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Timeline of thermodynamics

A timeline of events related to thermodynamics. 1650 – Otto von Guericke builds the first vacuum pump 1660 – Robert Boyle experimentally discovers Boyle's Law, relating the pressure and volume of a gas 1665 – Robert Hooke stated: "Heat being nothing else but a brisk and vehement agitation of the parts of a body." 1669 – J. J. Becher puts forward a theory of combustion involving combustible earth. 1676–1689 – Gottfried Leibniz develops the concept of vis viva, a limited version of the conservation of energy 1679 – Denis Papin designed a steam digester which inspired the development of the piston-and-cylinder steam engine. 1694–1734 – Georg Ernst Stahl names Becher's combustible earth as phlogiston and develops the theory 1698 – Thomas Savery patents an early steam engine 1702 – Guillaume Amontons introduces the concept of absolute zero, based on observations of gases 1738 – Daniel Bernoulli publishes Hydrodynamica, initiating the kinetic theory 1749 – Émilie du Châtelet, in her French translation and commentary on Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, derives the conservation of energy from the first principles of Newtonian mechanics.

1761 – Joseph Black discovers that ice absorbs heat without changing its temperature when melting 1772 – Black's student Daniel Rutherford discovers nitrogen, which he calls phlogisticated air, together they explain the results in terms of the phlogiston theory 1776 – John Smeaton publishes a paper on experiments related to power, work and kinetic energy, supporting the conservation of energy 1777 – Carl Wilhelm Scheele distinguishes heat transfer by thermal radiation from that by convection and conduction 1783 – Antoine Lavoisier discovers oxygen and develops an explanation for combustion. 1802 – Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac publishes Charles's law, discovered by Jacques Charles around 1787. Gay-Lussac formulates the law relating temperature with pressure 1804 – Sir John Leslie observes that a matte black surface radiates heat more than a polished surface, suggesting the importance of black-body radiation 1805 – William Hyde Wollaston defends the conservation of energy in On the Force of Percussion 1808 – John Dalton defends caloric theory in A New System of Chemistry and describes how it combines with matter gases.

He combined Boyle's Law, Charles's Law, Gay-Lussac's Law to produce a Combined Gas Law. PV/T = k 1841 – Julius Robert von Mayer, an amateur scientist, writes a paper on the conservation of energy, but his lack of academic training leads to its rejection 1842 – Mayer makes a connection between work and the human metabolism based on his observations of blood made while a ship's surgeon. PV = nRT 1846 – Karl-Hermann Knoblauch publishes De calore radiante disquisitiones experimentis quibusdam novis illustratae 1846 – Grove publishes an account of the general theory of the conservation of energy in On The Correlation of Physical Forces 1847 – Hermann von Helmholtz publishes a definitive statement of the conservation of energy, the first law of thermodynamics 1848 – William Thomson extends the concept of absolute zero from gases to all substances 1849 – William John Macquorn Ra

Linda Sällström

Linda Charlotta Sällström is a Finnish international footballer. She plays for French club Paris FC in the Division 1 Féminine and the Finland women's national football team, she made her debut for the senior Finland team on 31 May 2007. Sällström missed the entire 2012 season with an anterior cruciate ligament injury, she re–injured the knee in March 2013 and was ruled out of contention for a place in Finland's UEFA Women's Euro 2013 squad. On 25 January 2014 Sällstrom injured her anterior cruciate ligament again, making it she would miss the 2014 season. In total Sällström has endured three ACL injuries in her career. Coming back from injury to finish as second highest goalscorer in the 2017–18 Damallsvenskan season. On 8 October 2019, Sällström scored four goals against Albania to become the all-time top scorer for Finland, surpassing Laura Österberg Kalmari. On 7 November 2019, Sällström played her 100th match against Cyprus. Linda Sällström Linköpings FC profile Linda Sällström – FIFA competition record Linda Sällström at SvFF Linda Sällström on Twitter Player's profile at Football Association of Finland

Steven Saunders

Steven Saunders is a Scottish professional footballer who plays as a defender for Partick Thistle. Saunders has played for Motherwell, Ross County, The New Saints and Livingston, has represented Scotland. Saunders started his career with Motherwell, he made his debut as a substitute in a Scottish Premier League match against Aberdeen on 29 November 2008. After the match, manager Mark McGhee said. Saunders started the following two games against Kilmarnock and Hamilton Academical, playing at right back, he was again praised by McGhee for his performance in the first of those games. In the 2009–10 season, under new manager Jim Gannon, Saunders has established himself as a regular starter in his preferred position of centre back, he scored his first goal for the club on Saturday 24 April 2010 against Hearts. Under Gannon's successor, Craig Brown, Saunders became a regular starter at right back. On 10 August 2011, whilst playing for the Scotland under-21s, Saunders suffered an achilles tendon injury that ruled him out for most of the 2011–12 season.

On 8 April 2012, Saunders made his first-team comeback as a late substitute in a 1–1 draw against Hibernian. Saunders was released by Motherwell at the end of the 2012–13 season, after another lengthy injury lay-off restricted him to just one further appearance. On 8 July 2013, Saunders signed a one-year deal with Ross County, he made his debut for the club on 3 August 2013, in a 2–1 defeat against Celtic in the opening game of the 2013–14 season. On 17 November 2013, he scored his first Ross County goal against St Mirren, but he was sent off in the match. Saunders signed a new one-year contract with Ross County on 19 May 2014, he was one of 14 players released by the club at the end of the season. After being released by Ross County, Saunders signed a short-term contract with Scottish Championship side Dumbarton in September 2015, he scored his first two goals for the club within two minutes of each other in a 3–3 draw with Raith on 21 November 2015. He extended his deal until the end of the season in January 2016.

Saunders signed a two-year deal with The New Saints on 8 June 2016, alongside Sons' teammate Jon Routledge. He left the club in May 2018. On 31 May 2018, Saunders signed a two-year deal with Livingston, he only made five appearances for Livingston before departing in January 2019. Saunders signed an 18-month contract with Partick Thistle in January 2019, he scored his first goal for Thistle in a 4–1 victory against Stranraer in the 2018–19 Scottish Cup. On 15 November 2010, Saunders was called up to the Scotland Squad for the first time, made his debut the following evening in a 3–0 win over the Faroe Islands, replacing Phil Bardsley at right back in the 70th minute; as of 07:51, 6 June 2018 The New Saints Welsh Premier League: 2016–17, 2017–18 Welsh League Cup: 2016–17, 2017–18Individual Welsh Premier League Team of the Year: 2016–17 Steven Saunders at Soccerbase

Clay High School (Portsmouth, Ohio)

Clay Junior-Senior High School is a public high school in Clay Township, United States, located four miles north of the Portsmouth in Scioto County. It is the only high school in the Clay Local School District. Clay is a rural high school serving about 300 students in grades 7-12 in Southern Ohio; the first class graduated in 1940. Clay High School is now part of one building serving students in PK-12; the old high school building was one of three buildings used in the district from 1956 to 2010. Rubyville Elementary School, on Maple Benner Road at the intersection of State Route 139, Rosemount Primary School, on Rose Valley Road just off Rosemount Road in Rosemount, were the other two buildings; the enrollment for Clay Junior-Senior High School, grades 7-12, is 300 with 190 students in grades nine through twelve. The school's mascot is the black panther while the school colors are royal gold. Ninety-six percent of the students that attend the school are white; the other four percent are Hispanic, African American, Asian, or American Indian.

The district covers 22.12 square miles. There are twenty-two full-time faculty members serving the 300 students; the athletes complete in the small division in every Ohio High School Athletic Association sport. The school competes with ten sports teams at the high school level and three at the junior high level; the school belongs to the OHSAA and to the Southern Ohio Conference - Division I. The district received communication from the Ohio School Facilities Commission on May 3, 2007, that the district had been approved for the state funds. After new Ohio legislation allowing the district to proceed, a bond issue was placed on the March 2008 ballot to build a new preK-12 facility; the ballot issue passed and the district began building a new facility. The actual groundbreaking was in the Spring of 2009; the Clay Local School District was created in 1940 to serve the residents of Clay Township and the individual communities of Eden Park, Rosemount and Twin Valley. For those students who desired to go on to high school before the opening of the high school in 1940, the board of education provided their tuition to Glenwood High School or to Portsmouth High School.

When the school was built in 1940 "there were buses to transport students to and from school, but there was no cafeteria, students brought their lunches." The first graduating class in 1940 was nicknamed the "Dirty Dozen" because there were twelve students who walked across the stage for the first time as Clay graduates. The district began with four buildings - three elementary schools. There were two buildings in Rubyville - the Rubyville Elementary building, which served as the high school from 1940–1956, an elementary building, now a local church; the district had an elementary building in Eden Park, which still stands but is no longer used by the district, one in Rosemount, located on the current site of JW Village Market. In 1956, the Rubyville building became the elementary building. With a bond issue to raise $325,000 a new high school building, which opened its doors on February 1, 1956, was built on Clay High Street. Mr. Carl Bandy was the Executive Head of the Clay Local School District when the high school was built in 1955.

At that time, the enrollment of the district was 719. One year it was 915. During the period of peak employment at the Atomic Plant in Piketon, the enrollment was 1100. A new elementary building was built in Rosemount; the district no longer uses these three buildings. At the time the Rosemount building was constructed in 1964, a band room and a junior high wing were added to the high school. In 1998 an additional "wing" was built on to the high school structure. Additional upgrades and renovations have occurred to all three buildings over the years including improvements to the high school gym, new science laboratories, renovations to all the restroom facilities, new roofs, air conditioning for all three buildings; the enrollment for the district is 717. Clay Junior-Senior High School is located in the rolling hills of Southern Ohio just north of the Ohio River near Portsmouth; the building and grounds are located on Clay High Street just off U. S. Route 23 and Lochner Road in Rosemount, nestled in a rural, community area of apartments, small businesses and farmland.

The campus consists of several acres in which PK-12 building and several athletic fields are located. The old Clay Jr.-Sr. High School building was shaped somewhat as an "E" from an aerial view. In the middle of the vertical arm was the main entrance, which faced west toward U. S. Route 23; the industrial arts and drafting rooms were located in the top wing while the lower arm housed additional academic classrooms. The middle wing consisted of the cafeteria, band room, health facility, the "new junior high" wing. There were twenty-seven academic classrooms in the Clay High School building including three computer labs, an industrial arts shop and drafting room, a chemistry/physics lab, a biology lab, a home economics lab; the district's superintendent and treasurer have offices in the building. The CHS softball field is located on the grounds of the former Rubyville Elementary building; the school has new tennis courts located on Rose Valley Roa

Johanna Keimeyer

Johanna Keimeyer is a German artist. Keimeyer grew up in Ueberlingen on Lake Constance. After finishing high school, she completed an apprenticeship as a carpenter at the wood working school of technology in Stuttgart-Feuerbach and as an upholsterer with Vitra AG in Weil am Rhein and Birsfelden in Switzerland, she completed her education at Berlin University of the Arts, where she studied Product and Fashion Design and at Tama Art University in Tokyo, where she studied Product Design. Keimeyer studied Digital Media at the Rhode Island School of Design and at the MIT Media Lab in Boston, Massachusetts. From 2006 to 2011 Keimeyer worked principally with lamps, she received international attention by designing light fixtures from recycled materials collected from throughout Europe. During this period she attended a workshop with Brazilian furniture designers Humberto and Fernando Campana. Keimeyer was commissioned by Alexander von Vegesack to create the lamp Trashure 2. Vegesack included the lamp in his private collection and presented it in the exhibition Adventure with Objects, which took place in Pinacoteca Giovanni e Marella Agnelli in Turin, Italy.

The Italian TV station RAI Uno reported on the exhibition and subsequently Keimeyer's upcycled lamps were featured in a show about Berlin's creatives. In 2012, Keimeyer staged her master thesis at Berlin University of the Arts, entitled Everything is Illusion. Between 2008 and 2013, she created an underwater photographic series called Pool Around Me, realized with the support of Martin Nicholas Kunz. Photographer Ed Ruscha photographed private pools in a similar series to show the uniformity of the pools and of the people. Keimeyer, on the other hand, shows bodies in hotel pools and, in contrast to Ruscha, places people back in the foreground. In 2016, Keimeyer staged a dance performance with five dancers and a light show during the re-opening of the Berlin Oderberger Stadtbad, a historic public bath restored into a hotel; the elaborate performance received wide media coverage. Photos from Pool Around Me were used to furnish the hotel rooms at Oderberger Stadtbad. In 2017 she realized the installation "Breath ing Heart" as part of the official program of Art Basel.

For this she created an enormous passable heart. 2009 International Design Award, first rank, category: Student, Product Design, Lighting 2010 Faces of Design Award, Best Online Portfolio 2008: participation on „Adventure with Objects“ in Pinacoteca Agnelli, Italy 2010: participation on „Kunstforum Brandenburg“, Germany 2011: participation on „Songs of the Sea“, National Glass Centre, Sunderland, UK 2011: participation on „Luminous Times – Sustainable Architecture“, France, in cooperation with Vitra Design Museum and the Centre Pompidou, France 2011: Audiovisuelle Installation, Bikini Showroom, Germany 2011: participation on „DMY international design festival“, Germany 2011: participation on „Young Design in Berlin“, Gallery Alte Schule, Germany 2014: participation on „Festival of Lights NYC“, im Manhattan Bridge Anchorage, Brooklyn, USA 2015: participation on Gallery Weekend Berlin, Fotoausstellung im Kino International, Germany 2014 „Everything is illusion“ video-projection, Manhattan Bridge Anchorage, Brooklyn 2015 „Space and Community“ performance with Jonah Bokaer and Stavros Gasparatos, France 2016 „A New Dawn“ installation in the historic swimming hall, Hotel Oderberger, Germany 2017 „BREATHingHEART“ installation, part of the official program of Art Basel, Switzerland Alles ist erleuchtet, Sie macht aus Abfall Kunst, Johanna Keimeyer entwirft „Sustainable Design“, Welt-Kompakt, Nr.

252, 27. 12. 2010, p. 24 f. Ein Haus der Ideen bauen, in: Art Magazin, Nr. 2, February 2007, pp. 126 – 129. Johanna Keimeyer, „treat garbage like gold“, in: Ares Kalandides, Berlin Design, Braun Publishing, Berlin 2009, p. 196 f. und p. 229. ISBN 978-3-03768-014-8 Johanna Keimeyer, Recycle Lights, in: Henrietta Thompson, Reinventa, la tua casa, Mailand 2013, p. 119. ISBN 978-88-370-9037-1 New Glass Review 30, The Corning Museum of Glass, New York 2009, p. 26. ISBN 978-0-87290-173-5 On existential collecting, in: Adventures with objects, La collezione Alexander von Vegesack, Mailand 2008, p. II/13. ISBN 978-88-370-6086-2 Joerg Suermann,Weissensee Kunsthochschule Berlin, copy culture, International Design Festival Berlin, Berlin 2011, p. 182 f. ISBN 978-3-9812813-5-4 Official website


Eshabwe is a class of clarified butter that originated in Ankole and is used as condiment. Eshabwe known as ghee sauce, is a traditional dish prepared in Ankole; the dish is prepared for special ceremonies or occasions. In the traditional marriage ceremonies of the Ankole community, four people taste the dish, the groom and his father and the paternal aunt and maternal uncle of the bride. Eshabwe was served in an orwabya. Traditionally, it was made by old women in a room where they had to be silent because it was the believed that talking would make the eshabwe turn out poor. However, this has changed and eshabwe is served like any other dish to everyone. Eshabwe is served as a condiment with the main course meal e.g. karo, matooke and others. Ghee Rock salt Cold water Salt Initially ghee is washed clean in cold water. A mixture of rock salt and water is added to the ghee; the mixture is stirred until the ghee changes from yellow to white in color. While adding cold boiled water, which has salt dissolved in it.

The formed eshabwe is stirred. After the eshabwe is formed, it is sieved to remove impurities. Eshabwe is served with any main course meal e.g. millet bread, sweet potatoes etc. Clarified butter Schmaltz Ghee Media related to Eshabwe at Wikimedia Commons Eshabwe at Wikibook Cookbooks