Tinnitus is the perception of sound when no corresponding external sound is present. While described as a ringing, it may sound like a clicking, hiss, or roaring. Unclear voices or music are heard; the sound may be soft or loud, low or high pitched, appear to be coming from one or both ears. Most of the time, it comes on gradually. In some people, the sound may cause anxiety or depression. Tinnitus may be associated with some degree of hearing loss. Rather than a disease, tinnitus is a symptom. A common cause is noise-induced hearing loss. Other causes include ear infections, disease of the heart or blood vessels, Ménière's disease, brain tumors, exposure to certain medications, a previous head injury and emotional stress, it is more common in those with depression. The diagnosis of tinnitus is based on the person's description, it is supported by an audiogram and a neurological examination. The degree of interference with a person's life may be quantified with questionnaires. If certain problems are found, medical imaging, such as magnetic resonance imaging, may be performed.

Other tests are suitable. The sound may be heard by someone else using a stethoscope, in which case it is known as objective tinnitus. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions, sounds produced by the inner ear, may result in tinnitus. Prevention involves avoiding loud noise. If there is an underlying cause, treating it may lead to improvements. Otherwise management involves talk therapy. Sound generators or hearing aids may help some; as of 2013, there were no effective medications. It is common, affecting about 10–15% of people. Most, tolerate it well, it is a significant problem in only 1–2% of people; the word tinnitus comes from the Latin tinnīre which means "to ring". Tinnitus may be perceived in both ears; the noise can be described in many different ways, but is reported as a noise inside a person’s head in the absence of auditory stimulation. It is described as a ringing noise, but in some people, it takes the form of a high-pitched whining, electric buzzing, humming, whistling, clicking, beeping, sizzling, a pure steady tone such as that heard during a hearing test, or sounds that resemble human voices, songs, or animal sounds such as "crickets", "tree frogs", or "locusts".

Tinnitus may be intermittent or continuous: in the latter case, it may be the cause of great distress. In some individuals, the intensity may be changed by shoulder, tongue, jaw, or eye movements; the sound perceived may range from a quiet background noise to one, heard over loud external sounds. The specific type of tinnitus called pulsatile tinnitus is characterized by hearing the sounds of one's own pulse or muscle contractions, a result of sounds that have been created by the movement of muscles near to one's ear, or the sounds are related to blood flow in the neck or face. Due to variations in study designs, data on the course of tinnitus showed few consistent results; the prevalence increased with age in adults, whereas the ratings of annoyance decreased with duration. Besides being an annoying condition to which most people adapt, persistent tinnitus may cause anxiety and depression in some people. Tinnitus annoyance is more associated with the psychological condition of the person than the loudness or frequency range.

Psychological problems such as depression, sleep disturbances, concentration difficulties are common in those with annoying tinnitus. 45% of people with tinnitus have an anxiety disorder at some time in their life. Psychological research has focussed on the tinnitus distress reaction to account for differences in tinnitus severity; these findings suggest that among those people, conditioning at the initial perception of tinnitus, linked tinnitus with negative emotions, such as fear and anxiety from unpleasant stimuli at the time. This enhances activity in the limbic system and autonomic nervous system, thus increasing tinnitus awareness and annoyance. Tinnitus may be classified in two types: objective tinnitus. Tinnitus is subjective, meaning that the sounds the person hears are not detectable by means available to physicians and hearing technicians. Subjective tinnitus has been called "tinnitus aurium", "non-auditory" or "non-vibratory" tinnitus. In rare cases tinnitus can be heard by someone else using a stethoscope.

More in some cases it can be measured as a spontaneous otoacoustic emission in the ear canal. This is classified as objective tinnitus called "pseudo-tinnitus" or "vibratory" tinnitus. Subjective tinnitus is the most frequent type of tinnitus, it may have many possible causes, but most it results from hearing loss. When the tinnitus is caused by disorders of the inner ear or auditory nerve it is called otic; these otological or neurological conditions include those triggered by drugs, or trauma. A frequent cause is traumatic noise exposure; when there does not seem to be a connection with a disorder of the inner ear or auditory nerve, the tinnitus is called nonotic. In some 30% of tinnitus cases, the tinnitus is influenced by the somatosensory system, for instance people can increase or decrease their tinnitus by moving their face, head, or neck; this type is called somatic or craniocervical tinnitus, since it is only head or neck movements that have an effect. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that some tinnitus

Synthetic Sin

Synthetic Sin is a 1929 American comedy film directed by William A. Seiter, based on a play of the same name. While filmed as a silent, it was released by Warner Bros. accompanied with a Vitaphone music soundtrack and sound effects. However most of the Vitaphone discs are still lost, apart from the final reel. Famed playwright Donald Anthony returns home to Magnolia Gap and proposes to Betty Fairfax, she accepts and he offers her the lead part in his next play. Donald tells her that she is unsuited for the role, that it requires someone with more life experience. Rather than return home defeated, Betty stays in New York, in a bad neighborhood where local gangsters adopt her as their own; when Donald comes to visit her, they eject him. There is a gunfight, in the resulting confusion Donald sweeps in and rescues Betty. After the excitement, Betty devotes herself to Donald. Colleen Moore as Betty Fairfax Antonio Moreno as Donald Anthony Edythe Chapman as Mrs. Fairfax Kathryn McGuire as Margery Fairfax Gertrude Howard as Cassie Gertrude Astor as Sheila Kelly Ray Turner as Sam Montagu Love as Brandy Mulane Ben Hendricks Jr. as Frank Philip Sleeman as Tony Jack Byron as Tony's Henchman Fred Warren as Joe Jay Eaton as Member of Frank's Gang Stanley Blystone as Member of Frank's Gang Art Rowlands as Member of Frank's Gang Dick Gordon as Member of Frank's Gang Julanne Johnston as Member of Frank's Gang Hazel Howell as Member of Frank's Gang A copy survives at the Cineteca Italiana archive in Milan.

It was considered to be a lost film. Colleen Moore had deposited copies of several of her movies with the Museum of Modern Art, but it allowed the films to decompose before they could be restored. List of early Warner Bros. sound and talking features Gertrude Astor filmography Notes Bibliography Codori, Colleen Moore. Synthetic Sin on IMDb Synopsis at AllMovie Stills at

Transporte Colectivo Urbano de Luanda

Transporte Colectivo Urbano de Luanda, short TCUL is the public transit company of Angola's capital city, Luanda. TCUL was founded on July 12, 1988, it is a public, i.e. state owned company, depending on the Transport ministry of the central government. Besides 40 bus lines within Luanda province, it operates over-land bus lines from Luanda to Benguela, Sumbe, N'Dalatando, Malange, Uíge, Huambo. TCUL disposes of about 300 buses, soon to be extended to 400; the CEO is José Soares de Carvalho de 1988 á 2008 - José Mário Silva de 2008 á 2013 - José António de Freitas Neto de 2013 á 2017 - Abel Cosme de 2017 até a data presente. Official TCUL−Transporte Colectivo Urbano de Luanda website