Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method. Pseudoscience is characterized by contradictory, exaggerated or unfalsifiable claims; the term pseudoscience is considered pejorative because it suggests something is being presented as science inaccurately or deceptively. Those described as practicing or advocating pseudoscience dispute the characterization; the demarcation between science and pseudoscience has scientific implications. Differentiating science from pseudoscience has practical implications in the case of health care, expert testimony, environmental policies, science education. Distinguishing scientific facts and theories from pseudoscientific beliefs, such as those found in astrology, alternative medicine, occult beliefs, religious beliefs, creation science, is part of science education and scientific literacy. Pseudoscience can cause negative consequences in the real world.
Antivaccine activists present pseudoscientific studies that falsely call into question the safety of vaccines. Homeopathic remedies with no active ingredients have been promoted as treatment for deadly diseases; the word pseudoscience is derived from the Greek root pseudo meaning false and the English word science, from the Latin word scientia, meaning "knowledge". Although the term has been in use since at least the late 18th century the concept of pseudoscience as distinct from real or proper science seems to have become more widespread during the mid-19th century. Among the earliest uses of "pseudo-science" was in an 1844 article in the Northern Journal of Medicine, issue 387: That opposite kind of innovation which pronounces what has been recognized as a branch of science, to have been a pseudo-science, composed of so-called facts, connected together by misapprehensions under the disguise of principles. An earlier use of the term was in 1843 by the French physiologist François Magendie.
During the 20th century, the word was used pejoratively to describe explanations of phenomena which were claimed to be scientific, but which were not in fact supported by reliable experimental evidence. From time-to-time, the usage of the word occurred in a more formal, technical manner in response to a perceived threat to individual and institutional security in a social and cultural setting. Philosophers classify types of knowledge. In English, the word science is used to indicate the natural sciences and related fields, which are called the social sciences. Different philosophers of science may disagree on the exact limits – for example, is mathematics a formal science, closer to the empirical ones, or is pure mathematics closer to the philosophical study of logic and therefore not a science? – but all agree that all of the ideas that are not scientific are non-scientific. The large category of non-science includes all matters outside the natural and social sciences, such as the study of history, religion and the humanities.
Dividing the category again, unscientific claims are a subset of the large category of non-scientific claims. This category includes all matters that are directly opposed to good science. Un-science includes pseudoscience, thus pseudoscience is a subset of un-science, un-science, in turn, is subset of non-science. Pseudoscience is differentiated from science because – although it claims to be science – pseudoscience does not adhere to accepted scientific standards, such as the scientific method, falsifiability of claims, Mertonian norms. A number of basic principles are accepted by scientists as standards for determining whether a body of knowledge, method, or practice is scientific. Experimental results should be verified by other researchers; these principles are intended to ensure experiments can be reproduced measurably given the same conditions, allowing further investigation to determine whether a hypothesis or theory related to given phenomena is valid and reliable. Standards require the scientific method to be applied throughout, bias to be controlled for or eliminated through randomization, fair sampling procedures, blinding of studies, other methods.
All gathered data, including the experimental or environmental conditions, are expected to be documented for scrutiny and made available for peer review, allowing further experiments or studies to be conducted to confirm or falsify results. Statistical quantification of significance and error are important tools for the scientific method. During the mid-20th century, the philosopher Karl Popper emphasized the criterion of falsifiability to distinguish science from nonscience. Statements, hypotheses, or theories have falsifiability or refutability if there is the inherent possibility that they can be proven false; that is, if it is possible to conceive of an argument which negates them. Popper used astrology and psychoanalysis as examples of pseudoscience and Einstein's theory of relativity as an example of science, he subdivided nonscience into philosophical, mythological and metaphysical formulations on one hand, pseudoscientific formulations on the other, though he did not provide clear criteria for the differences.
Another example which shows the distinct need for a claim to be f
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; the chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals. Aluminium is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames; the oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium. Despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals; because of these salts' abundance, the potential for a biological role for them is of continuing interest, studies continue.
Of aluminium isotopes, only 27Al is stable. This is consistent with aluminium having an odd atomic number, it is the only aluminium isotope that has existed on Earth in its current form since the creation of the planet. Nearly all the element on Earth is present as this isotope, which makes aluminium a mononuclidic element and means that its standard atomic weight equates to that of the isotope; the standard atomic weight of aluminium is low in comparison with many other metals, which has consequences for the element's properties. All other isotopes of aluminium are radioactive; the most stable of these is 26Al and therefore could not have survived since the formation of the planet. However, 26Al is produced from argon in the atmosphere by spallation caused by cosmic ray protons; the ratio of 26Al to 10Be has been used for radiodating of geological processes over 105 to 106 year time scales, in particular transport, sediment storage, burial times, erosion. Most meteorite scientists believe that the energy released by the decay of 26Al was responsible for the melting and differentiation of some asteroids after their formation 4.55 billion years ago.
The remaining isotopes of aluminium, with mass numbers ranging from 21 to 43, all have half-lives well under an hour. Three metastable states are known, all with half-lives under a minute. An aluminium atom has 13 electrons, arranged in an electron configuration of 3s23p1, with three electrons beyond a stable noble gas configuration. Accordingly, the combined first three ionization energies of aluminium are far lower than the fourth ionization energy alone. Aluminium can easily surrender its three outermost electrons in many chemical reactions; the electronegativity of aluminium is 1.61. A free aluminium atom has a radius of 143 pm. With the three outermost electrons removed, the radius shrinks to 39 pm for a 4-coordinated atom or 53.5 pm for a 6-coordinated atom. At standard temperature and pressure, aluminium atoms form a face-centered cubic crystal system bound by metallic bonding provided by atoms' outermost electrons; this crystal system is shared by some other metals, such as copper. Aluminium metal, when in quantity, is shiny and resembles silver because it preferentially absorbs far ultraviolet radiation while reflecting all visible light so it does not impart any color to reflected light, unlike the reflectance spectra of copper and gold.
Another important characteristic of aluminium is its low density, 2.70 g/cm3. Aluminium is a soft, lightweight and malleable with appearance ranging from silvery to dull gray, depending on the surface roughness, it is nonmagnetic and does not ignite. A fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation; the yield strength of pure aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has stiffness of steel, it is machined, cast and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a face-centered cubic structure. Aluminium has a stacking-fault energy of 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a good thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper, both thermal and electrical, while having only 30% of copper's density. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity, with a superconducting critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin and a critical magnetic field of about 100 gauss.
Aluminium is the most common material for the fabrication of superconducting qubits. Aluminium's corrosion resistance can be excellent due to a thin surface layer of aluminium oxide that forms when the bare metal is exposed to air preventing further oxidation, in a process termed passivation; the strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is reduced by aqueous salts in the presence of dissimilar metals. In acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, in alkaline ones to form aluminates—protective passivation under these conditions is negligible; because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides, such as common sodium chloride, household plumbing is never made from aluminium. However, because
Brainwashing is the concept that the human mind can be altered or controlled by certain psychological techniques. Brainwashing is said to reduce its subject’s ability to think critically or independently, to allow the introduction of new, unwanted thoughts and ideas into the subject’s mind, as well as to change his or her attitudes and beliefs; the concept of brainwashing was developed in the 1950s to explain how the Chinese government appeared to make people cooperate with them. Advocates of the concept looked at Nazi Germany, at some criminal cases in the United States, at the actions of human traffickers, it was applied by Margaret Singer, Philip Zimbardo, some others in the anti-cult movement to explain conversions to some new religious movements and other groups. This resulted in scientific and legal debate with Eileen Barker, James Richardson, other scholars, as well as legal experts, rejecting at least the popular understanding of brainwashing; the concept of brainwashing is sometimes involved in legal cases regarding child custody.
Although the term appears in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association brainwashing is not accepted as scientific fact. The Chinese term xǐnăo was used to describe the coercive persuasion used under the Maoist government in China, which aimed to transform "reactionary" people into "right-thinking" members of the new Chinese social system; the term punned on the Taoist custom of "cleansing / washing the heart / mind" before conducting ceremonies or entering holy places. The Oxford English Dictionary records the earliest known English-language usage of the word "brainwashing" in an article by newspaperman Edward Hunter, in Miami News, published on 24 September 1950. Hunter was an outspoken anticommunist and was alleged to be a CIA agent working undercover as a journalist. Hunter and others used the Chinese term to explain why, during the Korean War, some American prisoners of war cooperated with their Chinese captors in a few cases defected to their side.
British radio operator Robert W. Ford and British army Colonel James Carne claimed that the Chinese subjected them to brainwashing techniques during their war-era imprisonment; the U. S. military and government laid charges of brainwashing in an effort to undermine confessions made by POWs to war crimes, including biological warfare. After Chinese radio broadcasts claimed to quote Frank Schwable, Chief of Staff of the First Marine Air Wing admitting to participating in germ warfare, United Nations commander Gen. Mark W. Clark asserted: Whether these statements passed the lips of these unfortunate men is doubtful. If they did, too familiar are the mind-annihilating methods of these Communists in extorting whatever words they want.... The men themselves are not to blame, they have my deepest sympathy for having been used in this abominable way. Beginning in 1953, Robert Jay Lifton interviewed American servicemen, POWs during the Korean War as well as priests and teachers, held in prison in China after 1951.
In addition to interviews with 25 Americans and Europeans, Lifton interviewed 15 Chinese citizens who had fled after having been subjected to indoctrination in Chinese universities. Lifton found that when the POWs returned to the United States their thinking soon returned to normal, contrary to the popular image of "brainwashing."In 1956, after reexamining the concept of brainwashing following the Korean War, the U. S. Army published a report entitled Communist Interrogation and Exploitation of Prisoners of War, which called brainwashing a "popular misconception"; the report concludes that "exhaustive research of several government agencies failed to reveal one conclusively documented case of'brainwashing' of an American prisoner of war in Korea." In George Orwell's 1949 dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four the main character is subjected to imprisonment and torture in order to conform his thoughts and emotions to the wishes of the rulers of Orwell's fictional future totalitarian society. Orwell's vision influenced Hunter and is still reflected in the popular understanding of the concept of brainwashing.
In the 1950s many American films were filmed that featured brainwashing of POWs, including The Rack, The Bamboo Prison, Toward the Unknown, The Fearmakers. The film Forbidden Area told the story of Soviet secret agents, brainwashed through classical conditioning by their own government so they wouldn't reveal their identities. In 1962 The Manchurian Candidate "put brainwashing front and center" by featuring a plot by the Soviet government to take over the United States by use of a brainwashed presidential candidate; the concept of brainwashing became popularly associated with the research of Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov, which involved dogs, not humans, as subjects. In The Manchurian Candidate the head brainwasher is Dr. Yen Lo, of the Pavlov Institute; the science fiction stories of Cordwainer Smith depict brainwashing to remove memories of traumatic events as a normal and benign part of future medical practice. Mind control remains an important theme in science fiction. Terry O'Brien comments: "Mind control is such a powerful image that if hypnoti
Idiots in the Machine
Idiots in the Machine is a darkly comic 2001 novel by Edward Savio about a man, inadvertently dragged into the media spotlight. The central character, Noel "Satan" Dorobek, is a reclusive near-genius who gets his nickname because he believes there are people living inside the earth, that this is the Eden we were cast out of; because he believes wearing tin foil keeps him safe from harmful gamma rays, he becomes a media sensation by marketing a successful line of tin-foil hats. The story is set in the U. S. city of Chicago, Illinois. Savio was inspired to write Idiots after stumbling upon John Kennedy Toole's A Confederacy of Dunces; as Savio noted in his acknowledgement, the first two paragraphs of Idiots are an homage to Toole's opening. Idiots in the Machine was sold as a movie before it was sold as a novel. Although it is common for film rights to be purchased before publication, Sony Pictures purchased the film rights for Academy Award-winning producer Wendy Finerman six years before the novel was published.
Savio has said in interviews that after writing several screenplay versions, he went back and rewrote the novel. Although purchased by Sony Pictures in 1995, no film has yet been made. At one point Chris Farley was rumored for the lead role, he died in 1997. The pivotal scene in the novel takes place on top the John Hancock Center, which coincidentally, is where Farley was found dead in his apartment on the 60th floor. Tin foil hats in pop culture
A Faraday cage or Faraday shield is an enclosure used to block electromagnetic fields. A Faraday shield may be formed by a continuous covering of conductive material, or in the case of a Faraday cage, by a mesh of such materials. Faraday cages are named after the English scientist Michael Faraday, who invented them in 1836. A Faraday cage operates because an external electrical field causes the electric charges within the cage's conducting material to be distributed so that they cancel the field's effect in the cage's interior; this phenomenon is used to protect sensitive electronic equipment from external radio frequency interference. Faraday cages are used to enclose devices that produce RFI, such as radio transmitters, to prevent their radio waves from interfering with other nearby equipment, they are used to protect people and equipment against actual electric currents such as lightning strikes and electrostatic discharges, since the enclosing cage conducts current around the outside of the enclosed space and none passes through the interior.
Faraday cages cannot block stable or varying magnetic fields, such as the Earth's magnetic field. To a large degree, they shield the interior from external electromagnetic radiation if the conductor is thick enough and any holes are smaller than the wavelength of the radiation. For example, certain computer forensic test procedures of electronic systems that require an environment free of electromagnetic interference can be carried out within a screened room; these rooms are spaces that are enclosed by one or more layers of a fine metal mesh or perforated sheet metal. The metal layers are grounded to dissipate any electric currents generated from external or internal electromagnetic fields, thus they block a large amount of the electromagnetic interference. See electromagnetic shielding, they provide less attenuation of outgoing transmissions than incoming: they can block EMP waves from natural phenomena effectively, but a tracking device in upper frequencies, may be able to penetrate from within the cage.
A common misconception is that a Faraday cage provides full attenuation. The reception or transmission of radio waves, a form of electromagnetic radiation, to or from an antenna within a Faraday cage is attenuated or blocked by the cage. Near-field high-powered frequency transmissions like HF RFID are more to penetrate. Solid cages attenuate fields over a broader range of frequencies than mesh cages. In 1836, Michael Faraday observed that the excess charge on a charged conductor resided only on its exterior and had no influence on anything enclosed within it. To demonstrate this fact, he built a room coated with metal foil and allowed high-voltage discharges from an electrostatic generator to strike the outside of the room, he used an electroscope to show that there was no electric charge present on the inside of the room's walls. Although this cage effect has been attributed to Michael Faraday's famous ice pail experiments performed in 1843, it was Benjamin Franklin in 1755 who observed the effect by lowering an uncharged cork ball suspended on a silk thread through an opening in an electrically charged metal can.
In his words, "the cork was not attracted to the inside of the can as it would have been to the outside, though it touched the bottom, yet when drawn out it was not found to be electrified by that touch, as it would have been by touching the outside. The fact is singular." Franklin had discovered the behavior of what we now refer to shield. Additionally, the Abbe Nollet published an early account of an effect attributable to the cage effect in his Leçons de physique expérimentale. A continuous Faraday shield is a hollow conductor. Externally or internally applied electromagnetic fields produce forces on the charge carriers within the conductor; the redistributed charges reduce the voltage within the surface, to an extent depending on the capacitance, full cancellation does not occur. If a charge is placed inside an ungrounded Faraday cage, the internal face of the cage becomes charged to prevent the existence of a field inside the body of the cage, this charging of the inner face re-distributes the charges in the body of the cage.
This charges the outer face of the cage with a charge equal in sign and magnitude to the one placed inside the cage. Since the internal charge and the inner face cancel each other out, the spread of charges on the outer face is not affected by the position of the internal charge inside the cage. So for all intents and purposes, the cage generates the same DC electric field that it would generate if it were affected by the charge placed inside; the same is not true for electromagnetic waves. If the cage is grounded, the excess charges will be neutralized as the ground connection creates an equipotential bonding between the outside of the cage and the environment, so there is no voltage between them and therefor no field; the inner face and the inner charge will remain the same. Effectiveness of shielding of a static electric field is independent of the geometry of the conductive material, static magnetic fields can penetrate the shie
Electromagnetic radiation and health
At sufficiently high flux levels, various bands of electromagnetic radiation have been found to cause deleterious health effects in people. Electromagnetic radiation can be classified into two types: ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation, based on the capability of a single photon with more than 10 eV energy to ionize oxygen or break chemical bonds. Extreme ultraviolet and higher frequencies, such as X-rays or gamma rays are ionizing, these pose their own special hazards: see radiation and radiation poisoning; the last quarter of the twentieth century saw a dramatic increase in the number of devices emitting non-ionizing radiation in all segments of society, which resulted in an elevation of health concerns by researchers and clinicians, an associated interest in government regulation for safety purposes. In the United States, this has resulted in legislation such as the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968 and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. By far the most common health hazard of radiation is sunburn, which causes over one million new skin cancers annually in United States.
Sufficiently strong electromagnetic radiation can cause electric currents in conductive materials, strong enough to create sparks when an induced voltage exceeds the breakdown voltage of the surrounding medium. These can deliver an electric shock to animals. For example, the radio emissions from transmission lines have caused shocks to construction workers from nearby equipment, causing OSHA to establish standards for proper handling. EMR-induced sparks can ignite nearby flammable materials or gases, which can be hazardous in the vicinity of explosives or pyrotechnics; this risk is referred to as Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance by the United States Navy. United States Military Standard 464A mandates assessment of HERO in a system, but USN document OD 30393 provides design principles and practices for controlling electromagnetic hazards to ordnance; the risk related to fueling is known as Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Fuel. NAVSEA OP 3565 Vol. 1 could be used to evaluate HERF, which states a maximum power density of 0.09 W/m² for frequencies under 225 MHz.
Dielectric heating from electromagnetic fields can create a biological hazard. For example, touching or standing around an antenna while a high-power transmitter is in operation can cause severe burns; these are the kind of burns that would be caused inside a microwave oven. The dialectric heating effect varies with the power and the frequency of the electromagnetic energy, as well as the distance to the source; the eyes and testes are susceptible to radio frequency heating due to the paucity of blood flow in these areas that could otherwise dissipate the heat buildup. Radio frequency energy at power density levels of 1-10 mW/cm2 or higher can cause measurable heating of tissues. Typical RF energy levels encountered by the general public are well below the level needed to cause significant heating, but certain workplace environments near high power RF sources may exceed safe exposure limits. A measure of the heating effect is the specific absorption rate or SAR, which has units of watts per kilogram.
The IEEE and many national governments have established safety limits for exposure to various frequencies of electromagnetic energy based on SAR based on ICNIRP Guidelines, which guard against thermal damage. The World Health Organization began a research effort in 1996 to study the health effects from the ever-increasing exposure of people to a diverse range of EMR sources. After 30 years of extensive study, science has yet to confirm a health risk from exposure to low-level fields. However, there remain gaps in the understanding of the biological effects, more research needs to be performed. Studies are being run to determine if EM exposure can cause detrimental effects. Animal studies are being used to look for effects impacting more complex physiologies that are similar to humans. Epidemiological studies look for statistical correlations between EM exposure in the field and specific health effects; as of 2019, much of the current work is focused on the study of EM fields in relation to cancer.
There are publications which support the existence of complex biological and neurological effects of weaker non-thermal electromagnetic fields, including weak ELF electromagnetic fields and modulated RF and microwave fields. Fundamental mechanisms of the interaction between biological material and electromagnetic fields at non-thermal levels are not understood. While the most acute exposures to harmful levels of electromagnetic radiation are realized as burns, the health effects due to chronic or occupational exposure may not manifest effects for months or years. High-power, extremely-low-frequency RF with electric field levels in the low kV/m range are known to induce perceivable currents within the human body that create an annoying tingling sensation; these currents will flow to ground through a body contact surface such as the feet, or arc to ground where the body is well insulated. Shortwave diathermy can be used as a therapeutic technique for its analgesic effect and deep muscle relaxation, but has been replaced by ultrasound.
Temperatures in muscles can increase by 4–6 °C, subcutaneous fat by 15 °C. The FCC has restricted the frequencies allowed for medical treatment, most machines in the US use 27.12 MHz. Shortwave diathermy can be applied in either pulsed mode; the latter came to prominence because the continuous mode produced too much heating too making patient
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the