Khmer people are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Cambodia, accounting for over 97% of the country's 15.9 million people. They speak the Khmer language, part of the larger Austroasiatic language family found in parts of Southeast Asia, parts of central and north eastern India, parts of Bangladesh in South Asia, in parts of Southern China and numerous islands in the Indian Ocean; the majority of the Khmer are followers of the Khmer style of Buddhism, a syncretic version that blends elements of Theravada Buddhism, Hinduism and veneration of the dead. Significant populations of Khmers reside in adjacent areas of Thailand and the Mekong Delta region of neighboring Vietnam, while there are over one million Khmers in the Cambodian diaspora living in France, the United States, Australia; the majority of the world's Khmer people live in Cambodia, the population of, over 90% Khmer. There are significant Khmer populations native to Thailand and Vietnam. In Thailand, there are over one million Khmer in Surin and Sisaket provinces.
Estimates for the number of Khmer in Vietnam vary from the 1.1 million given by government data to seven million advocated by the Khmer Krom Federation. Due to migration as a result of the Cambodian Civil War, there is a large Khmer diaspora residing in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and France. According to one Khmer legend attributed by George Coedes to a tenth century inscription, the Khmer race arose from the union of the brahmin Kambu Swayambhuva and the apsara Mera, their marriage is said to have given rise to the name Khmer and founded the Varman dynasty of ancient Cambodia. A more popular legend, reenacted to this day in the traditional Khmer wedding ceremony and taught in elementary school, holds that Cambodia was created when an Indian Brahmin priest named Kaundinya married Princess Soma, a Naga princess. Kaundinya sailed to Southeast Asia following an arrow. Upon arrival he found an island called kok thlok and, after conquering Soma's Naga army, he fell in love with her.
As a dowry, the father of princess Soma drank the waters around the island, revealed to be the top of a mountain, the land below, uncovered became Cambodia. Kaundinya and Soma and their descendents became known as the Khmer and are said to have been the rulers of Funan and the Khmer Empire; this myth further explains why the oldest Khmer wats, or temples, were always built on mountaintops, why today mountains themselves are still revered as holy places. The Khmers, an Austroasiatic people, are one of the oldest ethnic groups in the area, having filtered into Southeast Asia from southern China Yunnan, around the same time as the Mon, who settled further to the west and to whom the Khmer are ancestrally related. Most archaeologists and linguists, other specialists like Sinologists and crop experts, believe that they arrived no than 2000 BCE bringing with them the practice of agriculture and in particular the cultivation of rice; this region is one of the first places in the world to use bronze.
They were the builders of the Khmer Empire, which dominated Southeast Asia for six centuries beginning in 802, now form the mainstream of political and economic Cambodia. The Khmers developed the Khmer alphabet, the earliest alphabet still in use in Southeast Asia, which in turn gave birth to the Thai and Lao alphabets; the Khmers are considered by archaeologists and ethnologists to be indigenous to the contiguous regions of Isan, southern Laos and South Vietnam. That is to say the Khmer have been a lowland people who lived close to one of the tributaries of the Mekong River; the reason they migrated into Southeast Asia is not well understood, but scholars believe that Austroasiatic speakers were pushed south by invading Tibeto-Burman speakers from the north as evident by Austroasiatic vocabulary in Chinese, because of agricultural purposes as evident by their migration routes along major rivers, or a combination of these and other factors. Like the other early peoples of Southeast Asia such as the Pyu, Chams and Javanese, the Khmer were part of Greater India, adopting Indian religions and customs and borrowing from their languages.
The first powerful trading kingdom in Southeast Asia, the Kingdom of Funan, was established in southeastern Cambodia and the Mekong Delta in the first century, although extensive archaeological work in Angkor Borei District near the modern Vietnamese border has unearthed brickworks, canals and graves dating to the fifth century BCE. The Kingdom of Funan is considered to be the mother of all Southeast Asian kingdoms. During the Funan period the Khmer acquired Buddhism, the concept of the Shaiva imperial cult of the devaraja and the great temple as a symbolic world mountain; the rival Khmer Chenla Kingdom emerged in the fifth century and conquered the Kingdom of Funan. Chenla was an upland state whose economy was reliant on agriculture whereas Funan was a lowland state with an economy dependent on maritime trade; these two states after conquest by Chenla in the sixth century, were at war with each other and smaller principalities. During the Chenla period, Cambodians left the world's earliest known zero in one of their temple inscriptions.
Only when King Jayavarman II declared an independent and united Cambodia in 802 was there relati
Triad (organized crime)
A triad is one of many branches of Chinese transnational organized crime syndicates based in China, Hong Kong and Taiwan and in countries with significant Chinese populations, such as the United States, Vietnam, Japan, the Philippines, Malaysia, the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. The Hong Kong triad is distinct from mainland Chinese criminal organizations. In ancient China, the triad was one of three major secret societies, it established branches in Macau, Hong Kong and Chinese communities overseas. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, all secret societies were destroyed in mainland China in a series of campaigns organized by Mao Zedong. Although organized-crime groups have returned to China after Mao, they are not triad societies. Known as "mainland Chinese criminal organizations", they are of two major types: dark forces and black societies. Two features which distinguish a black society from a dark force are the ability to achieve illegal control over local markets, receiving police protection.
The Hong Kong triad refers to traditional criminal organizations operating in Hong Kong, Macau and south-east Asian countries and regions, while organized-crime groups in mainland China are known as "mainland Chinese criminal groups". Y. K. Chu's The Triads as Business examines the rise of the Hong Kong triad and the role of triad societies in legal and international markets. Peng Wang's The Chinese Mafia studies the origin of Chinese secret societies in ancient China, explores the rise of organized crime in post-Mao China, investigates the ways in which local gangs offer quasi-law enforcement and private protection to local governments and individuals. Wang's book explores how local gangs form mutually-beneficial networks with police officers and how the formation of a political-criminal nexus enables local gangs to control illegal markets and sell protection to citizens and businesses. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "triad" is a translation of the Chinese term San Ho Hui, referring to the union of heaven and humanity.
Another theory posits that the word "triad" was coined by British authorities in colonial Hong Kong as a reference to the triads' use of triangular imagery. It has been speculated that triad organizations took after, or were part of, revolutionary movements such as the White Lotus, the Taiping and Boxer Rebellions and the Heaven and Earth Society; the generic use of the word "triads" for all Chinese criminal organizations is imprecise. "Triads" are traditional organized-crime groups originating from Hong Kong and Taiwan. Criminal organizations operating in, or originating from, mainland China are "mainland Chinese criminal groups" or "black societies". After years of repression, only some elements of triad groups are involved with illegal activities. Triads in Hong Kong are less involved with "traditional" criminal activity and are becoming associated with white-collar crime. Triad, a China-based criminal organization, secret association or club, was a branch of the secret Hung Society; the society was fragmented, one group became a criminal organization.
After the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, secret societies in mainland China were suppressed in campaigns ordered by Mao Zedong. Most Chinese secret societies, including the triads and some of the remaining Ching Gang, relocated to British-controlled Hong Kong, Southeast Asia and overseas countries and competed with the Tong and other Chinese secret societies. Chinese secret societies turned to drugs and extortion for income; the Heaven and Earth Society, a fraternal organization, was founded during the 1760s. As the society's influence spread throughout China, it branched into several smaller groups with different names; these societies adopted the triangle as their emblem accompanied by decorative images of swords or portraits of Guan Yu. British Hong Kong was intolerant of secret societies, the British considered the triads a criminal threat. Triads were imprisoned under British law. During the 19th century, many such societies were seen as legitimate ways of helping immigrants from China settle into a new country.
Secret societies were banned by the British government in Singapore during the 1890s, reduced in number by successive colonial governors and leaders. Facilitating the origins of Singapore gangs, the opium trade and brothels were banned. Immigrants were encouraged to seek help from a local kongsi instead of turning to secret societies, which contributed to the societies' decline. After World War II, the secret societies saw a resurgence as gangsters took advantage of uncertainty and growing anti-British sentiment; some Chinese communities, such as "new villages" in Kuala Lumpur and Bukit Ho Swee in Singapore, became notorious for gang violence. When the Chinese Communist Party came to power in 1949 in mainland China, law enforcement became stricter and a government crackdown on criminal organizations forced the triads to migrate to British Hong Kong. An estimated 300,000 triad members lived in Hong Kong during the 1950s. According to the University of Hong Kong, most triad societies were established between 1914 and 1939 and there were once more than 300 in the terri
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian ancestry. The term refers to a panethnic group that includes diverse populations, which have ancestral origins in East Asia, South Asia, or Southeast Asia, as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau; this includes people who indicate their race on the census as "Asian" or reported entries such as "Chinese, Indian, Japanese and Other Asian". Asian Americans with other ancestry comprise 5.6% of the U. S. population, while people who are Asian alone, those combined with at least one other race, make up 6.9%. Although migrants from Asia have been in parts of the contemporary United States since the 17th century, large-scale immigration did not begin until the mid-18th century. Nativist immigration laws during the 1880s–1920s excluded various Asian groups prohibiting all Asian immigration to the continental United States. After immigration laws were reformed during the 1940s–60s, abolishing national origins quotas, Asian immigration increased rapidly. Analyses of the 2010 census have shown that Asian Americans are the fastest growing racial or ethnic minority in the United States.
As with other racial and ethnicity-based terms and common usage have changed markedly through the short history of this term. Prior to the late 1960s, people of Asian ancestry were referred to as Oriental and Mongoloid. Additionally, the American definition of'Asian' included West Asian ethnic groups Jewish Americans, Armenian Americans, Assyrian Americans, Iranian Americans, Kurdish Americans, Arab Americans, although these groups are now considered Middle Eastern American; the term Asian American was coined by historian Yuji Ichioka, credited with popularizing the term, to frame a new "inter-ethnic-pan-Asian American self-defining political group" in the late 1960s. Changing patterns of immigration and an extensive period of exclusion of Asian immigrants have resulted in demographic changes that have in turn affected the formal and common understandings of what defines Asian American. For example, since the removal of restrictive "national origins" quotas in 1965, the Asian-American population has diversified to include more of the peoples with ancestry from various parts of Asia.
Today, "Asian American" is the accepted term for most formal purposes, such as government and academic research, although it is shortened to Asian in common usage. The most used definition of Asian American is the U. S. Census Bureau definition, which includes all people with origins in the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent; this is chiefly because the census definitions determine many governmental classifications, notably for equal opportunity programs and measurements. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "Asian person" in the United States is sometimes thought of as a person of East Asian descent. In vernacular usage, "Asian" is used to refer to those of East Asian descent or anyone else of Asian descent with epicanthic eyefolds; this differs from the U. S. Census definition and the Asian American Studies departments in many universities consider all those of East, South or Southeast Asian descent to be "Asian". In the US Census, people with origins or ancestry in the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent are classified as part of the Asian race.
As such, "Asian" and "African" ancestry are seen as racial categories for the purposes of the Census, since they refer to ancestry only from those parts of the Asian and African continents that are outside the Middle East and North Africa. In 1980 and before, Census forms listed particular Asian ancestries as separate groups, along with white and black or negro. Asian Americans had been classified as "other". In 1977, the federal Office of Management and Budget issued a directive requiring government agencies to maintain statistics on racial groups, including on "Asian or Pacific Islander". By the 1990 census, "Asian or Pacific Islander" was included as an explicit category, although respondents had to select one particular ancestry as a subcategory. Beginning with the 2000 census, two separate categories were used: "Asian American" and "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander"; the definition of Asian American has variations that derive from the use of the word American in different contexts.
Immigration status, citizenship and language ability are some variables that are used to define American for various purposes and may vary in formal and everyday usage. For example, restricting American to include only U. S. citizens conflicts with discussions of Asian American businesses, which refer both to citizen and non-citizen owners. In a PBS interview from 2004, a panel of Asian American writers discussed how some groups include people of Middle Eastern descent in the Asian American category. Asian American author Stewart Ikeda has noted, "The definition of'Asian American' frequently depends on who's asking, who's defining, in what context, why... the possible definitions of'Asian-Pacific American' are many and shifting... some scholars in Asian American Studies conferences suggest that Russians and Israelis all might fit the field's subject of study." Jeff Yang, of the Wall Street Journal, writes that the panethnic definition of Asian American is a unique American construct, as an identity is "in beta".
Scholars have grappled with the accuracy, correctn
The term Hispanic broadly refers to the people and cultures that have a historical link to the Spanish language or the country of Spain, depending on the context. It applies to countries once under colonial possession by the Spanish Empire following Spanish colonization of the Americas, parts of the Asia-Pacific region and Africa. Principally, what are today the countries of Hispanic America, the Spanish Philippines, Spanish Guinea and Spanish Sahara where Spanish may or may not be the predominant or official language and their cultures are derived from Spain although with strong local indigenous or other foreign influences, it could be argued that the term Hispanic should apply to all Spanish-speaking cultures or countries, as the historical roots of the word pertain to the Iberian region. It is difficult to label a nation or culture with one term, such as Hispanic, as the ethnicities, customs and art forms vary by country and region; the Spanish language and Spanish culture are the main distinctions.
Hispanus was used to define people of ancient Roman Hispania, which comprised the Iberian Peninsula, including the contemporary states of Spain and Andorra, the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. The term Hispanic derives from Latin Hispanicus, the adjectival derivation of Latin Hispania and Hispanus/Hispanos probably of Celtiberian origin. In English the word is attested from the 16th century; the words Spain and Spaniard are of the same etymology as Hispanus, ultimately. Hispanus was the Latin name given to a person from Hispania during Roman rule. In English, the term Hispano-Roman is sometimes used; the Hispano-Romans were composed of people from many different indigenous tribes, in addition to Italian colonists. Some famous Hispani and Hispaniensis were the emperors Trajan, Marcus Aurelius, Theodosius I and Magnus Maximus, the poets Marcus Annaeus Lucanus and Prudentius, the philosophers Seneca the Elder and Seneca the Younger, or the usurper Maximus of Hispania. A number of these men, such as Trajan and others, were in fact descended from Roman colonial families.
Here follows a comparison of several terms related to Hispanic: Hispania was the name of the Iberian Peninsula/Iberia from the 3rd century BC to the 8th AD, both as a Roman Empire province and thereafter as a Visigothic kingdom, 5th–8th century. Hispano-Roman is used to refer to the culture and people of Hispania. Hispanic is used to refer to modern Spain, to the Spanish language, to the Spanish-speaking nations of the world the Americas, Pacific Islands and Asia, such as the Philippines and Guam. Spanish is used to refer to the people, culture and other things of Spain. Spaniard is used to refer to the people of Spain. Hispania was the Roman name for the whole territory of the Iberian Peninsula; this territory was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. In 27 B. C, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces, Hispania Baetica and Hispania Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis; this division of Hispania explains the usage of the singular and plural forms used to refer to the peninsula and its kingdoms in the Middle Ages.
Before the marriage of Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1469, the four Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula—the Kingdom of Portugal, the Crown of Aragon, the Crown of Castile, the Kingdom of Navarre—were collectively called The Spains. This revival of the old Roman concept in the Middle Ages appears to have originated in Provençal, was first documented at the end of the 11th century. In the Council of Constance, the four kingdoms shared one vote; the word Lusitanian, relates to Lusitania or Portugal in reference to the Lusitanians one of the first Indo-European tribes to settle in Europe. From this tribe's name had derived the name of the Roman province of Lusitania, Lusitania remains the name of Portugal in Latin; the terms Spain and the Spains were not interchangeable. Spain was a geographic territory, home to several kingdoms, with separate governments, languages and customs, was the historical remnant of the Hispano-Gothic unity. Spain was not a political entity until much and when referring to the Middle Ages, one should not be confounded with the nation-state of today.
The term The Spains referred to a collective of juridico-political units, first the Christian kingdoms, the different kingdoms ruled by the same king. With the Decretos de Nueva Planta, Philip V started to organize the fusion of his kingdoms that until were ruled as distinct and independent, but this unification process lacked a formal and juridic proclamation. Although colloquially and the expression "King of Spain" or "King of the Spains" was widespread, it did not refer to a unified nation-state, it was only in the constitution of 1812, adopted the name Españas for the Spanish nation and the use of the title of "king of the Spains". The constitution of 1876 adopts for the first time the name "Spain" for the Spanish nation and from on the kings would use the title of "king of Spain"; the expansion of the Spanish Empire between 1492 and 1898 brought thousands of Spanish migrants to the conquered lands, who established settlements in the Americas, but in other distant parts of the world, producing
The Bloods known as Original Blood Family, are a African-American street gang founded in Los Angeles, California. The gang is known for its rivalry with the Crips, they are identified by the red color worn by their members and by particular gang symbols, including distinctive hand signs. The Bloods comprise various sub-groups known as "sets" between which significant differences exist such as colors, clothing and political ideas which may be in open conflict with each other. Since their creation, the Bloods gangs have branched throughout the United States; the Bloods gang was formed to compete against the influence of the Crips in Los Angeles. The rivalry dates back to the 1960s when Raymond Washington and several other Crips confronted Sylvester Scott and Benson Owens, students at Centennial High School in Compton, California. In response to the attack, who lived in Compton, established the Piru street-gang, the first "Bloods" street gang. Owens established the West Piru street-gang; the Bloods street-gang was formed to provide members protection from the Crips.
Many of the non-Crip street-gangs used to call one another "blood". On March 21, 1972, shortly after a concert featuring Wilson Pickett and Curtis Mayfield, 20 youths belonging to the Crips attacked and robbed Robert Ballou Jr. outside of Hollywood Palladium. Ballou was beaten to death; the sensational media coverage of the crime and the continued assaults by the Crips increased their notoriety. Several non-Crips gangs formed during this period were no match for the Crips and they became concerned with the escalating Crip attacks; the Pirus, Black P. Stones, Athens Park Boys and other gangs not aligned with the Crips clashed with the Crips. On June 5, 1972, three months after Ballou's murder, Fredrick "Lil Country" Garret was murdered by a Westside Crip; this marked the first Crips murder against another gang member and motivated non-Crip street-gangs to align with each other. The Brims struck back by murdering Thomas Ellis, an original Westside Crip. By late 1972, the Pirus held a meeting in their neighborhood to discuss growing Crips pressure and intimidation.
Several gangs that felt victimized by the Crips joined the Piru Street Boys to create a new federation of non-Crips neighborhoods. This alliance would transform into the "Bloods"; the Pirus are therefore considered to be the original founders of the Bloods. By 1978, there were 15 Bloods sets. Crips still outnumbered Bloods 3 to 1. In order to assert their power, the Bloods became violent. During the 1980s, Bloods began distributing crack cocaine in Los Angeles. Blood membership soon rose as did the number of states in which they were present; these increases were driven by profits from crack cocaine distribution. The huge profits allowed members to relocate in other states. "Bloods" is a universal term used to refer to West-Coast Bloods and United Blood Nation. While these groups are traditionally distinct entities both refer to themselves as "Bloods"; the profits of crack distribution allowed the Bloods to spread in other states. UBN started in 1993 in Rikers Island's George Motchan Detention Center to form protection from Latin Kings and Ñetas who were targeting the African-American gang members.
UBN is a loose confederation of predominantly African-American street gangs. Once they were released from prison, the UBN leaders went back to their neighborhoods in New York where they retained the Bloods name and started recruiting members. UBN has between 15,000 members in the Eastern USA region; the gang makes its income through various criminal activities like distribution of crack cocaine, smuggling of drugs into prison, etc. and its gang members are involved in various criminal activities. Bloods refers to a loosely structured association of smaller street gangs, known as "sets", which has adopted a common gang culture; each set has its own leader and operates independently from the others. Most Bloods members are African American males, although some sets have recruited female members as well as members from other races and ethnic backgrounds. Members range in age from early teens to mid-20s. There is no known national leader of the Bloods but individual Bloods sets have a hierarchical leadership structure with identifiable levels of membership.
These levels of membership indicate status within a gang. A leader an older member with a more extensive criminal background, runs each set. A set leader is not elected but rather asserts himself by developing and managing the gang's criminal enterprises through his reputation for violence and ruthlessness and through his personal charisma; the majority of set members are called "soldiers", who are between the ages of 16 and 22. Soldiers have a strong sense of commitment to their set and are dangerous because of their willingness to use violence both to obtain the respect of gang members and to respond to any person who "disrespects" the set. "Associates" are not full members, but they identify with the gang and take part in various criminal activities. To the extent that women belong to the gang, they are associate members and tend to be used by their male counterparts to carry weapons, hold drugs, or prostitute themselves to make money for their set. Recruitment is influenced by a recruit's environment.
Bloods recruit among school-age youth in predominantly poor African American communities. Gang membership offers youth a sense of protection, it offers immediate gratification to economically disadvantaged youth who desire the trappings of gang life
Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel is a daily morning broadsheet printed in Milwaukee, where it is the primary newspaper. It is the largest newspaper in the state of Wisconsin, where it is distributed widely, it is owned by the Gannett Company. The Journal Sentinel was first printed on Sunday, April 2, 1995, following the consolidation of operations between the afternoon The Milwaukee Journal and the morning Milwaukee Sentinel, owned by the same company, Journal Communications, for more than 30 years; the new Journal Sentinel became a seven-day morning paper. In early 2003, the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel began printing operations at its new printing facility in West Milwaukee. In September 2006, the Journal Sentinel announced it had "signed a five-year agreement to print the national edition of USA Today for distribution in the northern and western suburbs of Chicago and the eastern half of Wisconsin"; the legacies of both papers are acknowledged on the editorial pages today, with the names of the Sentinel's Solomon Juneau and the Journal's Lucius Nieman and Harry J. Grant listed below their respective newspaper's flags.
The merged paper's volume and edition numbers follow those of the Journal. The Milwaukee Sentinel was founded in response to disparaging statements made about the east side of town by Byron Kilbourn's westside partisan newspaper, the Milwaukee Advertiser, during the city's "bridge wars", a period when the two sides of town fought for dominance; the founder of Milwaukee, Solomon Juneau, provided the starting funds for editor John O'Rourke, a former office assistant at the Advertiser, to start the paper. It was first published as a four-page weekly on June 27, 1837. A deathly ill O'Rourke struggled to help the paper to find its feet before he died six months of tuberculosis at the age of 24. On Juneau's request, O'Rourke's associate, Harrison Reed, remained to take over the Sentinel's operations, he continued the struggle to keep the paper ahead of its debts printing pleas to his advertisers and subscribers to pay their bills any way they could. Meanwhile, the establishment of the Whig party in the territory thrust the Sentinel into partisan politics.
In 1840 Reed was assaulted by individuals whom the Sentinel charged were hired by Democratic Governor Henry Dodge. That year the paper abandoned its independence and proclaimed itself a Whig paper with its endorsement of William Henry Harrison for president in 1840. In financial straits, Reed lost control of the paper in 1841 when Democrats foreclosed on the Sentinel's mortgaged debt and took over its editorial page. Only after the Democrats' successful election of Dodge for Congress was Reed able to regain control of the paper; the next year he sold the Sentinel to Elisha Starr, an editor who had founded a new Whig paper in response to the Sentinel's Democratic lapse. Reed became a "carpetbag" governor of Florida during Reconstruction. Starr guarded the Sentinel's position as the sole Whig organ in Milwaukee. In debt, he secured the partnership of David M. Keeler, who paid off the paper's creditors. Keeler took on partner John S. Fillmore and succeeded in ousting Starr, who kept publishing his own version of the Sentinel.
Keeler and Fillmore trumped his efforts by turning their Sentinel into a daily on December 9, 1844, while still publishing a weekly edition. The paper began to prosper and establish itself as a major political force in the nascent state of Wisconsin. Having accomplished his goal of establishing the first daily paper in the territory, Keeler retired two months but not before opening a public reading room of the nation's newspapers, the origin of Milwaukee's public library system. Fillmore employed a succession of editors, including Jason Downer a Wisconsin Supreme Court justice, Increase A. Lapham, a Midwestern naturalist who helped establish the National Weather Service. After running through six editors in eight years, Fillmore sought a more stable editorial foundation and went east to confer with Thurlow Weed, editor of the Albany Evening Journal and powerful Whig political boss of New York. Weed recommended protégé, Rufus King. King was a native of New York City, a graduate of West Point, a brevet lieutenant, the son of the president of Columbia College and the grandson of U.
S. Constitution signer Rufus King. In June 1845 King became the Sentinel's editor three months later. King was lionized by the community, it was his suggestion that made the Sentinel the first paper in the Midwest to employ newsboys to boost street sales. Due to King's connections to the East, the quality of the Sentinel improved, he declared the Sentinel an antislavery paper and supported temperance legislation. King invested his own money in the paper. Two years the first telegraph message wired to Wisconsin was received in the Sentinel office; the paper provided thorough coverage of Wisconsin's constitutional convention, held in Madison in 1846. When the adopted constitution fell short of Whig expectations, the Sentinel was instrumental in encouraging its rejection by territorial voters on April 6, 1847; the Sentinel launched a German paper, Der Volksfreund, to bring the city's large population of German immigrants to the Whig cause. Gen. King himself was a delegate to Wisconsin's second constitutional convention.
He was appointed head of the Milwaukee militia and sat on the University of Wisconsin's board of regents, as well as being the first superintendent of Milwaukee public schools. In the wake of the Panic of 1857 King sold the paper to T. D. Jermain and H. H. Brightman, but remained editor, covering the state legislative sessions of 1859–1861 himself. After