Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equal rights. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but they support limited government, individual rights, democracy, gender equality, racial equality, freedom of speech, freedom of the press and freedom of religion. Liberalism became a distinct movement in the Age of Enlightenment, when it became popular among Western philosophers and economists. Liberalism sought to replace the norms of hereditary privilege, state religion, absolute monarchy, the divine right of kings and traditional conservatism with representative democracy and the rule of law. Liberals ended mercantilist policies, royal monopolies and other barriers to trade, instead promoting free markets. Philosopher John Locke is credited with founding liberalism as a distinct tradition, arguing that each man has a natural right to life and property, adding that governments must not violate these rights based on the social contract.
While the British liberal tradition has emphasised expanding democracy, French liberalism has emphasised rejecting authoritarianism and is linked to nation-building. Leaders in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the American Revolution of 1776 and the French Revolution of 1789 used liberal philosophy to justify the armed overthrow of royal tyranny. Liberalism started to spread especially after the French Revolution; the 19th century saw liberal governments established in nations across Europe and South America, whereas it was well-established alongside republicanism in the United States. In Victorian Britain, it was used to critique the political establishment, appealing to science and reason on behalf of the people. During 19th and early 20th century, liberalism in the Ottoman Empire and Middle East influenced periods of reform such as the Tanzimat and Al-Nahda as well as the rise of secularism, constitutionalism and nationalism; these changes, along with other factors, helped to create a sense of crisis within Islam, which continues to this day, leading to Islamic revivalism.
Before 1920, the main ideological opponent of classical liberalism was conservatism, but liberalism faced major ideological challenges from new opponents: fascism and communism. However, during the 20th century liberal ideas spread further—especially in Western Europe—as liberal democracies found themselves on the winning side in both world wars. In Europe and North America, the establishment of social liberalism became a key component in the expansion of the welfare state. Today, liberal parties continue to wield influence throughout the world. However, liberalism still has challenges to overcome in Asia; the fundamental elements of contemporary society have liberal roots. The early waves of liberalism popularised economic individualism while expanding constitutional government and parliamentary authority. Liberals sought and established a constitutional order that prized important individual freedoms, such as freedom of speech and freedom of association. Waves of modern liberal thought and struggle were influenced by the need to expand civil rights.
Liberals have advocated gender and racial equality in their drive to promote civil rights and a global civil rights movement in the 20th century achieved several objectives towards both goals. Continental European liberalism is divided between moderates and progressives, with the moderates tending to elitism and the progressives supporting the universalisation of fundamental institutions, such as universal suffrage, universal education and the expansion of property rights. Over time, the moderates displaced the progressives as the main guardians of continental European liberalism. Words such as liberal, liberty and libertine all trace their history to the Latin liber, which means "free". One of the first recorded instances of the word liberal occurs in 1375, when it was used to describe the liberal arts in the context of an education desirable for a free-born man; the word's early connection with the classical education of a medieval university soon gave way to a proliferation of different denotations and connotations.
Liberal could refer to "free in bestowing" as early as 1387, "made without stint" in 1433, "freely permitted" in 1530 and "free from restraint"—often as a pejorative remark—in the 16th and the 17th centuries. In 16th century England, liberal could have positive or negative attributes in referring to someone's generosity or indiscretion. In Much Ado About Nothing, William Shakespeare wrote of "a liberal villaine" who "hath confest his vile encounters". With the rise of the Enlightenment, the word acquired decisively more positive undertones, being defined as "free from narrow prejudice" in 1781 and "free from bigotry" in 1823. In 1815, the first use of the word "liberalism" appeared in English. In Spain, the liberales, the first group to use the liberal label in a political context, fought for decades for the implementation of the 1812 Constitution. From 1820 to 1823 during the Trienio Liberal, King Ferdinand VII was compelled by the liberales to swear to uphold the Constitution. By the middle of the 19th century, liberal was used as a politicised term for parties and movements worldwide.
Over time, the meaning of the word liberalism began to diverge in different parts of the world. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica: "In the United States, liberalism is associated with the welfare-state policies of the New Deal programme of the Democratic administration of Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt, where
Moldova the Republic of Moldova, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north and south. The capital city is Chișinău. Most of the Moldovan territory was a part of the Principality of Moldavia from the 14th century until 1812, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire by the Ottoman Empire and became known as Bessarabia. In 1856, southern Bessarabia was returned to Moldavia, which three years united with Wallachia to form Romania, but Russian rule was restored over the whole of the region in 1878. During the 1917 Russian Revolution, Bessarabia became autonomous and the independent Moldavian Democratic Republic until it was integrated into Romania in 1918 following a vote of its assembly; the decision was disputed by Soviet Russia, which in 1924 allowed the establishment, within the Ukrainian SSR, of a Moldavian autonomous republic on partial Moldovan-inhabited territories to the east of the Dniester. In 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia to the Soviet Union, leading to the creation of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, which included the greater part of Bessarabia and the westernmost strip of the former MASSR.
On 27 August 1991, as the dissolution of the Soviet Union was under way, the Moldavian SSR declared independence and took the name Moldova. The Constitution of Moldova was adopted in 1994; the strip of the Moldovan territory on the east bank of the Dniester river has been under the de facto control of the breakaway government of Transnistria since 1990. Due to a decrease in industrial and agricultural output following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the service sector has grown to dominate Moldova's economy and is over 60% of the nation's GDP, its economy is the poorest in Europe in per capita terms and has the lowest Human Development Index in the continent. Moldova is the least visited country in Europe by tourists with only 11,000 annually recorded visitors from abroad. Moldova is a parliamentary republic with a president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government, it is a member state of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and aspires to join the European Union.
The name "Moldova" is derived from the Moldova River. The origin of the name of the river remains unclear. According to a legend recounted by Moldavian chroniclers Dimitrie Cantemir and Grigore Ureche, Prince Dragoș named the river after hunting an aurochs: following the chase, the prince's exhausted hound Molda drowned in the river; the dog's name, given to the river, extended to the Principality. For a short time in the 1990s, at the founding of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the name of the current Republic of Moldova was spelled "Moldavia". After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the country began to use Moldova; the name Republic of Moldova is designated by the United Nations. The prehistory of Moldova covers the period from the Upper Paleolithic which begins with the presence of Homo sapiens in the area of Southeastern Europe some 44,000 years ago and extends into the appearance of the first written records in Classical Antiquity in Greece. In 2010 N. K. Anisjutkin discovered Oldowan flint tools at Bayraki.
During the Neolithic stone-age era, Moldova's territory stood at the centre of the large Cucuteni–Trypillia culture that stretched east beyond the Dniester River in Ukraine and west up to and beyond the Carpathian Mountains in Romania. The people of this civilization, which lasted from 5500 to 2750 BC, practised agriculture, raised livestock and made intricately-designed pottery. In antiquity, Moldova's territory was inhabited by Dacian tribes. Between the 1st and 7th centuries AD, the south was intermittently under the Roman, Byzantine Empires. Due to its strategic location on a route between Asia and Europe, the territory of modern Moldova was invaded many times in late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, including by Goths, Avars, Magyars, Cumans and Tatars. Friar William of Rubruck, who visited the court of the Great Khan in the 1250s, listed "the Blac", or Vlachs, among the peoples who paid tribute to the Mongols, but the Vlachs' territory is uncertain. Rubruck described "Blakia" as "Assan's territory" south of the Lower Danube, showing that he identified it with the northern regions of the Second Bulgarian Empire.
The Bolohoveni, a Vlach population, is mentioned by the Hypatian Chronicle in the 13th century. The chronicle shows that this land is bordered on the principalities of Halych and Kiev. Archaeological research identified the location of 13th-century fortified settlements in this region. Alexandru V. Boldur identified Voscodavie, Voloscovti, Volcovti and their other towns and villages between the middle course of the rivers Nistru/Dniester and Nipru/Dnieper; the Bolohoveni disappeared from chronicles after their defeat in 1257 by Daniel of Galicia's troops. In the early 13th century, the Brodniks, a possible Slavic–Vlach vassal state of Halych, were present, alongside the Vlachs, in much of the region's territory. On the border between Halych and the
Chișinău known as Kishinev, is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Moldova. The city is Moldova's main industrial and commercial center, is located in the middle of the country, on the river Bâc, a tributary of Dniester. According to the results of the 2014 census, the city proper had a population of 532,513, while the number of population in the Municipality of Chișinău was 662,836. Chișinău is its largest transportation hub; the origin of the city's name is unclear, but in one version, the name comes from the archaic Romanian word chișla and nouă, because it was built around a small spring, at the corner of Pușkin and Albișoara streets. The other version, formulated by Ștefan Ciobanu, Romanian historian and academician, holds that the name was formed the same way as the name of Chișineu in Western Romania, near the border with Hungary, its Hungarian name is Kisjenő, from. Kisjenő comes from kis "small" and the "Jenő", one of the seven Hungarian tribes that entered the Carpathian Basin in 896.
At least 24 other settlements are named after the "Jenő" tribe. Chișinău is known in Russian as Кишинёв, it is written Kişinöv in the Latin Gagauz alphabet. It was written as "Chișineu" in pre-20th-century Romanian and as "Кишинэу" in the Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet; the English language name for the city, "Kishinev", was based on the modified Russian one because it entered the English language via Russian at the time Chișinău was part of the Russian Empire. Therefore, it remains a common English name in some historical contexts. Otherwise, the Romanian-based "Chișinău" has been gaining wider currency in written language; the city is historically referred to as German: Kischinau, Polish: Kiszyniów, Ukrainian: Кишинів, or Yiddish: קעשענעװ, translit. Keshenev. Founded in 1436 as a monastery village, the city was part of the Principality of Moldavia. At the beginning of the 19th century Chișinău was a small town of 7,000 inhabitants. In 1812, in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War, the eastern half of Moldavia was ceded to the Russian Empire.
The newly acquired territories became known as Bessarabia. Chișinău became the capital of the newly annexed oblast of Bessarabia. By 1834, an imperial townscape with broad and long roads had emerged as a result of a generous development plan, which divided Chișinău into two areas: the old part of the town, with its irregular building structures, a newer city center and station. Between 26 May 1830 and 13 October 1836 the architect Avraam Melnikov established the Catedrala Nașterea Domnului with a magnificent bell tower. In 1840 the building of the Triumphal arch, planned by the architect Luca Zaushkevich, was completed. Following this the construction of numerous buildings and landmarks began. On 28 August 1871, Chișinău was linked by rail with Tiraspol, in 1873 with Cornești. Chișinău-Ungheni-Iași railway was opened on 1 June 1875 in preparation for the Russo-Turkish War; the town played an important part in the war between Russia and Ottoman Empire, as the main staging area of the Russian invasion.
During the Belle Époque, the mayor of the city was Carol Schmidt, considered one of Chisinau's best mayors. Its population had grown to 92,000 by 1862, to 125,787 by 1900. In the late 19th century due to growing anti-Semitic sentiment in the Russian Empire and better economic conditions, many Jews chose to settle in Chișinău. By the year 1897, 46% of the population of Chișinău was Jewish, over 50,000 people. A large anti-Semitic riot took place in the town on April 19–20, 1903, which would be known as the Kishinev pogrom; the rioting continued for three days, resulting in 47 Jews dead, 92 wounded, 500 suffering minor injuries. In addition, several hundred houses and many businesses were destroyed; the pogroms are believed to have been incited by anti-Jewish propaganda in the only official newspaper of the time, Bessarabetz. Mayor Schmidt disapproved of the incident and resigned in 1903; the reactions to this incident included a petition to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia on behalf of the American people by US President Theodore Roosevelt in July 1905.
On 22 August 1905 another violent event occurred: The police opened fire on an estimated 3,000 demonstrating agricultural workers. Only a few months 19–20 October 1905, a further protest occurred, helping to force the hand of Nicholas II in bringing about the October Manifesto. However, these demonstrations turned into another anti-Jewish pogrom, resulting in 19 deaths. Following the Russian October Revolution, Bessarabia declared independence from the crumbling empire, as the Moldavian Democratic Republic, before joining the Kingdom of Romania; as of 1919, Chișinău, with an estimated population of 133,000, became the second largest city in Romania. Between 1918 and 1940, the center of the city undertook large renovation work. Romania granted important subsidies to its province and initiated large scale investment programs in the infrastructure of the main cities in Bessarabia, expanded the railroad infrastructure and started an extensive program to eradicate illiteracy. In 1927, the Stephen the Great Monument, by the sculptor Alexandru Plămădeală, was erected.
In 1933, the f
Christian-Democratic People's Party (Moldova)
The Christian-Democratic People's Party is a Christian democratic political party in Moldova. The party was led by Iurie Roșca from 1994 until 2011; until 2005, the PPCD and the National Liberal Party were the main political organizations in the country supporting the unification of Moldova and Romania. After the PPCD began supporting the anti-unification Communist President Vladimir Voronin, the party has lost its unionist credentials while other parties such as the Liberal Party have taken over the pro-Romanian ideological space; the party has had poor results in all subsequent elections. Since April 2005, the PPCD has lost several deputies, mayors and members to the liberal-democratic parties; the PPCD was an informal coalition partner of the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova from 2005–2009. It is the successor of the Democratic Movement of Moldova, Popular Front of Moldova, the Christian Democratic Popular Front. In March 2005, the party became an observer member of the European People's Party.
The 2002 one-month suspension of party's activities was found to be in violation of its freedoms of assembly and association by the European Court of Human Rights in 2006. Official website Election results at e-democracy.md
Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova
The Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova is a communist party in Moldova led by Vladimir Voronin. It is the only communist party to have held a majority in government in the post-Soviet states; the PCRM is part of the Party of the European Left. The PCRM was registered as a political party in 1994; the PCRM was part of the Popular Patriotic Forces Front at the time of the 1996 presidential election, in which Voronin stood as the coalition's candidate and won 10.3% of the vote, placing third. The party supported Petru Lucinschi in the second round of the election, following Lucinschi's victory the PCRM was given two positions in the government. In the March 1998 parliamentary election, the PCRM won 30.1% of the vote and 40 seats, becoming the largest party in parliament. Despite its strong showing, the PCRM was left in opposition due to the formation of a center-right coalition government, Alliance for Democracy and Reforms. Although Lucinschi nominated Voronin as Prime Minister of Moldova in late 1999, the nomination was unsuccessful because Voronin did not have enough support in parliament.
The PCRM received 49.9% of the vote in the February 2001 parliamentary election, winning 71 out of the 101 seats in parliament. With a PCRM parliamentary majority, Voronin was elected as President by parliament in April 2001; the Constitutional Court ruled that the President could lead a political party, Voronin was re-elected as party leader. As the ruling political party in Moldova, it won the Moldovan parliamentary election, 2005, provided the President, Vladimir Voronin, the Prime Minister, Zinaida Greceanîi, the Speaker of the Moldovan Parliament, Marian Lupu. Under Voronin, it governed in a multi-party fashion, it favors European integration and eventual EU membership. After April 2009 election and the civil unrest, the climate in Moldova became polarized; the parliament failed to elect a new president. For this reason, the parliament was dissolved and snap elections were held. At the July 29 polls the Communist Party received 44.7% of the vote. That gave the former ruling party 48 MPs, the remaining 53 seats in the 101-member chamber went to four opposition parties, Alliance For European Integration.
For the first time since 2001, communists went into opposition. After the Parliament failed to elect a new President of the Republic, snap elections were called. In the election, PCRM obtained 39.34% of votes, winning 42 seats, going again into opposition to the Alliance of European Integration. In 2011 Igor Dodon and Zinaida Greceanîi left the party and joined the Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova. Parliamentary election of 2014 saw a great defeat for PCRM, which received only 17.48% of votes, losing more than half of its electors to PSRM and electing 21 seats. Following the elections, the party agreed to give supply to the new Gaburici Cabinet; the Agreement collapsed in June 2015 and PCRM went back into opposition. In 2016, the party suffered a large split as 14 MPS left PCRM faction and established the Social Democratic Platform for Moldova, joining the majority of Filip Cabinet. On 10 March 2017, all 14 MPs joined the Democratic Party of Moldova. Since the party declined in polls, losing most of its votes to PSRM and PDM.
In the 2019 parliamentary election PCRM collapsed, receiving only 3,75% of votes and losing all representation in the Parliament. According to its Statute adopted in 2008, article 1, the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova is a "lawful successor and heir of the Communist Party of Moldavia both in terms of ideas and traditions". While espousing a Leninist communist doctrine, there is debate over their policies; the Economist considers it a centre-right party, communist only in name, whereas Romanian political scientist Vladimir Tismăneanu argues that the party is communist in the classical sense, as it has not changed much since the fall of the Soviet Union. Ion Marandici, a Moldovan political scientist considers that the success story of the Moldovan Communists is due to the Communists' capacity to attract the votes of the ethnic minorities and the Romanian-speakers identifying as Moldovans, by proposing a Moldovenist nation and state-project; the decline of the Communists followed after Marian Lupu, a key figure in Moldovan politics, left the Communists Party and joined the Democratic Party, thus bringing with him the Moldovan supporters of the Communists.
The party is opposed to any unification of Romania and Moldova. For the current period of governance, the PCRM has outlined the following goals for the country: A new quality of life. Official website
Liberal Party (Moldova)
The Liberal Party is a conservative-liberal political party in Moldova. The president of the party is Mihai Ghimpu, his nephew Dorin Chirtoacă is vice-president of the Party. The party was established under the name Party of Reform in 1993 by Anatol Șalaru. In 1997 Mihai Ghimpu was elected chairman; until April 2005, the party had a Christian democratic electoral platform. Competing in the 1994, 1998 and 2001 parliamentary elections, the Party of Reform failed to enter parliament, as its results of 2.36%, 0.54% and 0.67% failed to meet the electoral threshold of 5%. At the second party congress, held on 24 April 2005, party members adopted the new name Liberal Party, along with a new logo and programme, which presented a liberal political platform. Mihai Ghimpu was elected president of the party; the party competed in the April 2009 parliamentary election, obtaining 13.13% of the vote and of 15 seats in parliament. At the parliamentary election of 2009 in July, the popular vote rose to 14.68%, again winning 15 seats.
As a consequence of the second parliamentary election of 2009, the party signed a coalition agreement with the Liberal Democratic Party, the Democratic Party and Our Moldova Alliance, constituting the Alliance for European Integration. The party was included in the First Filat Cabinet. At the 2010 parliamentary election, the party obtained 9.96 % of 12 seats in parliament. The party remained in the Second Filat Cabinet; the European Action Movement merged into the party in March 2011. Under the leadership of Ghimpu, the party has altered its former Christian democratic orientation. On 25 January 2009, a Conference for the constitution of a Women's wing for the Liberal Party the "Liberal Women's Organisation" was held; the party formed a youth wing the "Young Liberals". The party has joined the Alliance of Democrats for Europe as an observer member. In February 2013 the party suffered an internal split. On 12 April 2013 the Liberal Party Reform Council was launched, with Ion Hadârcă as leader; the members of this Council were called "Liberal Reformers" by the media.
The internal split became permanent when a separate Liberal Reformist Party joined the Pro-European Coalition, formed after the dissolution of the Alliance for European Integration, remaining on in the Leancă Cabinet after the Liberal Party left the government. At the 2014 parliamentary election, the Liberal Party received 9.7 % of the vote. In the 2019 parliamentary election, the PL received 1.25% of the vote, losing its representation in parliament. In the 2007 local elections the party gained 18.31% in Chișinău municipality and 11 seats on the Chișinău Municipal Council. Its vice-president, Dorin Chirtoacă, became Mayor. Dorin Chirtoacă Mihai Ghimpu Corina Fusu Gheorghe Brega Boris Vieru Ion Apostol Ion Cebanu Official website
Mihai Ghimpu is a Moldovan politician. He was Speaker of Parliament from 28 August 2009 to 30 December 2010 and Acting President from 11 September 2009 until 28 December 2010. Mihai Ghimpu was born on 19 November 1951 in the village of Colonița, Chișinău, Moldavian SSR, his mother, Irina Ursu died in 2003. His father, Toader Ghimpu, was an elementary school teacher only a few years because he completed only seven years of schooling during the Romanian rule he worked at the local kolkhoz too. Mihai Ghimpu is the youngest brother of Gheorghe Ghimpu, Simion Ghimpu and Valentina, he has been married, for more than 30 years, to Dina Ghimpu, an employee of Moldova's Culture Ministry. After attending elementary school in his hometown, Mihai Ghimpu enrolled in School no.1 of Chișinău. After high school, he carried out the compulsory military service in the Soviet army until 1972. Ghimpu studied law at Moldova State University, after which worked as legal counsel to state enterprises. In 1978–1990 years he worked as a lawyer, headed the legal departments of various companies and served as a judge in Sectorul Rîșcani of Chișinău.
In the late 1980s Ghimpu joined the democratic movement. He was one of the founders of the Popular Front of Moldova, a member of the executive committee of the movement, known as one of the leading political forces in Moldova. In 1990 polls, Mihai Ghimpu was elected to Moldovan Parliament as a representative of Popular Front and in 1994 polls as a representative of the Bloc of the Intellectuals. Alongside parliament members, Ghimpu voted the Declaration of Independence of Moldova in 1991. In 1997 Mihai Ghimpu was elected as chairman of the Party of Reform, created by Anatol Șalaru in 1993. In 1998 polls, the party obtained only 0.54% and failed to pass the electoral threshold of 4%. The Party of Reform didn't participate in 2005 polls. In April 2005, the party became known as the Liberal Party of Moldova. In 2007, Mihai Ghimpu was elected as alderman in Chișinău Municipal Council. Two weeks the vice-president of the Liberal Party, Dorin Chirtoacă won a victory over the Communist Veaceslav Iordan and became mayor of Chișinău.
The Liberal Party obtained 13.13 % of the votes in April 2009 polls. According to last polls made in 2019 referring to the most popular politicians of the Republic of Moldova, Mihai Ghimpu is on the fifteenth position among the top of politicians in which Moldovans have the highest trust, an the others are on the eleventh position 1988-1993: Founder of the democratic movement the Popular Front of Moldova, member of the Executive Office 1990-1998: Member of Parliament of the Republic of Moldova, Vice Chairman of Legal Committee 1993-1998: The Congress of Intellectuals, Executive Secretary, Vice President 1998–present: Chairman of the Liberal Party 2007-2009: alderman in Chișinau Municipal Council 2007-2008: Chairman of the Chișinau Municipal Council 28 August 2009: Elected as Speaker of the Moldovan Parliament 11 September 2009 - 28 December 2010: interim President of the Republic of Moldova. In July 2009 were held early parliamentary elections for the XVIII convocation; the Moldovan Communist Party won the elections with 44.76 per cent of votes.
In the parliament entered four other parties - the Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova, Liberal Party, Democratic Party of Moldova and the Party Alliance Our Moldova. As a result, the Communists gained 48 seats in Parliament, the Liberal Democrats - 18, Liberals - 15, ASM - 7, the Democrats - 13; the leader of Liberal Party, Mihai Ghimpu, as well as leaders of the Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova, Vlad Filat, Democratic Party of Moldova, Marian Lupu and the Party Alliance Our Moldova Serafim Urechean more than a week held talks on forming a coalition, in August 2009 the party established a governing coalition under the banner "Alliance For European Integration". On 28 August 2009 Mihai Ghimpu was elected as the Speaker of the Moldovan Parliament, through secret voting, getting all 53 votes of the Alliance For European Integration. Mihai Ghimpu on 28 August 2009: "I thank my colleagues for their trust. I hope that while in this post I will cooperate for a free press, independent legal system, a state of law of which all the Moldovan citizens will be proud."Speaking at the World Conference of Speakers of Parliament in Geneva on 20 July 2010, Ghimpu said: "Why have we become the poorest country in Europe?
Not only because we did not carry out democratic reforms at the right time, but because today on the territory of Moldova, part of an occupation army and its equipment continue to be stationed." On 11 September 2009 he became the acting president of Moldova. The interim position was possible following the resignation of Moldovan President, Vladimir Voronin, announced in the morning of 11 September 2009 on the public broadcaster Moldova 1; the resignation letter was sent to the Parliament secretariat and by a vote of 52 deputies in the plenary session of the legislature the post of the President of the Republic of Moldova was declared vacant. Therefore, in accordance with Article 91 of the Constitution of 1994, which provides that "the responsibility of the office shall devolve ad interim to the President of Parliament or the Prime Minister, in that order of priority", Mihai Ghimpu has become the interim President of the Republic of Moldova until a new president is elected by the Parliament