Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Pennsylvania State University
The Pennsylvania State University is a state-related, land-grant, doctoral university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania. Founded in 1855 as the Farmers’ High School of Pennsylvania, known as the University of State College, Penn State conducts teaching and public service, its instructional mission includes undergraduate, graduate and continuing education offered through resident instruction and online delivery. Its University Park campus, the flagship campus, lies within the Borough of State College and College Township, it has two law schools: Penn State Law, on the school's University Park campus, Dickinson Law, located in Carlisle, 90 miles south of State College. The College of Medicine is located in Hershey. Penn State has another 19 commonwealth campuses and 5 special mission campuses located across the state. Penn State has been labeled one of the "Public Ivies," a publicly funded university considered as providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.
Annual enrollment at the University Park campus totals more than 46,800 graduate and undergraduate students, making it one of the largest universities in the United States. It has the world's largest dues-paying alumni association; the university's total enrollment in 2015–16 was 97,500 across its 24 campuses and online through its World Campus. The university offers more than 160 majors among all its campuses and administers $3.62 billion in endowment and similar funds. The university's research expenditures totaled $836 million during the 2016 fiscal year. Annually, the university hosts the Penn State IFC/Panhellenic Dance Marathon, the world's largest student-run philanthropy; this event is held at the Bryce Jordan Center on the University Park campus. In 2014, THON raised a program record of $13.3 million. The university's athletics teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Penn State Nittany Lions, they compete in the Big Ten Conference for most sports. The school was founded as a degree-granting institution on February 22, 1855, by Pennsylvania's state legislature as the Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania.
Centre County, became the home of the new school when James Irvin of Bellefonte, donated 200 acres of land – the first of 10,101 acres the school would acquire. In 1862, the school's name was changed to the Agricultural College of Pennsylvania, with the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts, Pennsylvania selected the school in 1863 to be the state's sole land-grant college; the school's name changed to the Pennsylvania State College in 1874. George W. Atherton became president of the school in 1882, broadened the curriculum. Shortly after he introduced engineering studies, Penn State became one of the ten largest engineering schools in the nation. Atherton expanded the liberal arts and agriculture programs, for which the school began receiving regular appropriations from the state in 1887. A major road in State College has been named in Atherton's honor. Additionally, Penn State's Atherton Hall, a well-furnished and centrally located residence hall, is named not after George Atherton himself, but after his wife, Frances Washburn Atherton.
His grave is in front of Schwab Auditorium near Old Main, marked by an engraved marble block in front of his statue. In the years that followed, Penn State grew becoming the state's largest grantor of baccalaureate degrees and reaching an enrollment of 5,000 in 1936. Around that time, a system of commonwealth campuses was started by President Ralph Dorn Hetzel to provide an alternative for Depression-era students who were economically unable to leave home to attend college. In 1953, President Milton S. Eisenhower, brother of then-U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and won permission to elevate the school to university status as The Pennsylvania State University. Under his successor Eric A. Walker, the university acquired hundreds of acres of surrounding land, enrollment nearly tripled. In addition, in 1967, the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, a college of medicine and hospital, was established in Hershey with a $50 million gift from the Hershey Trust Company. In the 1970s, the university became a state-related institution.
As such, it now belongs to the Commonwealth System of Higher Education. In 1975, the lyrics in Penn State's alma mater song were revised to be gender-neutral in honor of International Women's Year. In 1989, the Pennsylvania College of Technology in Williamsport joined ranks with the university, in 2000, so did the Dickinson School of Law; the university is now the largest in Pennsylvania, in 2003, it was credited with having the second-largest impact on the state economy of any organization, generating an economic effect of over $17 billion on a budget of $2.5 billion. To offset the lack of funding due to the limited growth in state appropriations to Penn State, the university has concentrated its efforts on philanthropy. In 2011, the university and its football team garnered major international media attention and criticism due to a sex abuse scandal in which university officials were alleged to have covered up incidents of child sexual abuse by former football team
Pennsylvania House of Representatives
The Pennsylvania House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Pennsylvania General Assembly, the legislature of the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. There are 203 members, elected for two-year terms from single member districts. Republican Mike Turzai was first elected Speaker of the House on January 6, 2015. In 2012, a State Representative district had an average population of 60,498 residents, it is the largest full-time state legislature in the country. The Hall of the House contains important symbols to Pennsylvania history and the work of legislators. Speaker's Chair: a throne-like chair of rank that sits directly behind the Speaker's rostrum. Architect Joseph Huston designed the chair in 1906, the year. Mace: the House symbol of authority, peace and respect for law rests in a pedestal to the right of the Speaker, its base is solid mahogany, intricately carved and capped by a brass globe engraved with the Pennsylvania coat of arms. An American Eagle perches on top; the tradition of the mace may date to the Roman Republic when attendants of Roman consuls carried bundles of sticks wrapped around an axe to enforce order.
The tradition is common may come directly from Pennsylvania's English heritage. Murals: a colorful panorama of Pennsylvania history appear in murals by Edwin Austin Abbey; the most commanding of the series hangs behind the Speaker's rostrum and dominates the wall behind the Speaker. It is called The Apotheosis of Pennsylvania Ceiling: a work of art in itself with its ornate geometry of gold leaf buttoned at the center by a charming painted illustration. In "The Hours", Abbey represents the passage of time in the form of 24 maidens revolving in an endless circle amidst the moon, the sun and the stars of the Milky Way; the speakership is the oldest elected statewide office in the Commonwealth. Since its first session in 1682—presided over by William Penn—over 130 house members have been elevated to the speaker's chair; the house cannot hold an official session in the absence of the speaker or his designated speaker pro tempore. Speaker Leroy Irvis was the first African American elected speaker of any state legislature in the United States since Reconstruction.
Speaker Dennis O'Brien was the only minority-party Speaker known in Pennsylvania and only the second known nationwide. Pennsylvania has never had a female speaker; as of November 13, 2018 Speaker of the House of Representatives: Mike Turzai Pennsylvania State Senate Project Vote Smart List of Pennsylvania state legislatures Specific GeneralTrostle, Sharon, ed.. The Pennsylvania Manual. 119. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Department of General Services. ISBN 0-8182-0334-X. Pennsylvania House of Representatives State House of Pennsylvania information and voting records This link leads to information about elected officials and candidates in Pennsylvania on the website "Project Vote Smart." This web site provides such information for all states in the US
The Culinary Institute of America
The Culinary Institute of America is an American private college and culinary school specializing in culinary and pastry arts education. The school's primary campus is located in Hyde Park, New York, with branch campuses in St. Helena and Napa, San Antonio and the Republic of Singapore; the college, the first to teach culinary arts in the United States, offers associate, bachelor's, master's degrees, has the largest staff of American Culinary Federation Certified Master Chefs. The CIA offers continuing education for professionals in the hospitality industry as well as conferences and consulting services. In addition to professional education, the college offers recreational classes for non-professionals; the college operates student-run restaurants on their four U. S. campuses. The school was founded in 1946 in New Haven, Connecticut, as a vocational institute for returning veterans of World War II. With a growing student body, the school purchased a former Jesuit novitiate in Hyde Park in 1970, which remains its central campus.
The school began awarding associate degrees in 1971, bachelor's degrees in 1993, master's degrees in 2018. Additional campuses were opened in the following years: St. Helena in 1995, Texas in 2008, Singapore in 2010, Napa in 2016; the New Haven Restaurant Institute was founded on May 22, 1946 in New Haven, Connecticut as a vocational training school for returning World War II veterans. It was organized by the New Haven Restaurant Association, who positioned Frances Roth and Katharine Angell to lead and develop the school, it was the first culinary college in the United States. With assistance from Yale University, the school purchased the Davies mansion in New Haven's Prospect Hill neighborhood; the first class consisted of sixteen students and the faculty included a dietitian, a baker, a chef. In 1947 the school was renamed the Restaurant Institute of Connecticut to reflect its growing repute. Enrollment grew to 1,000 students by 1969, beyond the capacity of its original campus, so the school purchased the St. Andrew-on-Hudson Jesuit novitiate in Hyde Park, New York in 1970.
In 1971, the college began awarding associate degrees, opened its doors in Hyde Park in the following year. From 1974 to 1979, the school built three residence halls, a culinary library, a career planning center, a learning resources center. From 1982 to 1984, the American Bounty and Caterina de' Medici Restaurants and St. Andrew's Café opened. In 1984, the school's continuing education center opened, the school improved its teaching kitchens and constructed an experimental kitchen and food laboratory. In 1990, the school opened a baking and pastry facility, named two years as the Shunsuke Takaki School of Baking and Pastry. In 1993, the school opened its Conrad N. Hilton began offering bachelor's degree programs. In 1995, the school's first branch campus opened, the Culinary Institute of America at Greystone in St. Helena, California. In 1998, the Student Recreation Center was opened; the Apple Pie Bakery Café opened in 2000, the Colavita Center opened the following year. More residence halls were built at the school's Hyde Park campus in 2004.
In 2005, Anton Plaza opened in Hyde Park while the Ventura Center for Menu Research and Development opened in St. Helena; the school's third campus opened in 2008 in San Antonio. Two years the CIA opened a campus in Singapore consisting of a facility on the campus of Temasek Polytechnic. In 2012, the CIA began offering a bachelor's degree program in culinary science, in 2014 introduced a bachelor's degree in applied food studies. In 2012 the college was inducted into the Culinary Hall of Fame. In 2015, the college expanded its recreation center and added a new dining facility for students, called The Egg. In the same year, the college acquired a portion of Copia, a museum in downtown Napa, California that operated from 2001 to 2008. In 2016, the college opened a campus, the Culinary Institute of America at Copia, which houses the CIA's new Food Business School; the college, outgrowing its St. Helena campus, purchased the northern portion of the Copia property for $12.5 million. In 2018, the CIA launched a Bachelor of Science degree program in Hospitality Management and introduced master's-level education with a Master of Professional Studies degree program in Food Business.
The school's largest and primary campus operates four public restaurants for students to gain experience. Food served at the American Bounty Restaurant highlights Hudson Valley produce and is prepared in the style of cuisines of the Americas; the Bocuse Restaurant serves traditional French food using modern techniques. It was the first of the school's restaurants, opened as the Epicurean Room and Rabalais Grill in 1973, before being renamed the Escoffier Restaurant in 1974. In 2012 it was again renamed to honor Paul Bocuse, given a $3 million renovation by Adam Tihany; the Ristorante Caterina de' Medici is a restaurant with a focus on Italian food. The Apple Pie Bakery Café has a casual atmosphere; the school frequently creates on-campus pop-up restaurants, including Post Road Brew House. The second of the campus' pop-ups, the gastropub opened in February 2016 in the General Foods Nutrition Center; the campus offers intercollegiate and club athletics. Its intercollegiate program began in 2004, is affiliated with the Hudson Valley Intercollegiate Athletic Conference.
The CIA has branch campuses in California. The primary campus, in St. Helena, is known
Towanda is a borough and the county seat of Bradford County in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. It is located 66 miles northwest on the Susquehanna River; the name means "burial ground" in the Algonquian language. Settled in 1784 and incorporated in 1828, Towanda was once known for its industrial interests, which included flour and silk mills, a foundry and machine shop, dye works, manufacturers of talking machines, cut glass and furniture; the population in 1900 was 4,663 and 4,281 in 1910. As of the 2010 census the population of Towanda was 2,919; the Towanda Historic District and Bradford County Courthouse are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Towanda is located near the center of Bradford County at 41°46′13″N 76°26′48″W, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River, it is bordered to the north and west by North Towanda Township, to the south and west by Towanda Township, to the east, across the river, by Wysox Township. U. S. Route 6 passes through the center of the borough, leading southeast 39 miles to Tunkhannock and 60 miles to the Scranton area, west 37 miles to Mansfield.
U. S. Route 220 bypasses the borough to the west and leads north 18 miles to its terminus at Waverly, New York and southwest 67 miles to Williamsport. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.2 square miles, of which 0.03 square miles, or 2.55%, is water. As of the 2000 census, there were 3,024 people, 1,279 households and 795 families residing in the borough; the population density was 2,674.2 per square mile. There were 1,459 housing units at an average density of 1,290.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 96.36% White, 0.86% African American, 0.36% Native American, 1.19% Asian, 0.13% from other races, 1.09% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.19% of the population. There were 1,279 households of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.6% were married couples living together, 13.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.8% were non-families. 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.92. Age distribution was 25.1% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.9 males. The median household income was $35,814, the median family income was $41,884. Males had a median income of $35,663 versus $23,796 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $17,438. About 9.9% of families and 13.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.5% of those under age 18 and 4.0% of those age 65 or over. Towanda is home to the Lackawanna College Towanda Center, a "premier, accredited two-year college serving the people of northeastern Pennsylvania" and satellite campus of Lackawanna College in Scranton, PA. Towanda has a council–manager form of government. Borough of Towanda official website Towanda Online, local guide The Daily Review, local newspaper
Patrick J. Harkins is a Democratic member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives for 1st District and was elected in 2006. Harkins grew up in Pennsylvania; the youngest of five children to Bernard and Rita Harkins. He graduated from Erie Tech Memorial High School. While in high school he earned an electrical-electronics certification. At Mercyhurst College, he studied political business. After a year at Mercyhurst he transferred to Penn State Behrend where he studied political science and business, he worked as a driver for UPS for 25 years. While employed there he became active in the local Teamsters Union, Teamsters LU 397. Harkins was first elected in 2006; the district opened up when Rep. Linda Bebko-Jones retired following a challenge to the validity of her petition signatures, he won a three-way primary election over Democrats Michael Skrzypczak and Dennis Iaquinta and went on to defeat Republican Christine Pontoriero with 75% of the vote. In the primary of 2016 Harkins faced no opposition, in the general election on November 8th.
2016 Harkins won reelection to his sixth term defeating William Edward Crotty by 76% to 22%. Harkins was sworn in for his sixth term on January 3, 2017. Harkins served as a board member on the Sacred Heart School Board for six years, served as board president for three of those six years. Harkins and his wife Michelle founded the Reservoir Dogs neighborhood crime watch organization in their neighborhood, he served as judge of elections in Erie County, Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania House Democratic Caucus – Pat Harkins - official caucus website Pennsylvania House of Representatives – Pat Harkins - official PA House websiteProfile at Vote Smart Follow the Money – Pat Harkins' 2006 campaign contributions
Matt Dowling (politician)
Matt Dowling is the representative for the 51st District of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives. He is a member of the Republican Party. Dowling began his political career when he defeated incumbent Tim Mahoney in the general election after he ran unopposed in the Republican Primary for the 51st District seat in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, he served on the Youth, Gaming Oversight, Local Government and Urban Affairs committees. In 2018 he ran unopposed again and defeated Mahoney in a rematch