Zebra Force is a 1976 American film directed by Joe Tornatore. The film is about a group of Vietnam War veterans who declare war on Los Angeles drug dealers and the Mafia; the film is known as Code Name: Zebra and Commando Zebra. A sequel by Joe Tornatore with Mike Lane named Code Name: Zebra followed in 1987; the film opens with a raid on an illegal casino performed by a group of blacks with automatic weapons. The audience discovers; the story moves to a Vietnam War flashbacks with a patrol being ambushed by the Vietcong, the resulting firefight. The leader of the vigilante veterans is a man known as the Lieutenant, their platoon leader and disfigured in the action. Recuperating in a hospital he regroups the survivors for a series of escalating raids to not only to enrich themselves, but to wipe out organised criminal gangs involved in illegal gambling and narcotics distribution; the main protagonist of the film is Carmine Longo, a Mafia enforcer sent to meet with local chief to discover who performed the action.
The two are assisted by a corrupt Los Angeles Police Department detective sergeant. Their suspicion falls on their only known suspects, a gang of drug dealing black criminals who deny their involvement. Longo schemes to eliminate them through their police contact who will set up a drug deal where they can be killed by the police. Zebra Force on IMDb Zebra Force is available for free download at the Internet Archive Zebra Force at Rotten Tomatoes Codename: Zebra at Rotten Tomatoes Zebra Force at AllMovie Code Name: Zebra at AllMovie Zebra Force at Letterboxd
NFL on CBS
The NFL on CBS is the branding used for broadcasts of National Football League games that are produced by CBS Sports, the sports division of the CBS television network in the United States. The network has aired NFL game telecasts since 1956. From 2014 to 2017, CBS broadcast Thursday Night Football games during the first half of the NFL season, through a production partnership with NFL Network. In August 1956, the DuMont Television Network, the NFL's primary television partner, ended network operations after years of decline. DuMont had sold the rights to the NFL Championship to NBC in 1955, when DuMont ended its regular season coverage, CBS acquired the rights. CBS' coverage began on September 1956, before the 1970 AFL -- NFL merger. Prior to 1968, CBS had an assigned crew for each NFL team; as a result, CBS became the first network to broadcast some NFL regular season games to selected television markets across the country. From 1970 until the end of the 1993 season, when Fox won the broadcast television contract to that particular conference, CBS aired NFL games from the National Football Conference.
Since 1975, game coverage has been preceded by pre-game show The NFL Today, which features game previews, extensive analysis and interviews. CBS's first attempts to broadcast the NFL on television were notable for there being no broadcasting contract with the league as a whole. Instead, CBS had to strike deals with individual teams to broadcast games into the teams' own markets, many of which CBS had purchased from the moribund DuMont Television Network; the games would be broadcast with "split audio" – that is, a game between two franchises would have the same picture in both teams' "networks". Each team's "network" had different announcers; the New York Giants in particular were carried on the DuMont network CBS in the early days of the NFL of the league's television broadcasts, when home games were blacked out within a 75-mile radius of New York City. Chris Schenkel was their play-by-play announcer in that early era when each team was assigned its own network voice on its regional telecasts.
At the time, there were few if any true national telecasts until the NFL championship game, carried by NBC. Schenkel was joined by Jim McKay Johnny Lujack through the 1950s and the early 1960s; as Giants players retired to the broadcast booth in the early and 1960s, first Pat Summerall Frank Gifford took the color analyst slot next to Schenkel. As the 1970 merger of the NFL and AFL approached, CBS moved to a more generic announcer approach while Schenkel left to join ABC Sports. From 1956 to 1959, the Baltimore Colts, Pittsburgh Steelers and Philadelphia Eagles only had their away games telecast on CBS; when these three played at home, there was no need for the usage of split audio. Instead, the away team's telecasts were produced in a simple singular audio-video feed. In 1959, 1960 and 1961, NBC had the rights to televise Steelers home games. While the game broadcasts were blacked out in those cities, they were available to other NBC-affiliated stations; the Chicago Bears and Chicago Cardinals only produced home telecasts for their vast network.
Because of this, if the Bears played the Colts in Baltimore or the Cardinals visited Forbes Field to play the Steelers during this period, it was that the games were not televised by CBS. Meanwhile, the Cleveland Browns had their own network, part of Sports Network Incorporated and Carling Beer. In 1961, then-CBS affiliate WISN-TV in Milwaukee opted not to carry that year's annual telecast of The Wizard of Oz, running a Green Bay Packers football game instead. In contrast to the infamous Heidi telecast in 1968, the popularity of The Wizard of Oz as an annual television event at that time was such that the station ran the movie locally at a date. On September 17, 1961, CBS Sports broadcast the first remote 15-minute pre-game show, the first of its kind on network sports television. In 1962, the NFL followed the American Football League's suit with its own revenue sharing plan after CBS agreed to telecast all regular season games for an annual fee of US$4.65 million. CBS acquired the rights to the championship games for 1964 and 1965 for $1.8 million per game, on April 17, 1964.
CBS executive vice president James T. Aubrey, Jr. who on May 9, 1963, warned the network's affiliates the high cost of rights for professional sports could price them off television in January 1964 agreed to pay $28.2 million to air National Football League games for two years, spanning 17 games each season. In an interview with The New York Times, Aubrey said regarding the package, "We know how much these games mean to the viewing audience, our affiliated stations, the nation's advertisers". Along with obtaining the aforementioned rights to the NFL Championship Game, in April 1964, he agreed to extend the deal for another year for a total of $31.8 million. On November 24, 1963, just two days after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, the NFL played its normal schedule of games. Commissioner Pete Rozelle said about playing the games: "It has been traditional in sports for athletes to perform in times of great personal tragedy. Football was Mr
Adam-12 is a television police procedural drama that follows Los Angeles Police Department officers Pete Malloy and Jim Reed as they ride the streets of Los Angeles in their patrol unit, 1-Adam-12. The series was created by Robert A. Cinader and Jack Webb, the latter of whom created Dragnet, it starred Martin Milner and Kent McCord and purported to realistically capture a typical day in the life of police officers. The show ran from September 21, 1968 through May 20, 1975 and helped to introduce police procedures and jargon to the general public in the United States. Adam-12 featured the year-old LAPD Rampart Division station at 2710 West Temple Street as the setting for the series. However, according to the radio call sign of the unit "1-Adam-12", the patrol area was within the Central Division, which serves Downtown Los Angeles, rather than Rampart. Many of the filming locations were in the San Fernando Valley, the garage used tow trucks from the North Hollywood Division, close to Universal Studios, which co-produced the show with Mark VII Limited.
The Temple Street building was closed in 2008, as a newer and larger station now houses the Rampart Division. The designation "1-Adam-12" is a combination of three elements; the first element indicates the unit's LAPD division. The second element indicates the type of unit; the third element identifies the patrol car's number. The one in 1-Adam-12 means the patrol car operates in Division 1. LAPD assigns two-person units the letter "A". In the LAPD phonetic alphabet, the letter "A" is spoken as "Adam"; the third element is the last two numbers of the patrol car's full unit number. In the program, 1-Adam-12 operated in the Rampart Division, Division 2, not the Central Division, Division 1, meaning the unit's call sign should have technically been 2-Adam-12. There was never an actual patrol car with the call sign of 1-Adam-12. Adam-12 was a realistic police drama which followed two officers of the Los Angeles Police Department: veteran Police Officer II Pete Malloy, Badge 744, his rookie partner, probationary Police Officer I Jim Reed, Badge 2430.
Each episode of the series was based on actual cases, with names changed to protect the innocent, covered a variety of incidents that the officers encountered during a shift, from the tragic to the trivial. The series' first episode was filmed in September 1967, a year, it was directed by Jack Webb. In episode 1, Reed is less than a week out of the prestigious Los Angeles Police Academy and is eager to begin his career. Three weeks earlier, Malloy's patrol partner and friend had been killed apprehending an armed robbery suspect. Watch commander Lieutenant Moore was Malloy's first training officer seven years earlier, he assigns Malloy to take Reed the rookie out for his first patrol on Malloy's final shift. Reed shows tremendous potential on his first night on the job, but Malloy realizes that his new partner has plenty to learn, the veteran officer decides to stay on the job and guide Reed during his nine-month probationary period. Reed's probationary period is played out during the first and second seasons, after which he is promoted to a full officer.
Reed and Malloy remain partners. In seasons and Reed began patrolling other beats of Los Angeles, including the Los Angeles International Airport, the Los Angeles Harbor, the Foothill District, the West Valley area, Van Nuys, Hollywood and North Hollywood. Several episodes featured the officers working with other rookie officers, with guest actors playing these one-time characters; some episodes had Reed serving as the training officer, whereas Malloy had been promoted to the rank of a Senior Lead Officer who coordinates patrols in many neighborhoods and works as the acting shift supervisor. Malloy displays a "Distinguished Expert" shooting medal, Reed displays a "Sharpshooter" medal. Malloy and Reed reported to Shift Supervisor William "Mac" MacDonald, who took a black-and-white command cruiser with the call sign 1-L-20 into the field. Reed once questioned why Malloy had not taken the sergeant's exam, as he would have rated higher than Mac did. Malloy related. Malloy showed he could supervise when Mac was ill, Malloy filled in.
Several of their fellow officers were recurring characters. Shaaron Claridge was a dispatcher for the LAPD in real life; the personal lives of Malloy and Reed were always tied in to their duties. Malloy is a bachelor who has at least two girlfriends during the course of the series, while Reed is married to a woman named Jean; the police vehicles were central characters in that "mobile patrol units associated with the black and white units made famous in such television shows as Adam-12". It was one of the shows that portrayed "the professionalism of the officers and police departments". Ronald Wayne Rodman pointed out that the theme of Adam-12 referred to a "military style topic whil
Professional Football Researchers Association
The Professional Football Researchers Association is an organization of researchers whose mission is to preserve and, in some cases, reconstruct professional football history. It was founded on June 22, 1979 in Canton, Ohio by writer/historian Bob Carroll and six other football researchers and is headed by an executive committee led by its president, Ken Crippen, executive director Mark L. Ford. Membership in the organization includes some of professional football's foremost historians and authors; the organization is based in New York. The PFRA publishes books and a bimonthly magazine, The Coffin Corner, devoted to topics in professional football history; the organization gives out awards each year for outstanding achievement in the field of football research. The Coffin Corner is a semimonthly magazine devoted to topics in professional football history. PFRA members publish their research findings in the articles, regardless of prior writing experience. In the case of newer authors and first-time contributors, the magazine's editors assist, anonymously, in helping develop the narratives for publication.
The $35.00 annual membership in the organization includes a subscription to six issues of The Coffin Corner, as well as access to the "Members Only" section of their website, which contains detailed research on a variety of pro football subjects. The PFRA maintains ongoing database projects, with committees of members who update the record as information develops, or as it's discovered in the course of research. All-America Football Conference All-Pro and Awards Committees This committee researches AP and UPI awards and All-Pro teams. Hall of Very Good Committee Highlights outstanding players not in the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Linescore Committee Responsible for compiling linescores for all professional games played since 1920. Gamebooks Aims to collect and display gamebooks from every NFL game played. Membership Committee For the PFRA's internal purposes. Pre-NFL Pro Football Committee Researches all professional football prior to 1920, such as the Ohio League and the New York Pro Football League.
Western and Northern New York Committees Researches professional football in upstate New York. This committee includes several subcommittees, including Buffalo football teams of the 1920s, Rochester Jeffersons, Buffalo Indians, AAFC Bills, the Empire Football League, Watertown Red & Black. Stadiums Compiles all stadiums used by professional football teams. Broadcasting Compiles all local and national television and radio announcers for every NFL and AFL game broadcast since 1939. Uniforms Compiles all information on AFL and AAFC uniforms from 1933 to the present. Canadian Football League United States Football League World Football League Oral History Chronicles PFRA interviews with former NFL players. NFL Officials Compiles a list of their positions and their uniform numbers; the Ralph Hay Award, named after the Canton Bulldogs owner whose Hupmobile Automobile showroom was the site of the NFL's first organizational meeting, is awarded for "lifetime achievement in pro football research and historiography."
Past winners have been: The Nelson Ross Award is presented annually by the PFRA for "outstanding achievement in pro football research and historiography." Past winners are: 2018 - Doug Farrar, for his book The Genius of Desperation: The Schematic Innovations that Made the Modern NFL 2017 – Ralph Hickok, for his book, Vagabond Halfback: The Saga of Johnny Blood McNally 2016 – James C. Sulecki, for his book, The Cleveland Rams: The NFL Champs Who Left Too Soon, 1936-1945 2015 – Ted Kluck, for his book Three-Week Professionals: Inside the 1987 NFL Players’ Strike 2014 – William J. Ryczek, for his book, Connecticut Gridiron: Football Minor Leaguers of the 1960s and 1970s 2013 – Ivan Urena, for his book, Pro Football Schedules: A Complete Historical Guide 1933 to the Present 2012 – Dan Daly, for his book, The National Forgotten League 2011 – Mark Speck, for his book...and a Dollar Short: The Empty Promises, Broken Dreams and Somewhat-Less-Than-Comic Misadventures of the 1974 Florida Blazers 2010 – Kate Buford, for her book, Native American Son: The Life and Sporting Legend of Jim Thorpe 2009 – Robert Lyons, for his book, On Any Given Sunday: A Life of Bert Bell 2008 – Sean Lahman, for his book, The Pro Football Historical Abstract 2007 – Andy Piascik, for his book, The Best Show in Football: The 1946-1955 Cleveland Browns 2006 – Matthew Algeo, for his book, Last Team Standing: How the Steelers and the Eagles -- "The Steagles" -- Saved Pro Football During World War II 2005 – Chris Willis, for his book, Old Leather: An Oral History of Early Pro Football in Ohio, 1920-1935 2004 – Michael MacCambridge, for his book, America's Game: The Epic Story of How Pro Football Captured A Nation 2003 – Mark L. Ford, for his book, NFLX: NFL Exhibition Games 1950 to 2002 2002 – Bob Gill, Steve Brainerd, Tod Maher, for their book, Minor League Football, 1960-1985 2001 – William J. Ryczek, for his book Crash of the Titans: The Early Years of the New York Jets and the AFL 2000 – Paul Reeths, for his book, "The USFL Chronicle" 1999 – Joe Ziemba, for his book, When Football Was Football: The Chicago Cardinals and the Birth of the NFL 1998 – Keith McClellan, for his book, The Sunday Game: At the Dawn of Professional Football 1997 – Tod Maher & Bob Gill, for their book, The Pro Football
Nashville is a 1975 American satirical musical comedy-drama film directed by Robert Altman. The film takes a snapshot of people involved in the country music and gospel music businesses in Nashville, Tennessee; the characters' efforts to succeed or hold on to their success are interwoven with the efforts of a political operative and a local businessman to stage a concert rally before the state's presidential primary for a populist outsider running for President on the Replacement Party ticket. Nashville is noted for its scope; the work contains 24 main characters, an hour of musical numbers, multiple storylines. Its large ensemble cast includes David Arkin, Barbara Baxley, Ned Beatty, Karen Black, Ronee Blakley, Timothy Brown, Keith Carradine, Geraldine Chaplin, Robert DoQui, Shelley Duvall, Allen Garfield, Henry Gibson, Scott Glenn, Jeff Goldblum, Barbara Harris, David Hayward, Michael Murphy, Allan F. Nicholls, Dave Peel, Cristina Raines, Bert Remsen, Lily Tomlin, Gwen Welles, Keenan Wynn.
Nashville opened to positive reviews and won numerous awards. It is considered Altman's masterpiece, was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry in 1992; the overarching plot takes place over five days leading up to a political rally for Replacement Party candidate Hal Phillip Walker, never seen throughout the entire movie. The story follows 24 characters roaming around Nashville in search of some sort of goal through their own story arcs. Day One The film opens with a campaign van for presidential candidate Hal Phillip Walker driving around Nashville as an external loudspeaker blares Walker's folksy political aphorisms, juxtaposed with country superstar Haven Hamilton recording a patriotic song intended to commemorate the upcoming Bicentennial, growing irritated with the accompanying musicians in the studio. An Englishwoman named Opal who claims to be working on a documentary for the BBC appears in the studio but is told to leave by Haven. Down the hall from Haven's session is Linnea Reese, a white gospel singer recording a song with a black choir.
That day, popular country singer Barbara Jean is returning to Nashville, having recovered from a burn accident, the elite of Nashville's music scene, including Haven and his companion Lady Pearl, have converged on Berry Field to greet her plane as it arrives. Present are Pfc. Glenn Kelly and the popular folk trio Bill and Tom who are in town to record an album. Bill and Mary are married, but unhappy due to the fact that Mary is in love with womanizing Tom. Meanwhile, Mr. Green arrives at the airport to pick up his niece, aka L. A. Joan, a teenage groupie who has come to Nashville ostensibly to visit her aunt Esther Green, sick in the hospital. However, Martha puts off visiting her aunt in favor of chasing after male musicians. Working at the airport restaurant are African-American cook Wade Cooley, his pretty waitress friend Sueleen Gay, an aspiring country singer who refuses to recognize that she can't carry a tune. After greeting the crowds on the tarmac, Barbara Jean faints due to the heat, her handlers, headed by her domineering husband-manager Barnett, rush her to the hospital.
Barbara Jean's appearance having been cut short, those in attendance depart the airport and wind up stranded on the highway after a pile-up occurs. During the commotion, Winifred, an aspiring country singer, runs away from her husband Star after he refuses to take her to the Grand Ole Opry. Star gives a ride to Kenny Frasier. Opal takes advantage of the traffic jam to interview first Linnea and Tommy Brown, an African-American country singer, performing at the Opry. Tommy and his entourage go to Lady Pearl's club but Wade, drinking and trying to pick up white girls at the bar, insults Tommy for being too "white" and starts a fight. Linnea's husband, Del Reese is working with political organizer John Triplette to plan a small fundraiser and a large outdoor concert gala for the Walker campaign. Sueleen appears at a local club's open mike night in a provocative outfit, despite her lack of singing ability, club manager Trout recommends her to Triplette for the fundraiser based on her appearance.
Winifred shows up at Trout's club trying to recruit musicians to record a demo with her, but Star sees her and chases her. Del invites Triplette for family dinner with their two deaf children. Linnea and Del are having communication problems, she focuses on the children rather than on him. In the middle of dinner, Tom calls trying to make a date with Linnea, but she puts him off, so he takes Opal back to his room instead. Pfc. Kelly sneaks into Barbara Jean's hospital room and sits in the chair by her bed all night, watching her sleep. Day Two Tom calls Linnea again but, with Del listening on the other line, Linnea yells at Tom and tells him not to call her anymore. Kenny rents a room from Mr. Green. Haven throws a pre-show party at his house before the evening's Grand Ole Opry performance. At the party, Triplette tries to persuade Haven to perform at the Walker gala by telling him that if Walker is elected, Walker would back Haven for state governor. Haven says. Tommy Brown and Connie White all perform at the Opry.
Connie is substituting for the hospitalized Barbara Jean. Winifred tries unsuccessfully to get backstage. At t
Palm Springs, California
Palm Springs is a desert resort city in Riverside County, United States, within the Coachella Valley. It is located 55 mi east of San Bernardino, 107 mi east of Los Angeles, 123 mi northeast of San Diego, 268 mi west of Phoenix, Arizona; the population was 44,552 as of the 2010 census. Palm Springs covers 94 square miles, making it the largest city in the county by land area. Golf, tennis, biking and horseback riding in the nearby desert and mountain areas are major forms of recreation in Palm Springs; the city is known for its mid-century modern architecture, design elements, arts and cultural scene. Palm Springs is a popular retirement destination, as well as a winter snowbird destination; the first humans to settle in the area were the Cahuilla people, 2,000 years ago. Cahuilla Indians lived here in isolation from other cultures for hundreds of years prior to European contact, they spoke Ivilyuat, a dialect of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Numerous prominent and powerful Cahuilla leaders were including Cahuilla Lion.
While Palm Canyon was occupied during winter months, they moved to cooler Chino Canyon during the summer months. The Cahuilla Indians had several permanent settlements in the canyons of Palm Springs, due to the abundance of water and shade. Various hot springs were used during wintertime; the Cahuilla hunted rabbit, mountain goat and quail, while trapping fish in nearby lakes and rivers. While men were responsible for hunting, women were responsible for collecting berries and seeds, they made tortillas from mesquite beans. While the Cahuillas spent the summers in Indian Canyons, the current site of Spa Resort Casino in downtown was used during winter due to its natural hot springs. Native-American petroglyphs can be seen in Tahquitz and Indian canyons; the Cahuilla’s irrigation ditches and house pits can be seen here. Ancient petroglyphs and mortar holes can be seen in Andreas Canyon; the mortar holes were used to grind acorns into meals. The Agua Caliente Reservation consists of 31,128 acres. Six thousand seven hundred acres are located by Downtown Palm Springs.
The Native American land is on long lease land and next to one of California’s high-end communities, making the tribe one of the wealthiest in California. The first name for Palm Springs was given by the native Cahuilla: "Se-Khi"; when the Agua Caliente Reservation was established by the United States government in 1876, the reservation land was composed of alternating sections of land laid out across the desert in a checkerboard pattern. The alternating non-reservation sections were granted to the Southern Pacific Railroad as an incentive to bring rail lines through the Sonoran desert. A number of streets and areas in Palm Springs are named for Native-American notables, including Andreas, Amado, Lugu, Patencio and Chino. All of these are common Cahuilla surnames. Presently the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians are composed of several smaller bands who live in the modern day Coachella Valley and San Gorgonio Pass; the Agua Caliente Reservation occupies 32,000 acres, of which 6,700 acres lie within the city limits, making the Agua Caliente natives the city's largest landowners.
As of 1821 Mexico was independent of Spain and in March 1823 the Mexican Monarchy ended. That same year Mexican diarist José María Estudillo and Brevet Captain José Romero were sent to find a route from Sonora to Alta California. With the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo after the Mexican-American war, the region became part of the United States in 1848. One possible origin of palm in the place name comes from early Spanish explorers who referred to the area as La Palma de la Mano de Dios or "The Palm of God's hand"; the earliest use of the name "Palm Springs" is from United States Topographical Engineers who used the term in 1853 maps. According to William Bright, when the word "palm" appears in Californian place names, it refers to the native California fan palm, Washingtonia filifera, abundant in the Palm Springs area. Other early names were "Palmetto Spring" and "Big Palm Springs"; the first European resident in Palm Springs itself was Jack Summers, who ran the stagecoach station on the Bradshaw Trail in 1862.
Fourteen years the Southern Pacific railroad was laid 6 miles to the north, isolating the station. In 1880, local Indian Pedro Chino was selling parcels near the springs to William Van Slyke and Mathew Bryne in a series of questionable transactions. By 1885, when San Francisco attorney John Guthrie McCallum began buying property in Palm Springs, the name was in wide acceptance; the area was named "Palm Valley" when McCallum incorporated the "Palm Valley Land and Water Company" with partners O. C. Miller, H. C. Campbell, James Adams, M. D. McCallum, who had brought his ill son to the dry climate for health, brought in irrigation advocate Dr. Oliver Wozencroft and engineer J. P. Lippincott to help construct a canal from the Whitewater River to fruit orchards on his property, he asked Dr. Welwood Murray to establish a hotel across the street from his residence. Murray did so in 1886; the crops and irrigation syst
M*A*S*H (TV series)
M*A*S*H is an American war comedy-drama television series that aired on CBS from 1972 to 1983. It was developed by Larry Gelbart, adapted from the 1970 feature film M*A*S*H, which, in turn, was based on Richard Hooker's 1968 novel MASH: A Novel About Three Army Doctors; the series, produced with 20th Century Fox Television for CBS, follows a team of doctors and support staff stationed at the "4077th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital" in Uijeongbu, South Korea, during the Korean War. The show's title sequence features an instrumental-only version of "Suicide Is Painless," the original film's theme song; the show was created after an attempt to film the original book's sequel, M*A*S*H Goes to Maine, failed. The television series is the best-known of the M*A*S*H works, one of the highest-rated shows in U. S. television history. M * A * S * H aired weekly with most episodes being a half-hour in length; the series is categorized as a situation comedy, though it has been described as a "dark comedy" or a "dramedy" because of the dramatic subject matter.
The show is an ensemble piece revolving around key personnel in a United States Army Mobile Army Surgical Hospital in the Korean War. The "4077th MASH" was one of several surgical units in Korea. While the show is traditionally viewed as a comedy, many episodes had a more serious tone. Early seasons aired on network prime time while the Vietnam War was still going on, the show was forced to walk the fine line of commenting on that war while at the same time not seeming to protest it. For this reason, the show's discourse, under the cover of comedy questioned and grappled with America's role in the Cold War. Episodes were both plot- and character-driven, with several narrated by one of the show's characters as the contents of a letter home; the show's tone could move from silly to sobering from one episode to the next, with dramatic tension occurring between the civilian draftees of 4077th – Hawkeye, Trapper John, B. J. Hunnicutt, for example – who are forced to leave their homes to tend the wounded and dying of the war, the "regular Army" characters, such as Margaret Houlihan and Colonel Potter, who tend to represent patriotism and duty.
Other characters, such as Col. Blake, Maj. Winchester, Cpl. Klinger, help demonstrate various American civilian attitudes toward Army life, while guest characters played by such actors as Eldon Quick, Herb Voland, Mary Wickes, Tim O'Connor help further the show's discussion of America's place as Cold War war maker and peace maker. Through changes of personnel M*A*S*H maintained a constant ensemble cast, with four characters – Hawkeye, Father Mulcahy, Margaret Houlihan, Maxwell Klinger – on the show for all 11 seasons. Several other main characters departed or joined the program during its run, numerous guest actors and recurring characters were used; the writers found creating so many names difficult, used names from elsewhere. Note: Character appearances include double-length episodes as two appearances, making 260 in total; as the series progressed, it made a significant shift from being a comedy with dramatic undertones to a drama with comedic undertones. This was a result of changes in writing and production staff, rather than the cast defections of McLean Stevenson, Larry Linville, Wayne Rogers and Gary Burghoff.
Series co-creator and joke writer Larry Gelbart departed after Season 4, the first featuring Mike Farrell and Harry Morgan. This resulted in Farrell and Morgan having only a single season reading scripts featuring Gelbart's masterful comic timing, which defined the feel and rhythm of Seasons 1–4 featuring predecessors Rogers and Stevenson, respectively. Larry Linville and Executive Producer Gene Reynolds both departed at the conclusion of Season 5 in 1977, resulting in M*A*S*H being stripped of its original tight comedic foundation by the beginning of Season 6 — the debut of the Charles Winchester era. Whereas Gelbart and Reynolds were the comedic voice of M*A*S*H for the show's first five seasons, Alan Alda and newly promoted Executive Producer Burt Metcalfe became the new dramatic voice of M*A*S*H for Seasons 6–11. By the start of Season 8, the writing staff had been overhauled, with the departure of Gary Burghoff, M*A*S*H displayed a distinctively different feel, consciously moving between comedy and drama, unlike the seamless integration of its first five years.
The end of the Vietnam War in 1975 was a significant factor as to why storylines become less political in nature and more character driven. Several episodes experimented with the sitcom format: "Point of View" – shown from the perspective of a soldier with a throat wound "Dreams" – an idea of Alda's, where during a deluge of casualties, members of the 4077 take naps on a rotation basis, allowing the viewer to see the lyrical and disturbing dreams "A War For All Seasons" – features a story line that takes place over the course of 1951 "Life Time" – a precursor to the American television series 24, it utilizes the real time method of narrationAnother change was the infusion of story lines based on actual events and medical developments that materialized during the Korean War. Considerable research was done by the producers, including interviews with actual MASH surgeons and personnel to develop story lines roote