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Timeline of the history of Gibraltar

The history of Gibraltar portrays how The Rock gained an importance and a reputation far exceeding its size and shaping the people who came to reside here over the centuries. Evidence of hominid inhabitation of the Rock dates back to the Neanderthals. A Neanderthal skull was discovered in Forbes' Quarry in 1848, prior to the "original" discovery in the Neander Valley. In 1926, the skull of a Neanderthal child was found in Devil's Tower. Mousterian deposits found at Gorham's Cave, which are associated with Neanderthals in Europe, have been dated to as as 28,000 to 24,000 BP, leading to suggestions that Gibraltar was one of the last places of Neanderthal habitation. Modern humans visited the Gibraltar area in prehistoric times after the Neanderthal occupancy. While the rest of Europe was cooling, the area around Gibraltar back resembled a European Serengeti. Leopards, lynxes and bears lived among wild cattle, deer, ibexes and rhinos – all surrounded by olive trees and stone pines, with partridges and ducks overhead, tortoises in the underbrush and mussels and other shellfish in the waters.

Clive Finlayson, evolutionary biologist at the Gibraltar Museum said "this natural richness of wildlife and plants in the nearby sandy plains, shrublands, wetlands and coastline helped the Neanderthals to persist." Evidence at the cave shows the Neanderthals of Gibraltar used it as a shelter "for 100,000 years." Cro-Magnon man took over Gibraltar around 24,000 BCE. The Phoenicians are known to have visited the Rock circa 950 BC and named the Rock "Calpe"; the Carthaginians visited. However, neither group appears to have settled permanently. Plato refers to Gibraltar as one of the Pillars of Hercules along with Jebel Musa or Monte Hacho on the other side of the Strait; the Romans visited Gibraltar. Following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Gibraltar was occupied by the Vandals and the Goths kingdoms; the Vandals did not remain for long although the Visigoths remained on the Iberian peninsula from 414 to 711. The Gibraltar area and the rest of the South Iberian Peninsula was part of the Byzantine Empire during the second part of the 6th century reverting to the Visigoth Kingdom.

711 30 April – The Umayyad general Tariq ibn Ziyad, leading a Berber-dominated army, sailed across the Strait from Ceuta. He first failed. Upon his failure, he landed undetected at the southern point of the Rock from present-day Morocco in his quest for Spain, it was here. Coming from the Arabian words Gabal-Al-Tariq. Little was built during the first four centuries of Moorish control. 1160 – The Almohad Sultan Abd al-Mu'min ordered that a permanent settlement, including a castle, be built. It received the name of Medinat al-Fath. On completion of the works in the town, the Sultan crossed the Strait to inspect the works and stayed in Gibraltar for two months; the Tower of Homage of the castle remains standing today. 1231 – After the collapse of the Almohad Empire, Gibraltar was taken by Ibn Hud, Taifa emir of Murcia. 1237 – Following the death of Ibn Hud, his domains were handed over to Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar, the founder of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada. Therefore, Gibraltar changed hands again. 1274 – The second Nasrid king, Muhammed II al-Faqih, gave Gibraltar over to the Marinids, as payment for their help against the Christian kingdoms.

1309 – While the King Ferdinand IV of Castile laid siege on Algeciras, Alonso Pérez de Guzmán was sent to capture the town. This was the First Siege of Gibraltar; the Castilians took the Upper Rock from. The garrison surrendered after one month. Gibraltar had about 1,500 inhabitants. 1310 31 January – Gibraltar was granted its first Charter by the king Ferdinand IV of Castile. Being considered a high risk town, the charter included incentives to settle there such as the offering of freedom from justice to anyone who lived in Gibraltar for one year and one day; this fact marked the establishment of the Gibraltar council.1316 – Gibraltar was unsuccessfully besieged by the Nasrid caid Yahya. 1333 June – A Marinid army, led by Abd al-Malik, the son of Abul Hassan, the Marinid sultan, recovered Gibraltar, after a five-month siege. King Alfonso XI of Castile attempted to retake Gibraltar aided by the fleet of the Castilian Admiral Alonso Jofre Tenorio. A ditch was dug across the isthmus. While laying the siege, the king was attacked by a Nasrid army from Granada.

Therefore, the siege ended in a truce, allowing the Marinids to keep Gibraltar.1344 March – After the two-year Siege of Algeciras, Algeciras was taken over by the Castilian forces. Therefore, Gibraltar became the main Marinid port in the Iberian Peninsula. During the siege, Gibraltar played a key role as the supply base of the besieged. 1349 – Gibraltar was unsuccessfully besieged by the Castilian forces led by the king Alfonso XI. 1350 – The siege was resumed by Alfonso XI. It was again unsuccessful due to the arrival of the Black Death, which decimated the besiegers, causing the death of the king. 1369 – As the Civil War in Castile came to an end, with the murder of king Peter I by the pretender Henry, the Nasrid king of Granada, Muhammad V, former ally of Peter, took over Algeciras after the 3-day Siege of Algeciras. Ten years the city was razed out to the ground, its harbour made unusable; this fact increased again the importance of Gibraltar, yet in Marinid hands, i

Saint Arbogast

Saint Arbogast of Strassburg. 600s – 700 AD) was a 7th-century missionary in the Frankish Empire and an early Bishop of Strasbourg. Only little historical facts of his life can be stated with certainty, other than that he came to Francia, was appointed Bishop of Strasbourg and was venerated from the early medieval period as the saint who brought Christianity to the Alsace; because of this, the given name Arbogast became popular in the region. His origin is variously given as Aquitania. According to the vita, a 10th-century hagiographical account of his life, Arbogast found a warm friend in the Merovingian King Dagobert II of Austrasia, who reigned Austrasia 673-679. On Dagobert's accession, Arbogast was appointed Bishop of Strasbourg, was famed for sanctity and miracles. Still according to the vita, Arbogast brought back to life Dagobert's son, killed by a fall from his horse. Siegebert had been boar hunting with his father’s huntsmen in forests along the Ill River near Ebersheim, became separated from the others.

He encountered a boar, his startled horse reared, throwing him and trampling him while his foot was caught in his stirrup. His companions took him home, where he died the next day. King Dagobert summoned Arbogast, the holy man prayed to Saint Mary, mother of Jesus: as she had carried the life of the entire world, would she not intercede for the life of this one boy? Siegebert stood up in his burial shroud; when the king offered bishop Arbogast money in reward, he declined, suggesting instead that land be donated to build a cathedral at Strasbourg. According to the vita, he was buried outside of the city, he was buried either in the old Roman necropolis or on the side of Hangman's Hill, where a gallows was located and only malefactors were interred. The site of his burial was subsequently deemed suitable for a church, a chapel to was built in honor of St Michael. Arbogast is commemorated on 21 July. Arbogast appears on the coat of arms of Batzendorf. Webb, Alfred. "Arbogast". A Compendium of Irish Biography.

Dublin: M. H. Gill & son – via Wikisource. Ward, The German Legends of the Brothers Grimm, Vol. II, Institute for the Study of the Human Issues, legend 437. Grattan-Flood, William. "St. Arbogast." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 14 Apr. 2013 Media related to Saint Arbogast at Wikimedia Commons


Kleinkahl is a community in the Aschaffenburg district in the Regierungsbezirk of Lower Franconia in Bavaria, a member of the Verwaltungsgemeinschaft of Schöllkrippen. Kleinkahl has around 1,800 inhabitants. Kleinkahl lies in the region known as "Bavarian Lower Main" in the Mittelgebirge Spessart; the municipal territory is located at the northern border of the district of Aschaffenburg and at the border between Bavaria and Hesse. It lies in the valley of the river Kahl, a tributary of the Main. At Kleinkahl, the Kleine Kahl flows into the Kahl. Kleinkahl has eight Ortsteile: Edelbach, Kahlmühle, Großkahl, Glashütte, Großlaudenbach and Kleinlaudenbach; the community has the following five Gemarkungen: Edelbach, Großkahl, Großlaudenbach, Kleinlaudenbach. Kleinkahl borders on: Biebergemünd, the unincorporated areas Wiesener Forst and Schöllkrippener Forst, Schöllkrippen and Westerngrund. Part of the current municipal area lay within the Archbishopric of Mainz and in 1803, it was secularized; the rest lay within Krombach over which the Counts of Schönborn held sway and passed with mediatization in 1806 to the Principality of Aschaffenburg, with which it passed in 1814 to the Kingdom of Bavaria.

In the course of administrative reform in Bavaria, the current community came into being with the Gemeindeedikt of 1818. On 1 July 1972, the communities Kleinkahl, Großlaudenbach and Kleinlaudenbach were merged to form the new municipality Kleinkahl. On 1 January 1976, Edelbach became a part of Kleinkahl. Within the municipal area, there were 1,608 inhabitants in 1970, 1,582 in 1987 and 1,842 in 2000; the council is made up of 13 council members. The mayor is Angelika Krebs; the community's arms might be described thus: A pallet wavy per pallet wavy argent and azure, dexter gules a glass of the last, sinister a castle with three towers embattled gules. The parted wavy pallet refers to the community's geographical location of the river Kahl, which runs through the community. Since municipal reform in 1970 the community has been made up of five constituent communities and Kleinlaudenbach on the Kahl's left bank, Großkahl and Großlaudenbach on the Kahl's right bank. Edelbach lies somewhat farther away.

The river, which rises some two or three kilometres upstream, was in the Middle Ages a political boundary. The glass on the dexter side is a so-called Spechter and refers to the local glass production since the Middle Ages; the tinctures argent and gules are those of Electoral Mainz, to which the area belonged until 1803. The sinister side shows the arms borne by the family Ulner of Dieburg, an aristocratic family known to have been in the municipal area from the 15th to the 17th century; the Ulner coat of arms was incorporated into the community's arms not only for this family's history here, but rather to recall the Counts of Rieneck and Schönberg. The arms have been borne since 18 October 1985. Municipal tax revenue in 1999 amounted to € 674,000. According to official statistics, there were 160 workers on the social welfare contribution rolls working in producing businesses, in trade and transport 0. In other areas, 27 workers on the social welfare contribution rolls are employed, 667 such workers work from home.

There are two processing businesses. Three businesses are in construction, furthermore, in 1999, there were 28 agricultural operations with a working area of 563 ha, of which 162 ha was cropland and 399 ha was meadowland; as of 1999, Kleinkahl had a kindergarten with 75 places. Media related to Kleinkahl at Wikimedia Commons

Cecil Kimber

Cecil Kimber was a motor car designer, best known for his role in being the driving force behind The M. G. Car Company. Kimber was born in London on 12 April 1888 to a printing engineer and his wife Fanny. After attending Stockport Grammar School he joined his father's company and took an early interest in motorcycles, buying a Rex model, but after an accident on a friend's machine that damaged his right leg he took to cars and in 1913 bought a 10 hp Singer; this interest caused him to leave the family firm in 1914 and get a job with Sheffield-Simplex as assistant to the chief designer. During World War I he moved first to AC Cars and to component supplier EG Wrigley, he made a large personal financial investment in Wrigleys but he lost this when the company lost on a deal with Angus-Sanderson for whom he had styled their radiator. Wrigley had been a major supplier to Morris Motors Limited and was bought by W R Morris in 1923 and with the help of contacts, Kimber got a job in 1921 as Sales manager with Morris Garages a private company owned by Morris — he founded it in 1909 — and the Morris agency in Oxford.

While at Morris Garages he developed a range of special bodies for Morris cars, which were sold under the MG brand leading in 1928 to the founding of The M. G. Car Company specialising in the production of MG sports cars; the new company moved from Oxford to Abingdon in 1929 and Kimber became managing director in July 1930. The main shareholder remained William Morris himself and in 1935 he formally sold M. G. to Morris Motors which meant Kimber was no longer in sole control and had to take instructions from head office leading to him becoming disillusioned with his role. With the outbreak of World War II, car production stopped and at first M. G. was reduced to making basic items for the armed forces until Kimber obtained contract work on aircraft but this was done without first obtaining approval and he was asked to resign and left in 1941. He soon found other work first with coachbuilder Charlesworth and with specialist piston maker Specialloid, he was killed in the King's Cross railway accident on Sunday 4 February 1945, having boarded the 6:00 p.m. express to Leeds.

Shortly after leaving the station and entering Gasworks Tunnel, the locomotive's wheels started slipping on a newly replaced section of rail laid on the rising gradient. In the darkness, the driver failed to realise that the train was no longer moving forward and had started to roll back at a speed of some 6–7 mph; the signalman noticed this and attempted to avert a collision with another train in the station by switching the points to an empty platform but was too late. The rear carriage was derailed, rolled onto its side and was crushed against the steel support of the main signal gantry; the first-class compartment where Kimber had been sitting was demolished. Cecil Kimber married twice, first to Irene Hunt with whom he had two daughters and Jean, after Irene died in 1938 to Muriel Dewar, he was elected as President of the Automobile Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers

Irukandji jellyfish

Irukandji jellyfish are any of several similar venomous species of box jellyfish. With an adult size of about a cubic centimeter, they are both the smallest and one of the most venomous jellyfish in the world, they inhabit the northern marine waters of Australia. They are able to fire their stingers into their victim, causing symptoms collectively known as Irukandji syndrome. There are about 16 known species of Irukandji, of which Carukia barnesi, Malo kingi, Malo maxima, Malo filipina and Malo bella are the best-known; the symptoms of Irukandji syndrome were first documented by Hugo Flecker in 1952. They were named after the Irukandji people, whose country stretches along the coastal strip north of Cairns, Queensland; the first of these jellyfish, Carukia barnesi, was identified in 1964 by Jack Barnes. Australian toxinologist Jamie Seymour made a documentary about the jellyfish called'Killer Jellyfish'. In 2015, North Queensland researchers discovered evidence that Irukandji jellyfish hunt prey.

The Irukandji jellyfish exists in the northern waters of Australia. The southern extent of the Irukandji's range on Australia's eastern coast has been moving south. Irukandji jellyfish are small, with a bell about 5 millimetres to 25 millimetres wide and four long tentacles, which range in length from just a few centimetres up to 1 metre in length. Malo maxima mature irukandji have halo-like rings of tissue around their four tentacles, it is the mature Irukandji that are venomous. Apparent Malo maxima juveniles have been identified without the halo-rings, without gonads, have demonstrated far weaker toxicity in stinging researchers; the stingers are in clumps, appearing as rings of small red dots around the bell and along the tentacles. The Irukandji's small size and transparent body make it difficult to see in the water. Little is known about the life cycle and venom of Irukandji jellyfish; this is because they are small and fragile, requiring special handling and containment. Their venom is powerful.

They were erroneously blamed for killing 5 tourists during a 3-month period in Australia. In fact, no evidence exists to suggest that any of the five victims displayed two universal features of Irukandji syndrome: delayed onset and visible distress. Researchers conjecture that the venom possesses such potency to enable it to stun its prey, which consists of small and fast fish. Judging from statistics, it is believed that the Irukandji syndrome may be produced by several species of jellyfish, but only Carukia barnesi and Malo kingi have so far been proven to cause the condition. Unlike most jellyfish, which have stingers only on their tentacles, the Irukandji has stingers on its bell. Biologists have yet to discover the purpose of this unique characteristic; the hypothesis is that the feature enables the jellyfish to be more to catch its prey of small fish. Irukandji jellyfish have the ability to fire stingers from the tips of their tentacles and inject venom. Irukandji jellyfish's stings are so severe they can cause fatal brain hemorrhages and on average send 50-100 people to the hospital annually.

Robert Drewe describes the sting as "100 times as potent as that of a cobra and 1,000 times stronger than a tarantula's". Irukandji syndrome is produced by a small amount of venom and induces excruciating muscle cramps in the arms and legs, severe pain in the back and kidneys, a burning sensation of the skin and face, nausea, sweating, vomiting, an increase in heart rate and blood pressure, psychological phenomena such as the feeling of impending doom; the syndrome is in part caused by release of catecholamines. The venom contains a sodium channel modulator; the sting is moderately irritating. The symptoms last from hours to weeks, victims require hospitalisation. Contrary to belief, researchers from James Cook University and Cairns hospital in far north Queensland have found that vinegar promotes the discharge of jellyfish venom. "You can increase the venom load in your victim by 50 per cent," says Associate Professor Jamie Seymour from the Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine at the university.

"That's a big amount, that's enough to make the difference, we think, between someone surviving and somebody dying." However, other research indicates that while vinegar may increase the discharge from triggered stingers, it prevents untriggered stingers from discharging. Treatment is symptomatic, with antihistamines and anti-hypertensive drugs used to control inflammation and hypertension. Magnesium sulfate has been used to reduce pain and hypertension in Irukandji syndrome, although it has had no effect in other cases. Irukandji jellyfish are found near the coast, attracted by the warmer water, but blooms have been seen as far as five kilometres offshore; when properly treated, a single sting is not fatal, but two people in Australia are believed to have died from Irukandji stings in 2002 during a rash of incidents on Australia's northern coast attributed to these jellyfish—greatly increasing public awareness of I

The James Dean Story

The James Dean Story is a 1957 American documentary. Released two years after Dean's death, the Warner Bros. Pictures release chronicles his short life and career through black-and-white still photographs, interviews with the aunt and uncle who raised him, his paternal grandparents, a New York City cabdriver friend, the owner of his favorite Los Angeles restaurant, outtakes from East of Eden, footage of the opening night of Giant, Dean's ironic public service announcement for safe driving from Warner Bros. Presents. Martin Gabel's narration was written by Stewart Stern. A directing credit was shared by George W. George; the music accompanying The James Dean Story was conducted by Leith Stevens. The soundtrack album, Theme Music from "The James Dean Story", released by World Pacific Records in 1957, featured the jazz trumpeter, Chet Baker, the flutist and saxophonist, Bud Shank; the film is available on DVD. The James Dean Story on IMDb