Reserve Officers' Training Corps
The Reserve Officers' Training Corps is a group of college and university-based officer training programs for training commissioned officers of the United States Armed Forces. While ROTC graduate officers serve in all branches of the U. S. military, the U. S. Marine Corps and the U. S. Coast Guard do not have their own respective ROTC programs, but graduates of Naval ROTC programs have the option to serve as officers in the Marine Corps contingent on meeting Marine Corps requirements; the Coast Guard has no ROTC program and its officers can only be commissioned via the U. S. Coast Guard Academy, Coast Guard Officer Candidate School, interservice transfer from another U. S. military service following completion of at least 4 years commissioned service in that other branch of the U. S. military, or via the Coast Guard College Student Pre-Commissioning Initiative, although the CSPI program is only available at colleges and universities designated as a Minority Serving Institute or with a student population of at least 50% minorities for the past three years.
In 2010, ROTC graduates constituted 38.5 percent of newly commissioned U. S. Army officers, 1.8 percent of newly commissioned U. S. Marine Corps officers, 16.7 percent of newly commissioned U. S. Navy officers and 38.1 percent of newly commissioned U. S. Air Force officers, for a combined 30 percent of all active duty officers in the Department of Defense commissioned that year. Under ROTC, a student may receive a competitive, merit-based scholarship covering all or part of college tuition and lab fees, in return for an obligation of active military service after graduation. ROTC students attend college like other students, but receive basic military training and officer training for their chosen branch of service through the ROTC unit at or nearby the college; the students participate in regular drills during the school year and extended training activities during the summer. Army ROTC units are organized as brigades and companies. Air Force ROTC units are detachments with the students organized into wings, groups and flights.
Army and Air Force ROTC students are referred to as cadets. Naval ROTC units are organized as battalions and include NROTC students under "Marine Option" who will be commissioned as officers in the Marine Corps. Marine NROTC students may be formed in a separate company when the program includes sufficient numbers. All Naval ROTC students are referred to as midshipmen; some of the summer training, offered to cadets in the Army ROTC program are: Airborne, Air Assault, Mountain Warfare, WHINSEC and other related schools. In addition to their mandatory pre-commissioning Field Training at Maxwell AFB, Air Force ROTC cadets are eligible for Airborne training under the tutelage of the Army at Fort Benning, Georgia. Naval ROTC midshipmen will participate in summer cruise programs every summer, either afloat or ashore, similar to their U. S. Naval Academy midshipmen counterparts; the concept of ROTC in the United States was created by Alden Partridge and began with the Morrill Act of 1862 which established the land-grant colleges.
Part of the federal government's requirement for these schools was that they include military tactics as part of their curriculum, forming what became known as ROTC. The college from which ROTC originated is Norwich University in Vermont. Norwich was founded in 1819 at Norwich, Vermont as the American Literary and Military Academy; the university was founded by former West Point instructor Captain Alden Partridge, who promoted the idea of a "citizen soldier"—a man trained to act in a military capacity when his nation required, but capable of fulfilling standard civilian functions in peacetime. This idea led to the formation of Reservist and National Guard units with regimented training in place of local militia forces. Another root of the modern ROTC program comes from the "Plattsburg Idea". In 1915, Major General Leonard Wood instituted the Citizen's Military Training Corps, the first series of training camps to make officers out of civilians. For the first time in history, an attempt was made to provide a condensed course of training and commissioning competent reserve line officers after only a summer of military training.
Over 5,000 men arrived at Plattsburgh in May 1917 for the first of the large training corps. By the end of 1917, over 17,000 men had been trained. By the eve of its entry into World War One, the U. S. had a prepared corps of officers including one of the earliest Plattsburgh graduates, Theodore Roosevelt Jr. Until the 1960s, many major universities required compulsory ROTC for all of their male students. However, because of the protests that culminated in the opposition to U. S. involvement in the Vietnam War, compulsory ROTC was dropped in favor of voluntary programs. In some places ROTC was expelled from campus altogether, although it was always possible to participate in off-campus ROTC. In the 21st century, the debate focused around the Congressional don't ask, don't tell law, signed into law by President Bill Clinton in 1993 and in force until 2011, which forbade homosexuals serving in the United States military from disclosing their sexual orientation at the risk of expulsion; some schools believed this legal mandate would require them to waive or amend their non-discrimination policies.
In recent years, concerted efforts are being made at some Ivy League universities that have banned ROTC to return ROTC to campus. The Harvard ROTC program was reinstated effective March 4, 2011 following enactment of the D
Expedition 12 was the 12th expedition to the International Space Station, launched from Kazakhstan using the Russian Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft. The crew landed back in Kazakhstan on 8 April 2006 with the addition of the first Brazilian astronaut, Marcos Pontes. American entrepreneur Gregory Olsen was launched in the Soyuz TMA-7 spacecraft and returned with Expedition 11 on Soyuz TMA-6 on 11 October 2005 thereby becoming the third space tourist. Perigee: Apogee: Inclination: 51.6 degrees Orbital period: Station assembly preparations and science in microgravity. There were two spacewalks outside the ISS during Expedition 12. MacArthur and Tokarev participated in both of them; the first EVA was on 7 November 2005 for 22 minutes. There were two main objectives; the first was to install and set up a new camera on the P1 Truss, used in the installation of more truss segments. The second was to jettison the Floating Potential Probe, a failed instrument, designed to measure the station's electrical potential and compare it to the surrounding plasma.
The second spacewalk lasted 5 hours and 43 minutes. The astronauts jettisoned an old Russian Orlan spacesuit, named SuitSat-1, equipped with a radio for broadcasts to students around the world; the suit reached the end of its operation life in 2004. They retrieved the Biorisk experiment, photographed a sensor for a micrometeoroid experiment, tied off the surviving umbilical of the mobile transporter. On 29 March 2006 a total solar eclipse took place, the adjacent picture was taken by the Expedition 12 crew, it shows the shadow of the Moon being cast on the Earth. While wake-up music is a tradition aboard space shuttle missions, the ISS crew use an alarm clock to wake up. Expedition 12 astronauts received a special treat on 3 November 2005 when Paul McCartney performed Good Day Sunshine and English Tea in a first concert linkup from the Arrowhead Pond in Anaheim, California on his US tour; the event was broadcast live on NASA TV. This article incorporates public domain material from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration document "Expedition 12".
NASA: Expedition 12 Photography
The Space Shuttle was a reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the Space Shuttle program, its official program name was Space Transportation System, taken from a 1969 plan for a system of reusable spacecraft of which it was the only item funded for development. The first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982. In addition to the prototype whose completion was cancelled, five complete Shuttle systems were built and used on a total of 135 missions from 1981 to 2011, launched from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Operational missions launched numerous satellites, interplanetary probes, the Hubble Space Telescope; the Shuttle fleet's total mission time was 19 hours, 21 minutes and 23 seconds. Shuttle components included the Orbiter Vehicle with three clustered Rocketdyne RS-25 main engines, a pair of recoverable solid rocket boosters, the expendable external tank containing liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen.
The Space Shuttle was launched vertically, like a conventional rocket, with the two SRBs operating in parallel with the OV's three main engines, which were fueled from the ET. The SRBs were jettisoned before the vehicle reached orbit, the ET was jettisoned just before orbit insertion, which used the orbiter's two Orbital Maneuvering System engines. At the conclusion of the mission, the orbiter fired its OMS to re-enter the atmosphere; the orbiter glided as a spaceplane to a runway landing to the Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida or Rogers Dry Lake in Edwards Air Force Base, California. After landing at Edwards, the orbiter was flown back to the KSC on the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, a specially modified Boeing 747; the first orbiter, was built in 1976, used in Approach and Landing Tests and had no orbital capability. Four operational orbiters were built: Columbia, Challenger and Atlantis. Of these, two were lost in mission accidents: Challenger in 1986 and Columbia in 2003, with a total of fourteen astronauts killed.
A fifth operational orbiter, was built in 1991 to replace Challenger. The Space Shuttle was retired from service upon the conclusion of Atlantis's final flight on July 21, 2011; the U. S. has since relied on the Russian Soyuz spacecraft to transport astronauts to the International Space Station, pending the Commercial Crew Development and Space Launch System programs on schedule for first flights in 2019 and 2020. The Space Shuttle was a reusable human spaceflight vehicle capable of reaching low Earth orbit and operated by the U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration from 1981 to 2011, it resulted from shuttle design studies conducted by NASA and the U. S. Air Force in the 1960s and was first proposed for development as part of an ambitious second-generation Space Transportation System of space vehicles to follow the Apollo program in a September 1969 report of a Space Task Group headed by Vice President Spiro Agnew to President Richard Nixon. Nixon's post-Apollo NASA budgeting withdrew support of all system components except the Shuttle, to which NASA applied the STS name.
The vehicle consisted of a spaceplane for orbit and re-entry, fueled from an expendable External Tank containing liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, with two reusable strap-on solid rocket boosters. The first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982, all launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida; the system was retired from service in 2011 after 135 missions, with Atlantis making the final launch of the three-decade Shuttle program on July 8, 2011. The program ended after Atlantis landed at the Kennedy Space Center on July 21, 2011. Major missions included launching numerous satellites and interplanetary probes, conducting space science experiments, servicing and construction of space stations; the first orbiter vehicle, named Enterprise, was used in the initial Approach and Landing Tests phase but installation of engines, heat shielding, other equipment necessary for orbital flight was cancelled. A total of five operational orbiters were built, of these, two were destroyed in accidents.
It was used for orbital space missions by NASA, the U. S. Department of Defense, the European Space Agency and Germany; the United States funded Shuttle development and operations except for the Spacelab modules used on D1 and D2—sponsored by Germany. SL-J was funded by Japan. At launch, it consisted of the "stack", including the dark orange external tank; some payloads were launched into higher orbits with either of two different upper stages developed for the STS. The Space Shuttle was stacked in the Vehicle Assembly Building, the stack mounted on a mobile launch platform held down by four frangible nuts on each SRB, which were detonated at launch; the Shuttle stack launched vertically like a conventional rocket. It lifted off under the power of its two SRBs and three main engines, which were fueled by liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen from the ET; the Space Shuttle had a two-stage ascent. The SRBs provided additional thrust during first-stage flight. About two minutes after liftoff, frangible nuts were fired, releasing the SRBs, which parachuted into the ocean, to
Houston is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 2.312 million in 2017. It is the most populous city in the Southern United States and on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth MSA. With a total area of 627 square miles, Houston is the eighth most expansive city in the United States, it is the largest city in the United States by total area, whose government is not consolidated with that of a county or borough. Though in Harris County, small portions of the city extend into Fort Bend and Montgomery counties. Houston was founded by land speculators on August 30, 1836, at the confluence of Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou and incorporated as a city on June 5, 1837.
The city is named after former General Sam Houston, president of the Republic of Texas and had won Texas' independence from Mexico at the Battle of San Jacinto 25 miles east of Allen's Landing. After serving as the capital of the Texas Republic in the late 1830s, Houston grew into a regional trading center for the remainder of the 19th century; the arrival of the 20th century saw a convergence of economic factors which fueled rapid growth in Houston, including a burgeoning port and railroad industry, the decline of Galveston as Texas' primary port following a devastating 1900 hurricane, the subsequent construction of the Houston Ship Channel, the Texas oil boom. In the mid-20th century, Houston's economy diversified as it became home to the Texas Medical Center—the world's largest concentration of healthcare and research institutions—and NASA's Johnson Space Center, where the Mission Control Center is located. Houston's economy has a broad industrial base in energy, manufacturing and transportation.
Leading in healthcare sectors and building oilfield equipment, Houston has the second most Fortune 500 headquarters of any U. S. municipality within its city limits. The Port of Houston ranks first in the United States in international waterborne tonnage handled and second in total cargo tonnage handled. Nicknamed the "Space City", Houston is a global city, with strengths in culture and research; the city has a population from various ethnic and religious backgrounds and a large and growing international community. Houston is the most diverse metropolitan area in Texas and has been described as the most racially and ethnically diverse major metropolis in the U. S, it is home to many cultural institutions and exhibits, which attract more than 7 million visitors a year to the Museum District. Houston has an active visual and performing arts scene in the Theater District and offers year-round resident companies in all major performing arts; the Allen brothers—Augustus Chapman and John Kirby—explored town sites on Buffalo Bayou and Galveston Bay.
According to historian David McComb, "he brothers, on August 26, 1836, bought from Elizabeth E. Parrott, wife of T. F. L. Parrott and widow of John Austin, the south half of the lower league granted to her by her late husband, they paid $5,000 total, but only $1,000 of this in cash. They lobbied the Republic of Texas Congress to designate Houston as the temporary capital, agreeing to provide the new government with a capital building. About a dozen persons resided in the town at the beginning of 1837, but that number grew to about 1,500 by the time the Texas Congress convened in Houston for the first time that May. Houston was granted incorporation with James S. Holman becoming its first mayor. In the same year, Houston became the county seat of Harrisburg County. In 1839, the Republic of Texas relocated its capital to Austin; the town suffered another setback that year when a yellow fever epidemic claimed about one life out of every eight residents. Yet it persisted as a commercial center, forming a symbiosis with Galveston.
Landlocked farmers brought their produce to Houston, using Buffalo Bayou to gain access to Galveston and the Gulf of Mexico. Houston merchants profited from selling staples to farmers and shipping the farmers' produce to Galveston; the great majority of slaves in Texas came with their owners from the older slave states. Sizable numbers, came through the domestic slave trade. New Orleans was the center of this trade in the Deep South. Thousands of enslaved blacks lived near the city before the American Civil War. Many of them near the city worked on sugar and cotton plantations, while most of those in the city limits had domestic and artisan jobs. In 1840, the community established a chamber of commerce in part to promote shipping and navigation at the newly created port on Buffalo Bayou. By 1860, Houston had emerged as a commercial and railroad hub for the export of cotton. Railroad spurs from the Texas inland converged in Houston, where they met rail lines to the ports of Galveston and Beaumont.
During the American Civil War, Houston served as a headquarters for General John Magruder, who used the city as an organization point for the Battle of Galveston. After the Civil War, Houston businessmen initia
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering; the Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant university, with a campus that extends more than a mile alongside the Charles River. Its influence in the physical sciences and architecture, more in biology, linguistics and social science and art, has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. MIT is ranked among the world's top universities; as of March 2019, 93 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 73 Marshall Scholars, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 41 astronauts, 16 Chief Scientists of the US Air Force have been affiliated with MIT.
The school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, the aggregated annual revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the tenth-largest economy in the world. MIT is a member of the Association of American Universities. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861. Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances, he did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that: The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories. Two days after MIT was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865; the new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called "Boston Tech"; the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.
Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand. The curriculum drifted with less focus on theoretical science; the fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding; the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court put an end to the merger scheme. In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.
The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million in cash and Kodak stock to MIT. In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios; the Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering". Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, depended more on tuition than on endow
The 15th Lancers is an armoured regiment of the Pakistan Army. It was formed in 1922 by the amalgamation of the 37th Lancers; the 17th Cavalry was raised in 1857 at Muttra by Colonel CJ Robarts and was composed of Afghans. Throughout its existence, the regiment remained an Muslim unit. In 1861, after several changes in nomenclature, it was designated the 17th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry. In 1865, it saw action as part of the Bhutan Field Force, while in 1879-80, the regiment operated on lines of communication during the Second Afghan War as part of the Kabul Field Force. During the First World War, it dispatched a squadron to Africa where it took part in the East African Campaign. In 1919, the regiment fought in the Third Afghan War; the regiment maintained a mounted pipe band from 1895 to 1902. The uniform of the 17th Cavalry was blue with white facings; the regimental badge consisted of a silver crescent over "XVII" with a title scroll below. 1857 Muttra Horse 1857 Muttra Police Corps 1858 Rohilkhand Auxiliary Police Levy 1859 Robarts’ Horse 1861 17th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry 1882 Disbanded 1885 Re-raised 1900 17th Regiment of Bengal Lancers 1901 17th Bengal Lancers 1903 17th Cavalry The 37th Lancers was raised in 1885 as the 7th Bombay Cavalry from the manpower of the 3rd Scinde Horse, disbanded in 1882.
This regiment was an all-Muslim unit made up of Pathans and Baluchis. Their first chance of active service came in 1919, when they served in the Third Afghan War, although one of their squadrons operated in Persia during the First World War. Prior to 1914 the regiment's dress uniform was dark blue, with buff facings; the badge consisted of crossed pennons with "37" over crossed lances. 1885 7th Bombay Cavalry 1886 7th Bombay Cavalry 1890 7th Bombay Lancers 1903 37th Lancers After the First World War, the number of Indian cavalry regiments was reduced from thirty-nine to twenty-one. However, instead of disbanding the surplus units, it was decided to amalgamate them in pairs; this resulted in renaming of the entire cavalry line. The 17th Cavalry and 37th Lancers were amalgamated at Lucknow in 1922 to form the 15th Lancers. Meanwhile, an existing 15th Lancers joined the 14th Murray's Jat Lancers to form the 20th Lancers; the uniform of the new 15th Lancers was dark blue with buff facings, while the badge consisted of crossed silver lances bearing pennons with "XV" at the crossing and a scroll below.
The same uniform and badges are still in use by the regiment. In 1937, the 15th Lancers became the training regiment of the 1st Indian Cavalry Group, it was converted into a training centre in 1940 by amalgamating it with the 12th Cavalry. However, the next year, the Centre was disbanded. In 1955, the 15th Lancers was re-raised by the Pakistani Army as a Reconnaissance Regiment of the Pakistan Armoured Corps and equipped with M24 Chaffee light tanks. During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, the regiment served with distinction in the Kasur Sector and was awarded the Battle Honour'Khem Karan 1965.' In 1969, the 15th Lancers was affiliated with the Baluch Regiment due to the old link with the 37th Lancers. It added the title of'Baluch' to its designation in 1989. 1922 17th/37th Cavalry 1922 15th Lancers 1940 1st Indian Armoured Corps Centre 1941 Disbanded 1955 15th Lancers 1989 15th Lancers 1991 15th Lancers The Baloch Regiment The Royal Dragoon Guards 15th Lancers: Through the Ages 1858-1998.. Lahore: 15th Lancers.
Yeats-Brown, Major FCC.. The Star and Crescent: Being the Story of the 17th Cavalry from 1858 To 1922. Allahabad: The Pioneer Press. Ahmad, Lieutenant Colonel Rifat Nadeem.. Battle Honours of the Baloch Regiment. Abbottabad: The Baloch Regimental Centre. Ahmed, Major General Rafiuddin.. History of the Baloch Regiment 1939-1956. Abbottabad: The Baloch Regimental Centre. ISBN 1-84574-094-7 Gaylor, J.. Sons of John Company: The Indian and Pakistan Armies 1903- 1991. Stroud: Spellmount Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-0-946771-98-1 Cadell, Sir Patrick.. History of the Bombay Army. London: Longmans & Green. Cardew, FG.. A Sketch of the Services of the Bengal Native Army to the Year 1895. Calcutta: Military Department. Harris, RG, Warner, C.. Bengal Cavalry Regiments 1857–1914. London: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-0-85045-308-9. Sandhu, Maj Gen GS.. The Indian Cavalry: History of the Indian Armoured Corps till 1940. New Delhi: Vision Books. Kempton, C.. A Register of Titles of the Units of the H. E. I. C. & Indian Armies 1666-1947.
Bristol: British Empire & Commonwealth Museum. ISBN 978-0-9530174-0-9 Uniforms of the late 19th Century