jincheng, a great granddaughter of Emperor Gaozong of Tang, is sent to Tibet as a bride; the Tibetans are granted Jiuqu (九曲), the land north of the Yellow River in Gansu by Emperor Ruizong of Tang[36]
Zhang Xuanbiao of the Tang dynasty invades northeastern Tibet[37]
714 Tibetan Empire attacks Lintao and Weiyuan as well as Lanzhou and Weizhou, but ultimately suffers a major defeat and is repelled[38]
715 Tibetan Empire attacks Fergana, a Tang vassal[39], and the Beiting Protectorate and Songzhou[40]
717 Tibetan Empire attacks Aksu and the Stone City.[41][42]
720 Tibetan Empire seizes the Stone City[43]
722 Tang frees Lesser Bolü[43]
723 Princess Jincheng writes to Lalitaditya Muktapida of the Karkoṭa Empire asking for asylum. In response he contacts the Zabulistan and forms an alliance against the Tibetan Empire.[44]
726 Takdra Khönlö of the Tibetan Empire attacks Ganzhou but most of their forces die in a snowstorm and the rest are mopped up by Tang general Wang Junchuo[45]
727 Takdra Khönlö and Cog ro Manporje of the Tibetan Empire and their Turgesh allies attack Kucha[39] and Guazhou and Suzhou[46][45]
728 Tibetan Empire attacks Kucha[39]
729 Zhang Shougui (張守珪) inflicts a major defeat on the Tibetan Empire at Xining[47][46]
734 Tang and Tibetan Empire demarcate their territory at Chiling Mountain with a boundary tablet[48]
737 Tibetan Empire conquers Lesser Bolü[41]
Hexi jiedushi Cui Xiyi makes a covenant with the Tibetan general in Koko-nor, Yilishu, to relax border defenses so their soldiers can engage in agriculture and animal husbandry. A white dog is sacrificed to seal the covenant.[49]
738 Tang captures and loses Anrong to the Tibetan Empire[50]
739 Tang scores a major victory against the Tibetan Empire at Shanzhou[50]
740 Tang captures Anrong from the Tibetan Empire[51][52]
741 Tibetan Empire attacks Tang in the Qinghai region but is repelled; the Tibetans sack the Stone City on their way back[53]
742 Huangfu Weiming of Longyou and Wang Chui of Hexi invade northeastern Tibet and kill several thousand Tibetans[54]
743 Huangfu Weiming invades Tibet and recovers the Jiuqu (九曲) area from the Tibetan Empire[53]
745 Huangfu Weiming attacks the Tibetan Empire at the Stone City and suffers a major defeat[53][55]
747 Tang captures Lesser Bolü[39]
749 Longyou defense command under Geshu Han attacks Tibetan Empire and retakes the Stone City but suffers heavy casualties[56][51]
753 Geshu Han ejects the Tibetans from the "Nine Bends" region on the upper course of the Yellow River[51]
755 Me Agtsom is murdered by his ministers and his son Trisong Detsen succeeds him[57]
757 Tibetan Empire conquers Shanzhou[58]
763 Tibetan Empire conquers Karasahr[59] and invades the Tang dynasty with an army of 100,000 and briefly occupies Chang'an for 15 days before retreating[56][60]
764 Tibetan Empire invades the Tang dynasty with a 70,000 strong army and takes Liangzhou[61] but is repulsed by Yan Wu in Jiannan[62]
765 Tibetan Empire invades the Tang dynasty with 30,000 troops and Uyghur allies, advancing as far as Fengtian twice but is repulsed by Guo Ziyi, who convinced the Uyghurs to switch sides[56]
766 Tibetan Empire conquers Ganzhou and Suzhou[61]
776 Tibetan Empire conquers Guazhou.[61]
781 Tibetan Empire conquers Hami.[59][61]
783 Tibetan Empire and Tang sign the Treaty of Qinshui, ending further hostilities[61]
784 Tibetan Empire aids Tang in crushing Zhu Ci's rebellion in return for ownership of the Anxi Protectorate and Beiting Protectorate[63]; Tang breaks their promise to cede their protectorates to the Tibetan Empire and as a result the Treaty of Qingshui is annulled[63]
786 Tibetan Empire conquers Yanzhou and Xiazhou[64]
787 Buddhism becomes the official religion in Tibet[65]
Tibetan Empire double crosses Tang at the Treaty of Pingliang and captures many of the Tang officials and military leaders present[66]
Tibetan Empire destroys Yanzhou and Xiazhou before abandoning them[66]
Tibetan Empire captures Dunhuang[67] and Kucha[59]
788 Tang defeats the Tibetan Empire at Xizhou[68]
789 Tibetan Empire attacks Longzhou, Jingzhou, and Bingzhou[69]
790 Tibetan Empire conquers Tingzhou[59][70]
792 Tibetan Empire conquers Gaochang and Khotan[59][70]
Uyghur Khaganate evicts Tibetans from Gaochang, Kucha, and Karasahr[71]
793 Tang general Wei Gao destroys 50 Tibetan strongholds and defeats a 30,000 strong Tibetan army, recovering Yanzhou[68]
794 Trisong Detsen abdicates and his son Muné Tsenpo succeeds him[72]
796 Tibetan Empire attacks Qingzhou but the campaign abruptly ends when chief minister Nanam Shang Gyaltsen Lhanang dies[68]
797 Trisong Detsen dies

9th century[edit]

Year Date Event
800 Sadnalegs becomes emperor of Tibet[73][74]
801 Nanzhao and Tang forces defeat a contingent of Tibetan and Abbasid slave soldiers.[75]
808 Uyghur Khaganate captures Liangzhou[76]
The Chuy branch of Shatuo Turks are defeated by the Tibetan Empire and move to Inner China[77]
809 Tibetan Empire attacks Uyghur ambassadors to Tang[78]
810 Tibetan Empire raids the Abbasid Caliphate[79]
813 Uyghur Khaganate crosses the Gobi Desert and attacks the Tibetans[78]
814 Al-Ma'mun of the Abbasid Caliphate invades the Tibetan Empire in Wakhan and Gilgit, where they capture a Tibetan commander and Tibetan cavalrymen, who they send back to Baghdad[80]
815 Sadnalegs dies and his son Ralpacan succeeds him[81][82]
816 Tibetan Empire attacks the Uyghur Khaganate capital of Ordu-Baliq but fails to make it there[83]
819 Tibetan Empire attacks Qingzhou[84]
821 Tang and the Tibetan Empire sign a treaty of non-aggression with the Tang recognizing Tibet's ownership of the Western Regions as well as the Longyou and Hexi regions in what is now Gansu Province[85]
Tibetan Empire attacks Tang but are driven off by the governor of Yanzhou[86]
823 The Tang-Bo huimeng bei (Stele of the Tang-Tibetan alliance) is set up in Lhasa[87]
838 Ralpacan dies and his brother Langdarma succeeds him[88]
842 Langdarma dies and the Tibetan Empire enters its Era of Fragmentation[89]
843 Karasahr and Kucha are occupied by the Kingdom of Qocho[89]
847 Tibetan troops raid the Hexi Corridor but are defeated by Tang troops at Yanzhou[90]
848 Zhang Yichao, a resident of Dunhuang, rebels and captures Shazhou and Guazhou from the Tibetans[90]
849 Tibetan commanders and soldiers in seven garrisons west of Yuanzhou defect to the Tang[90]
850 Zhang Yichao takes Hami, Ganzhou and Suzhou[91]
851 Zhang Yichao captures Gaochang and Khotan becomes independent[92]
866 Tibetans retreat to the Tibetan plateau[93]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 16.
  2. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 19.
  3. ^ Latourette 1964, p. 144.
  4. ^ Haywood 1998, p. 3.2.
  5. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 21.
  6. ^ a b van Schaik 2011, p. 6.
  7. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 22.
  8. ^ a b Beckwith 1987, p. 23.
  9. ^ van Schaik 2011, p. 7.
  10. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 24.
  11. ^ Xiong 2009, p. cix.
  12. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 25.
  13. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 26.
  14. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 27.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Bregel 2003, p. 17.
  16. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 30.
  17. ^ Wang 2013, p. 146.
  18. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 32.
  19. ^ Xiong 2009, p. cx.
  20. ^ a b c Graff 2002, p. 206.
  21. ^ Wang 2013, p. 147.
  22. ^ Wang 2013, p. 148.
  23. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 43.
  24. ^ a b Xiong 2008, p. 45.
  25. ^ Wang 2013, p. 149.
  26. ^ a b Wang 2013, p. 150.
  27. ^ Bregel 2003, p. 16.
  28. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 57.
  29. ^ a b Wang 2013, p. 151.
  30. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 61.
  31. ^ a b Beckwith 1987, p. 63.
  32. ^ a b Beckwith 1987, p. 64.
  33. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 67.
  34. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 69.
  35. ^ Wang 2013, p. 157-8.
  36. ^ Wang 2013, p. 155.
  37. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 76.
  38. ^ Wang 2013, p. 156-7.
  39. ^ a b c d Bregel 2003, p. 18.
  40. ^ Wang 2013, p. 157.
  41. ^ a b Bregel 2003, p. 19.
  42. ^ Wang 2013, p. 158.
  43. ^ a b Wang 2013, p. 159.
  44. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 96.
  45. ^ a b Wang 2013, p. 160.
  46. ^ a b Xiong 2009, p. cxi.
  47. ^ Wang 2013, p. 161.
  48. ^ Wang 2013, p. 164.
  49. ^ Yuan 2001, p. 6723.
  50. ^ a b Wang 2013, p. 165.
  51. ^ a b c Graff 2002, p. 213.
  52. ^ Wang 2013, p. 165-6.
  53. ^ a b c Wang 2013, p. 166.
  54. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 128.
  55. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 129.
  56. ^ a b c Xiong 2009, p. cxii.
  57. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 142.
  58. ^ Wang 2013, p. 167.
  59. ^ a b c d e Bregel 2003, p. 21.
  60. ^ Wang 2013, p. 169.
  61. ^ a b c d e Beckwith 1987, p. 149.
  62. ^ 嚴武, retrieved 12 February 2017 
  63. ^ a b Beckwith 1987, p. 150.
  64. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 150-51.
  65. ^ Bregel 2003, p. 20.
  66. ^ a b Beckwith 1987, p. 151.
  67. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 152.
  68. ^ a b c Wang 2013, p. 183.
  69. ^ Wang 2013, p. 182.
  70. ^ a b Beckwith 1987, p. 154.
  71. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 156.
  72. ^ dBa' bzhed: The Royal Narrative Concerning the Bringing of the Buddha's Doctrine to Tibet. Translation and Facsimile Edition of the Tibetan Text by Pasang Wangdu and Hildegard Diemberger. Verlag der Österreichischen Akadamie der Wissenschafen, Wien 2000. ISBN 3-7001-2956-4.
  73. ^ Tsepon W.D. Shakabpa Tibet: A Political History (1967), pp. 46–47. Yale University Press, New Haven and London.
  74. ^ Ancient Tibet: Research Materials from The Yeshe De Project, pp. 284, 290–291. Dharma Publishing, Berkeley, California. ISBN 0-89800-146-3
  75. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 157.
  76. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 163.
  77. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 163-4.
  78. ^ a b Beckwith 1987, p. 164.
  79. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 160.
  80. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 162.
  81. ^ Tsepon W.D. Shakabpa Tibet: A Political History (1967), pp. 46–47. Yale University Press, New Haven and London.
  82. ^ Ancient Tibet: Research Materials from The Yeshe De Project, pp. 284, 290–291. Dharma Publishing, Berkeley, California. ISBN 0-89800-146-3
  83. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 165.
  84. ^ Wang 2013, p. 185-6.
  85. ^ Wang 2013, p. 187.
  86. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 166.
  87. ^ Xiong 2009, p. cxiii.
  88. ^ Shakabpa, Tsepon W. D. (1967). Tibet: A Political History, p. 51. Yale University Press, New Haven & London.
  89. ^ a b Beckwith 1987, p. 168.
  90. ^ a b c Wang 2013, p. 188.
  91. ^ Rong 2013, p. 40.
  92. ^ Beckwith 1987, p. 171.
  93. ^ Wang 2013, p. 189.


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