U.S. National Geodetic Survey
"United States Coast Survey" and "United States Coast and Geodetic Survey" redirect here. They are former scientific agencies of the United States government which should not be confused with the United States Coast Guard, a seagoing U. S. government law enforcement and safety agency, the modern Coast Survey, a U. S. government agency that makes nautical charts, or the United States Geological Survey, a U. S. government agency that studies earth science and makes topographical maps. The National Geodetic Survey the United States Survey of the Coast, United States Coast Survey, United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, is a United States federal agency that defines and manages a national coordinate system, providing the foundation for transportation and communication. Since its foundation in its present form in 1970, it has been part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, of the United States Department of Commerce; the National Geodetic Survey's history and heritage are intertwined with those of other NOAA offices.
As the U. S. Coast Survey and U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, the agency operated a fleet of survey ships, from 1917 the Coast and Geodetic Survey was one of the uniformed services of the United States with its own corps of commissioned officers. Upon the creation of the Environmental Science Services Administration in 1965, the commissioned corps was separated from the Survey to become the Environmental Science Services Administration Corps. Upon the creation of NOAA in 1970, the ESSA Corps became the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps. Thus, the National Geodetic Survey's ancestor organizations are the ancestors of today's NOAA Corps and Office of Coast Survey and are among the ancestors of today's NOAA fleet. In addition, today's National Institute of Standards and Technology, although long since separated from the Survey, got its start as the Survey's Office of Weights and Measures; the National Geodetic Survey is an office of NOAA's National Ocean Service.
Its core function is to maintain the National Spatial Reference System, "a consistent coordinate system that defines latitude, height, scale and orientation throughout the United States." NGS is responsible for defining the NSRS and its relationship with the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. The NSRS enables precise and accessible knowledge of where things are in the United States and its territories; the NSRS may be divided into its geometric and physical components. The official geodetic datum of the United States, NAD83 defines the geometric relationship between points within the United States in three-dimensional space; the datum may be accessed via NGS's network of survey marks or through the Continuously Operating Reference Station network of GPS reference antennas. NGS is responsible for computing the relationship between NAD83 and the ITRF; the physical components of the NSRS are reflected in its height system, defined by the vertical datum NAVD88. This datum is a network of orthometric heights obtained through spirit leveling.
Because of the close relationship between height and Earth's gravity field, NGS collects and curates terrestrial gravity measurements and develops regional models of the geoid and its slope, the deflection of the vertical. NGS is responsible for ensuring the accuracy of the NSRS over time as the North American plate rotates and deforms over time due to crustal strain, post-glacial rebound, elastic deformation of the crust, other geophysical phenomena. NGS will release new datums in 2022; the North American Terrestrial Reference Frame of 2022 will supersede NAD83 in defining the geometric relationship between the North American plate and the ITRF. United States territories on the Pacific and Mariana plates will have their own respective geodetic datums; the North American-Pacific Geopotential Datum of 2022 will separately define the height system of the United States and its territories, replacing NAVD88. It will use a geoid model accurate to 1 centimeter to relate orthometric height to ellipsoidal height measured by GPS, eliminating the need for future leveling projects.
This geoid model will be based on airborne and terrestrial gravity measurements collected by NGS's GRAV-D program as well as satellite-based gravity models derived from observations collected by GRACE, GOCE, satellite altimetry missions. NGS provides a number of other public services, it maps changing shorelines in the United States and provides aerial imagery of regions affected by natural disasters, enabling rapid damage assessment by emergency managers and members of the public. The Online Positioning and User Service processes user-input GPS data and outputs position solutions within the NSRS; the agency offers other tools for conversion between datums. The original predecessor agency of the National Geodetic Survey was the United States Survey of the Coast, created within the United States Department of the Treasury by an Act of Congress on February 10, 1807, to conduct a "Survey of the Coast." The Survey of the Coast, the United States government's first scientific agency, represented the interest of the administration of President Thomas Jefferson in science and the stimulation of international trade by using scientific surveying methods to chart t
Price County, Wisconsin
Price County is a county in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,159, its county seat is Phillips. Price County was created on March 3, 1879, when Wisconsin Governor William E. Smith signed legislation creating the county; the county was organized in 1882. William T. Price, for whom Price County was named, was President of Wisconsin Senate and an early logger in Price County. S. Congress; the county was formed from portions of Lincoln counties. The first white settler in what is now Price County was Major Isaac Stone, who located on the Spirit River in 1860 to engage in lumbering. Price County continues today to be a large producer of raw timber. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,278 square miles, of which 1,254 square miles is land and 24 square miles is water; the highest natural point in Wisconsin, Timms Hill at 1,951 feet, is located in Price County. KPBH - Price County Airport KPKF - Park Falls Municipal Airport 5N2 - Prentice Airport Chequamegon National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 15,822 people, 6,564 households, 4,417 families residing in the county.
The population density was 13 people per square mile. There were 9,574 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.22% White, 0.10% Black or African American, 0.60% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.15% from other races, 0.60% from two or more races. 0.73% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 44.4% were of German, 6.5% Norwegian, 5.9% Swedish, 5.4% Polish, 5.2% Irish and 5.0% Czech ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 6,564 households out of which 28.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.50% were married couples living together, 6.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.70% were non-families. 28.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.80% under the age of 18, 5.80% from 18 to 24, 25.80% from 25 to 44, 25.70% from 45 to 64, 18.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 101.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.00 males. Park Falls Phillips Catawba Kennan Prentice Ogema Coolidge Kaiser Kennedy Knox Mills National Register of Historic Places listings in Price County, Wisconsin Price County Price County map at Wisconsin Department of Transportation Price County Historical Society
Boundary Peak (Nevada)
Boundary Peak is a mountain in Esmeralda County, United States. With a peak elevation of 13,147 feet, it is the highest natural point in the state of Nevada. Boundary Peak is the northernmost peak of 13,000 feet or greater elevation within the White Mountains; the summit is located in Esmeralda County of southwestern Nevada, is within the Boundary Peak Wilderness of the Inyo National Forest. It is less than half a mile from the California state line, how it derived its name. While it is the highest point in Nevada, the taller Montgomery Peak is less than a mile away, across the state line in California. By most definitions Boundary Peak, which has a prominence of only 253 feet, is considered to be a sub-peak of Montgomery Peak. Boundary Peak is only 82 feet taller than Wheeler Peak, located in Great Basin National Park, White Pine County in eastern Nevada. By most definitions, Wheeler Peak is the tallest independent mountain within Nevada; this peak is most climbed from the Nevada side. From there, a climber may scramble the ridge connecting to Montgomery Peak.
It is recommended that the U. S. Forest Service be contacted. Geography portal Nevada portal Mountains portal List of highest points in Nevada by county List of U. S. states by elevation "Boundary Peak". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2008-11-21. Inyo National Forest: Boundary Peak Wilderness Area
Hawkeye Point is the highest natural point in Iowa at 1,670 feet. It is 4.5 miles north of Sibley on the eastern side of SR 60 and 3.5 miles south of the Iowa-Minnesota state border. The high ground lies 100 feet due south of an old silo; the land that includes the highpoint was donated by the Sterler family, who worked this land for many decades, to Osceola County with the stipulation that the land be turned into a park. Osceola County, through its Economic Development Commission and Hawkeye Point Committee, has removed a few structures that were deemed to be hazardous to public safety including the old hog feed bunker at the highpoint site and a few small barns, they have erected an informational kiosk which highlights the family and the county and features a display of license plates from the 50 states sent in over the years to the Sterlers. The county purchased 6 acres of surrounding land including the old family farm house, being used as office space for the county. There are a flagpole, picnic bench, tile mosaic, several granite markers, five tall posts with signs pointing to the other 49 state highpoints, each with the correct distance noted.
The local 4-H group and high school youths contributed a great deal to this effort. The Hawkeye Point Commission recently purchased a wooded plot of land of about 7 acres on the north side of the county road abutting the property with the intent to turn it into a campground; the Highpointers Foundation, a non-profit charity set up to benefit owned state highpoints, has provided much of the funding for the renovations at Hawkeye Point. Outline of Iowa Index of Iowa-related articles List of U. S. states by elevation "Hawkeye Point". SummitPost.org. Highpointers Foundation
Mount Whitney is the tallest mountain in California, as well as the highest summit in the contiguous United States and the Sierra Nevada—with an elevation of 14,505 feet. It is in Central California, on the boundary between California's Inyo and Tulare counties, 84.6 miles west-northwest of the lowest point in North America at Badwater Basin in Death Valley National Park at 282 ft below sea level. The west slope of the mountain is in Sequoia National Park and the summit is the southern terminus of the John Muir Trail which runs 211.9 mi from Happy Isles in Yosemite Valley. The east slope is in the Inyo National Forest in Inyo County; the summit of Mount Whitney is on the Great Basin Divide. It lies near many of the highest peaks of the Sierra Nevada; the peak rises above the Owens Valley, sitting 10,778 feet or just over two miles above the town of Lone Pine 15 miles to the east, in the Owens Valley. It rises more on the west side, lying only about 3,000 feet above the John Muir Trail at Guitar Lake.
The mountain is dome-shaped, with its famously jagged ridges extending to the sides. Mount Whitney has an alpine climate and ecology. Few plants grow near the summit: one example is the sky pilot, a cushion plant that grows low to the ground; the only animals are transient, such as the butterfly Parnassius phoebus and the gray-crowned rosy finch. The mountain is the highest point on the Great Basin Divide. Waterways on the west side of the peak flow into Whitney Creek; the Kern River terminates in the Tulare Basin. During wet years, water overflows from the Tulare Basin into the San Joaquin River which flows to the Pacific Ocean. From the east, water from Mount Whitney flows to Lone Pine Creek, which joins the Owens River, which in turn terminates at Owens Lake, an endorheic lake of the Great Basin; the estimated elevation of the summit of Mount Whitney has changed over the years. The technology of elevation measurement has become more refined and, more the vertical coordinate system has changed.
The peak was said to be at 14,494 ft and this is the elevation stamped on the USGS brass benchmark disk on the summit. An older plaque on the summit reads "elevation 14,496.811 feet" but this was estimated using the older vertical datum from 1929. Since the shape of the Earth has been estimated more accurately. Using a new vertical datum established in 1988 the benchmark is now estimated to be at 14,505 ft; the eastern slope of Whitney is far steeper than its western slope because the entire Sierra Nevada is the result of a fault-block, analogous to a cellar door: the door is hinged on the west and is rising on the east. The rise is caused by a normal fault system that runs along the eastern base of the Sierra, below Mount Whitney. Thus, the granite that forms Mount Whitney is the same as the granite that forms the Alabama Hills, thousands of feet lower down; the raising of Whitney is due to the same geological forces that cause the Basin and Range Province: the crust of much of the intermontane west is being stretched.
The granite that forms Mount Whitney is part of the Sierra Nevada batholith. In Cretaceous time, masses of molten rock that originated from subduction rose underneath what is now Whitney and solidified underground to form large expanses of granite. In the last 2 to 10 million years, the Sierra was pushed up which enabled glacial and river erosion to strip the upper layers of rock to reveal the resistant granite that makes up Mount Whitney today. In July 1864, the members of the California Geological Survey named the peak after Josiah Whitney, the State Geologist of California and benefactor of the survey. During the same expedition, geologist Clarence King attempted to climb Whitney from its west side, but stopped just short. In 1871, King returned to climb what he believed to be Whitney, but having taken a different approach, he summited nearby Mount Langley. Upon learning of his mistake in 1873, King completed his own first ascent of Whitney, but did so a month too late to claim the first recorded ascent.
Just a month earlier, on August 18, 1873, Charles Begole, A. H. Johnson, John Lucas, all of nearby Lone Pine, had become the first to reach the highest summit in the contiguous United States; as they climbed the mountain during a fishing trip to nearby Kern Canyon, they called the mountain Fisherman's Peak. In 1881 Samuel Pierpont Langley, founder of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory remained for some time on the summit, making daily observations on the solar heat. Accompanying Langley in 1881 was another party consisting of Judge William B. Wallace of Visalia, W. A. Wright and Reverend Frederick Wales. Wallace wrote in his memoirs that "The Pi Ute Indians called Mt. Whitney "Too-man-i-goo-yah," which means "the old man." They believe that the Great Spirit who presides over the destiny of their people once had his home in that mountain." The spelling Too-man-i-goo-yah is a transliteration from the indigenous Paiute Mono language. Other variations are Tumanguya. In 1891, the United States Geological Survey's Board on Geographic Names decided to recognize the earlier name Mount Whitney.
Despite losing out on their preferred name, residents of Lone Pine financed the first trail to the summit, engineered by Gustave Marsh, completed on July 22, 1904. Just four days the new trail enabled the first recorded death on Whitney. Having hiked the trail, U. S. Bureau of Fisheries employee Byrd Surby was struck and killed by lightning while eating lunch
Taum Sauk Mountain
Taum Sauk Mountain in the Saint Francois Mountains is the highest natural point in the U. S. state of Missouri at 1,772 feet. The topography of Taum Sauk is that of an elongated ridge with a NNW-SSE orientation rather than a peak. While low in terms of elevation at 1,772 feet compared to other peaks, Taum Sauk and the St. Francois range are true mountains, being the result of a volcanic orogeny. Whereas vertical relief in the rest of the Ozarks region is the result of erosion of sedimentary strata, the St. Francois are an ancient Precambrian igneous uplift several times older than the Appalachians. Geologists believe that Taum Sauk and its neighbors may be among the few areas in the US never to have been submerged in ancient seas; the peaks of the St. Francois range existed as islands in the shallow seaway throughout most of the Paleozoic Era as the sandstones and shales typical of the Ozarks were deposited. Weathering and erosion of these ancient peaks provided the clastic sediments of the surrounding rock layers.
Taum Sauk is said to be named for a Piankeshaw chief named Sauk-Ton-Qua. Though Taum Sauk Mountain is the highest mountain in Missouri, it is not the most prominent. Taum Sauk rises 522 feet from an elevated base. Mudlick Mountain rises 693 feet from a lower base to an elevation of 1,313 feet. Black Mountain, in Madison County, has the highest rise in elevation in Missouri. From its base, along the St. Francis River to its summit, Black Mountain rises just under 1,000 feet in elevation from the valley below. In 1991 Missouri created Taum Sauk Mountain State Park, a 7,448-acre state park on the mountain: it has a rustic campground, a paved trail to the highpoint marked by a polished granite plaque, a lookout tower from which a good view can be had. Taum Sauk State Park is in a common jurisdiction with nearby Johnson's Shut-ins State Park, together they comprise the second largest state park in Missouri with a total area of 15,961.5 acres. These parks and the adjacent Bell Mountain Wilderness Area make up part of a large wilderness area, popular with hikers and backpackers.
The 33-mile Taum Sauk section of the Ozark Trail is considered by the Ozark Trail Association to be one of the finest trails in Missouri. Mina Sauk Falls, the highest waterfall in Missouri, is on Taum Sauk and can be visited by hiking a rugged trail that makes a 3-mile loop from the highpoint parking area; these falls have water cascading over them only during times of wet weather. At other times they are reduced to a trickle or less; the Taum Sauk pumped storage plant, which failed on December 14, 2005 sending a flash flood 20 feet deep down the Black River, is not on Taum Sauk Mountain. It is on Proffit Mountain, about five miles southwest. List of mountain peaks of Missouri List of U. S. states by elevation "Taum Sauk Mountain". SummitPost.org
Wheeler Peak (New Mexico)
Wheeler Peak is the highest natural point in the U. S. state of New Mexico. It is located northeast of Taos and south of Red River in the northern part of the state, just 2 miles southeast of the ski slopes of Taos Ski Valley, it lies in the southernmost subrange of the Rocky Mountains. The peak's elevation is 13,167 feet. Named Taos Peak, after the nearby town of Taos, New Mexico, it was renamed Wheeler Peak in 1950. A plaque at the summit states that the mountain was: Named in honor of Major George Montague Wheeler who for ten years led a party of surveyors and naturalists collecting geologic, biologic and topographic data in New Mexico and six other southwestern states. Just north of Wheeler Peak is Mount Walter. At 13,141 feet it is the second highest named summit in New Mexico, but it is not considered an independent peak as it has only about 53 feet of topographic prominence, it is sometimes mistaken for Wheeler Peak. Lake Fork Peak at 12,881 feet lies just to the west of Wheeler Mountain.
Taos Ski Valley lies to the northwest of Wheeler Peak, while both the town of Taos and Taos Pueblo are about 15 miles to the southwest. Wheeler Peak is the focus of the 19,661-acre Wheeler Peak Wilderness area in the Carson National Forest. Much of the mountain area just south of the peak is on Taos Pueblo land; some 48,000 acres was returned to the pueblo from the Carson National Forest in 1970 and another 764 acres in 1996. The standard route on Wheeler Peak is along the north ridge; the route starts at the parking lot for Taos Ski Valley, proceeds east along an old road to a broad saddle at Bull-of-the-Woods Meadow. It turns south and winds its way among minor peaks and small valleys to gain Wheeler Peak from the north, going over the summit of Mount Walter along the way; this is a practical route in winter, due to low avalanche exposure. An alternate route is to hike south from Taos Ski Valley to Williams Lake take a newly constructed switchback trail to the top; this trail was completed in 2011 by a Forest Service trail crew from the Gallatin National Forest, 8 people working 12 hours per day, building 4 miles of new trail with hand tools to the top in 14 days.
Another alternate route is to begin from the nearby ski resort of Red River. From the town of Red River drive 6.4 miles south on NM 578 1.3 miles on FR 58 to the trailhead parking area. From the parking area Wheeler peak is about 7 miles on Forest Trail 91; this route passes Lost Lake and Horseshoe Lake. Wheeler Peak has a summit. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of U. S. states by elevation "Wheeler Peak". SummitPost.org. "Wheeler Peak Wilderness". U. S. Forest Service