ArchitectsAlliance is a Toronto-based architectural firm headed by architect Peter Clewes. It was formed in 1999 with the merger of Wallman Clewes Bergman and Van Nostrand DiCastri Architects. Projects include 18 Yorkville, Pier 27, Radio City, Burano, X the Condominium, MoZo, Twenty Niagara, District Lofts, Tip Top Lofts as well as many others; the Four Seasons Hotel and Residences in Toronto and an upcoming project in the Bahamas named 12 Mile Cay are significant current projects. In 2005, the firm won the Regent Park housing competition held by the Toronto Community Housing Corporation, in the redevelopment of a 69-acre social housing community east of downtown Toronto. 1997 Twenty Niagara 2002 Ideal Lofts 2003 MoZo 2004 Woodsworth Student Residence and Classroom Complex 2005 18 Yorkville 2005 Fred Kaiser Engineering Building 2005 Pond Road Student Residence, York University 2005 Reflections at Bloomington Central Station 2005 Tip Top Tailors Building 2005 Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research 2006 Radio City 2006 Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research 2007 Beaver Valley House 2007 SP!
RE 2008 Canadian Chancery Expansion 2008 Distillery District: Pure Spirit 2009 Distillery District: 31A Parliament 2009 Murano 2009 Neyayesh Hotel and Residences 2009 NXT 2009 Sackville-Dundas Apartments 2010 Bloor Street Transformation 2010 Casa Condominio Residenza 2010 Thompson Hotel and Residences 2010 X the Condominium 2011 Burano 2011 St. James Cathedral Centre 2012 Cairns Family Health and Bioscience Research Complex 2012 Distillery District 2012 Four Seasons Hotel and Residences 2013 Distillery District: Clear Spirit and The Gooderham 2013 ÏCE 2013 Market Wharf 2014 36-60 McCaul 2014 Pier 27 2015 PanAm/Parapan Games Athletes' Village, Canary District, Toronto Peter Clewes Official site
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
A loft can be an upper storey or attic in a building, directly under the roof or just a storage space under the roof accessed by a ladder. A loft apartment refers to large adaptable open space converted for residential use from some other use light industrial. Adding to the confusion, some converted lofts include upper open loft areas. Within certain upper loft areas exist further lofts, which may contain loft areas of their own, so forth. In US usage a loft is an upper room or story in a building in a barn, directly under the roof, used either for storage. In this sense it is synonymous with attic, the major difference being that an attic constitutes an entire floor of the building, while a loft covers only a few rooms, leaving one or more sides open to the lower floor. In British usage, lofts are just a roof space accessed via a hatch and loft ladder, while attics tend to be rooms under the roof accessed via a staircase. Lofts may have a specific purpose, e.g. an "organ loft" in a church. In barns a hayloft is larger than the ground floor as it would contain a year's worth of hay.
An attic or loft can be converted to form functional living accommodation. Loft apartments are apartments that are built from former industrial buildings; when industrial developments are developed into condominiums instead of apartments, they may be called loft condominiums. The general term warehouse-to-loft conversions may sometimes be used for development of industrial buildings into apartments and condominiums. "Loft-style" may refer to developments where a street-level business occupies the first floor while apartment "lofts" are placed above the first floor. Sometimes, loft apartments are one component of municipal urban renewal initiatives that include renovation of industrial buildings into art galleries and studio space as well as promotion of a new part of the city as an "arts district". Popular with artists, they are now sought-after by other bohemians and hipsters, the gentrification of the former manufacturing sectors of medium to large cities is now a familiar pattern. One such sector is Manhattan's Meatpacking District.
The adoption of the Adaptive Reuse Ordinance in the City of Los Angeles is another example of such legislation to encourage the conversion of no longer economically viable industrial and commercial buildings to residential loft communities. Such is the demand for these spaces that real estate developers have taken to creating ready-made "lofts" in urban areas that are gentrifying or that seem primed to do so. While some of these units are created by developers during the renovation of old buildings, a number of them are included in the floor plans of brand new developments. Both types of pre-fab loft offer buyers or renters proximity to urban amenities afforded by traditional lofts, but without perceived safety risks of living in economically depressed industrial areas. Real estate industry distinguishes between two kinds of lofts. "Hard lofts" are former industrial buildings converted to live/work use. "Soft lofts" are loft-style residential buildings built anew. They are open-concept spaces with high ceilings, large windows and cement ceilings.
Soft lofts lack the history of hard lofts. A commercial loft refers to upper storey space in a commercial or industrial building with higher ceilings; such adaptation of loft space, can result in better operating efficiencies for ongoing light industrial and work/live use. A Live/work loft is a residential unit located in a commercially zoned building that has either been issued a certificate of residential occupancy or meets specific criteria making it eligible for the protection of loft laws, which vary state by state. In New York State, a live/work loft must meet the following criteria: The building was used for manufacturing or commercial purposes. Loft Law was designed to protect other entrepreneurs working from home. To qualify for the Loft Law protection, the unit must be residential with the commercial purpose being incidental to the residential use. Loft residents consisted of artists and other artisans taking advantage of cheap rents, large spaces and load-bearing floors. Loft residences were illegal and loft dwellers resided under commercial leases, forgoing basic residential rights such as hot water and sanitation.
To relieve their plight, many state legislatures enacted loft laws. A long building at a shipyard with a considerable floor area on which the lines produced by a naval architect can be laid off in their full dimensions. After that the full-size drawings can be copied with the aid of wooden moulds to which, in turn, the steel frames or, in the case of wooden vessels, the hull moulds, are fashioned
Industrial architecture is the design and construction of buildings serving industry. Such buildings rose in importance with the Industrial Revolution, were some of the pioneering structures of modern architecture. Brewery Distillery Drilling rig Factory Forge Foundry Gristmill Mine Power plant Refinery Sawmill Warehouse
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Lake Shore Boulevard
Lake Shore Boulevard is a major arterial road running along more than half of the Lake Ontario waterfront in the city of Toronto, Canada. Prior to 1998, two segments of Lake Shore Boulevard were designated as part of Highway 2, with the highway following the Gardiner Expressway between these two sections. Lake Shore Boulevard's western terminus is the western boundary of Toronto, its western section is a redesignation of the old Lakeshore Road, which still runs from Burlington to Mississauga. From here its route follows though not always within sight of, the shoreline of Lake Ontario eastward through the city to Ashbridges Bay, where it curves north and becomes Woodbine Avenue at Woodbine Beach; the former route of Highway 2 follows Woodbine turns right onto Kingston Road east. Etobicoke sectionFrom the western city limit, Lake Shore Boulevard part of Lakeshore Road, is a four-lane arterial road through the neighbourhoods of Long Branch, New Toronto and Mimico; this section is lined with retail uses.
The area furthest to the west was more industrial in character, which continues to be converted to other uses. As the street gets nearer to Humber Bay, the Mimico area becomes entirely residential and somewhat older as it was one of the first areas of cottage development for city dwellers. East of Park Lawn Road, the street is lined to the south with built condominium towers on the former stretch of motels known as "The Motel Strip". No motels now remain from the period when travelers would stay at motels here, just outside the Toronto city limits. Sunnyside/Exhibition sectionIt crosses the Humber River and becomes a six-lane arterial road along Lake Ontario, offering vistas of the city and lake; the crossing contains an interchange with the Gardiner Expressway, the eastbound lanes pass south of the highway, while the westbound lanes are routed to the north of the highway, rejoining the eastbound lanes east of Park Lawn. The splitting of the Lake Shore was done at the time of the expressway project, as new bridges were built to connect to the terminus of the Queen Elizabeth Way highway.
The highway to the west has become part of the Gardiner, the Lucky Lion monument which designated its start was relocated nearby to the south of the Lake Shore Boulevard, just east of the Humber. From the Humber River to Bathurst Street, the roadway is built on land infilled into the lake; the section east of the Humber was infilled in the 1910-1920s and was part of the Sunnyside Amusement Park development, which the road travelled through. The section south of Exhibition Place was infilled in the 1950s, at the same time as the Gardiner Expressway project; the original shoreline is elevated along the north side of the street. The area east of the Exhibition was infilled earlier; the original shoreline is north of the Boulevard, the Queen's Wharf lighthouse is on the north side of the street. The Sunnyside/Exhibition section has lots of open space with some development, including recreation facilities, such as Ontario Place, Sunnyside Bathing Pavilion, Palais Royale and the Boulevard Club. Downtown sectionIn the downtown section, Lake Shore criss-crosses, runs parallel and underneath the elevated section of the Gardiner Expressway.
It is designated Lake Shore Boulevard East east of Yonge Street. This section travels through the old rail lands and port district; the streets in this area predate the designation as Lake Shore Boulevard but were connected in the 1950s prior to being renamed in 1959. From Dan Leckie Way to Yonge Street, the south side of the street has been converted to high-rise condominium development. West of Yonge, Lake Shore is one-way westbound, while eastbound traffic travels along Harbour Street. East of Yonge, Lake Shore is one single road alongside the Gardiner; the 509 Harbourfront and 511 Bathurst streetcars serve the adjacent Fleet Street from Exhibition Place to Bathurst Street, but there are no regular service transit routes along Lake Shore in this area. East of the Don RiverEast of downtown, Lake Shore Boulevard continues as a six-lane arterial road to the Don Roadway, where it curves onto the former Keating Street and continues east to Woodbine Avenue becoming a four-lane arterial road; the Keating section is straight from Cherry Street to Woodbine.
It is an older industrial area, in transition in the western part. Housing and retail has been built along the road further to the east. Lake Shore Boulevard is compounded as Lakeshore Boulevard. Many traffic signs, transit shelters and other signs contradict each other, sometimes on the same corner, as illustrated in the photograph. According to the official bylaws that designated the road, the correct format is "Lake Shore Boulevard"; this mistake is due to confusion with Lakeshore Road to the west, where the single word format is correct. Lake Shore Boulevard was constructed in sections. West of the Humber River, Lake Shore Boulevard West is the old Provincial Highway; the road east of the Humber was built in sections in conjunction with the development of the Sunnyside waterfront infill. The Lakeshore Road connected to Queen Street just west of today's St. Joseph's Health Centre. In the 1910s, an overpass over the waterfront rail lines was built to connect Queen Street to the Lakeshore Road at Roncesvalles Avenue.
At the same time, Lake Shore Boulevard was built as a four-lane roadway east to the Exhibition Place area. In October 195
A condominium shortened to condo, in the United States and in most Canadian provinces, is a type of living space similar to an apartment but independently sellable and therefore regarded as real estate. The condominium building structure is divided into several units that are each separately owned, surrounded by common areas that are jointly owned. Similar concepts in other English-speaking countries include strata title in Australia, New Zealand, the Canadian province of British Columbia. Residential condominiums are constructed as apartment buildings, but there has been an increase in the number of "detached condominiums", which look like single-family homes but in which the yards, building exteriors, streets are jointly owned and jointly maintained by a community association. Unlike apartments, which are leased by their tenants, condominium units are owned outright. Additionally, the owners of the individual units collectively own the common areas of the property, such as hallways, laundry rooms, etc. as well as common utilities and amenities, such as the HVAC system, so on.
Many shopping malls are industrial condominiums in which the individual retail and office spaces are owned by the businesses that occupy them while the common areas of the mall are collectively owned by all the business entities that own the individual spaces. The common areas and utilities are managed collectively by the owners through their association, such as a homeowner association. Scholars have traced the earliest known use of the condominium form of tenure to a document from first-century Babylon; the word condominium originated in Latin. Italy uses condominio, the modern Italian form of condominium. Both condo and condominium are used colloquially in the Canadian province of Quebec, where the official term is divided co-ownership. In France, the term is copropriété, the common areas of these properties are managed by a Syndicat de copropriété, or "co-property union". Latin American nations use the term propiedad horizontal meaning "horizontal property" but abstractly meaning that all owners of the property have equal interest.
The word condominio is used. However, in Spain, the legal term is comunidad de propietarios and the popular term is comunidad de vecinos. "Condominium" is a Latin word formed by adding the prefix con- to the word dominium. Its meaning is therefore "shared property". Condominia referred to territories over which two or more sovereign powers shared joint dominion; this technique was used to settle border disputes when multiple claimants could not agree on how to partition the disputed territory. For example, from 1818 to 1846, Oregon Country was a condominium over which both the United States and Great Britain shared joint sovereignty until the Oregon Treaty resolved the issue by splitting the territory along the 49th parallel and each country gaining sole sovereignty of one side; the difference between an "apartment" complex and condominium is purely legal. There is no way to differentiate a condominium from an apartment by looking at or visiting the building. What defines. A building developed as a condominium could be built at another location as an apartment building.
As a practical matter, builders tend to build condominiums to higher quality standards than apartment complexes because of the differences between the rental and sale markets. Technically, a condominium is a collection of individual home units and common areas along with the land upon which they sit. Individual home ownership within a condominium is construed as ownership of only the air space confining the boundaries of the home; the boundaries of that space are specified by a legal document known as a Declaration, filed on record with the local governing authority. These boundaries will include the wall surrounding a condo, allowing the homeowner to make some interior modifications without impacting the common area. Anything outside this boundary is held in an undivided ownership interest by a corporation established at the time of the condominium's creation; the corporation holds this property in trust on behalf of the homeowners as a group—it may not have ownership itself. Condominiums have conditions and restrictions, additional rules that govern how the individual unit owners are to share the space.
It is possible for a condominium to consist of single-family dwellings. There are "detached condominiums" where homeowners do not maintain the exteriors of the dwellings, etc. and "site condominiums" where the owner has more control and ownership over the exterior appearance. These structures are preferred by gated communities. A homeowners association, whose members are the unit owners, manages the condominium through a board of directors elected by the membership; this exists under various names depending on the jurisdiction, such as "unit title", "sectional title", "commonhold", "strata council", or "tenant-owner's association", "body corporate", "Owners Corporation", "condominium corporation" or "condominium association". Another variation of this concept is the "time share", although not all time shares are condominiums, not all time shares involve actual ownership of real property. C