Nushabad is a city in the Central District of Aran va Bidgol County, Isfahan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 10,476, in 2,859 families; the underground city of Ouyi, located 5km north of Kashan, Isfahan province, is considered a notable piece of ancient architecture. As Noushabad city is located in the central desert region of Iran, it experiences harsh weather. During the day, Noushabad has a hot temperature and during the nights it gets notably cold; the reason why this city is called Noushabad is because in ancient times, one of the Sassanian kings who were passing through this area stopped here to drink water from a well and he found this water clear and cold. Therefore he ordered the building of a city around this well and named it Anoushabad, which turned into Noushabad. One reason for this underground city being built is thought to be to offer an escape from the high daytime temperature of the region; however the main reason that the underground city of Noushabad was carved stemmed from the fact that in the past, this region was insecure, suffering from raids, by forming an underground chain of passages beneath the entire city, the inhabitants could shelter there during such attacks.
Through these passages they could reach any spot in the city without being seen. The depth of this underground city varies from 4 to 18 meters. To reach the underground city there were several different openings; some of these openings were located inside the houses of people and others were located in important gathering places, such as the main fort just outside the city. People could live in the underground passages for several days without the need of to go outside. There are three levels in this underground city, planned in such a way that going to the different levels required moving from down to up; this made it easier for the people sheltering in the underground city to prevent enemies from getting to the upper levels. Another interesting feature of their architecture was the curvy passages that made it possible for the inhabitants to ambush enemies. Furthermore there were several other tricks that were used to resist against the enemies, for instance digging deep holes in the middle of the rooms and covering them with rotating stones that would fall down if anyone stepped on them
Buin va Miandasht
Buin va Miandasht is a city and capital of Central District, in Buin va Miandasht County, Isfahan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 9,933, in 2,537 families; the city was a merger to two smaller settlements Miandasht. Buin va Miandasht includes Buin and Miandasht and Sheshjavan as a sector of city
Isfahan province transliterated as Esfahan, Isfahan, or Isphahan, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran. It is located in the center of the country in Iran's Region 2, its secretariat is located in the city of Isfahan. The Isfahan province covers an area of 107,027 square km and is situated in the center of Iran. To its north, stand the Markazi Province and the provinces of Qom and Semnan. To its south, it is bordered by the provinces of Fars, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province. Aminabad is the most southern city of Isfahan province just 2 km north of the border. To the east, it is bordered by the province of Yazd. To the west, it is bordered by the province of Lurestan and to the southwest by the province of Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiyari; the city of Isfahan is the provincial capital. According to the census in the year 2006, the population of the province was 4,559,256 of which 83.3 percent were urban residents and 16.7 percent resided in the rural areas. The literacy rate was 88.65 percent.
In 2011 population of Isfahan grew up to 4,879,312. The province experiences a moderate and dry climate on the whole, ranging between 40.6 °C and 10.6 °C on a cold day in the winter season. The average annual temperature has been recorded as 16.7 °C and the annual rainfall on an average has been reported as 116.9 mm. The city of Sepahan however experiences an excellent climate, with four distinct seasons. With an elevation of 4,040 metres, the Shahankuh is the highest peak in Isfahan Province; this mountain is located about 20 kilometres southwest of the city of Fereydunshahr in the western part of Isfahan Province. Isfahan province consists of 52 rivers, they are small and temporary, with the exception of the Zāyanderud, which totals 405 km in length a basin area of 27,100 km2. Historians have recorded Espahan, Sepahan or Isfahan as a defense and military base; the security and protection of the increasing castles and fortifications, would provide the protection of residents nearby, therefore leading to the growth of large settlements nearby.
These historical castles were Atashgah, Tabarok, Kohan Dej, Gard Dej. The oldest of these is Ghal'eh Sefeed and the grounds at Tamijan from prehistoric times; the historic village of Abyaneh, a nationwide attraction has Sassanid ruins and fire temples among other historical relics. During the 17th and 18th centuries, Isfahan province enjoyed high standards of prosperity as it became the capital of Safavid Persia. While the city of Sepahan was their seat of monarchy, Kashan was their place of vacation and leisure. Isfahan province encompasses various sects today; the majority of the people in the province are Persian speakers, but Bakhtiari Lurs, Armenians and Persian Jews reside in the province. The official language of the province is Persian, though different ethnic groups and tribes abide by their own language such as Judeo-Persian, Georgian, Qashqai Turkic or Bakhtiari Lurish. Isfahan province is noted for its reputed personalities such as writers and other eminent figures who have been born and brought up or have lived in this territory.
Isfahan University of Technology Isfahan University Isfahan University of Medical Sciences Kashan University of Medical Sciences Isfahan University of Art Malek-Ashtar University of Technology University of Kashan Several well-known Islamic Azad University campuses in Iran are located in the province: Islamic Azad University of Falavarjan Islamic Azad University of Meymeh Islamic Azad University of Kashan Islamic Azad University of Majlesi Islamic Azad University of Shahreza Islamic Azad University of Najafabad Islamic Azad University of Khomeynishahr Islamic Azad University of Isfahan Islamic Azad University of Khorasgan Georgians in Iran History of Iran List of the historical structures in the Isfahan province Albert Houtum-Schindler. "Province of Isfahan". Eastern Persian Irak. London: J. Murray and Royal Geographical Society. Pp. 119+ – via HathiTrust. Muliani, S; the Georgians’ position in the Iranian history and civilization, Sepahan: Yekta Rahimi, M. M; the Georgians of Iran. The report of this exhibition is available in the web site of the Iranian Cultural Heritage News agency.
Saakashvili visited Fereydunshahr and put flowers on the graves of the Iranian Georgian martyrs' graves, showing respect towards this community Official website Province of Esfahan on Iran Chamber Society Esfahan Travel Attractions Isfahan Cultural Heritage Organization Isfahan Province Department of Education Isfahan information and pictures IsfahanEast.com Naein News
Fereydunshahr is a city and capital of Fereydunshahr County, about 150 kilometres west of the city of Isfahan in the western part of Isfahan Province, Iran. At the 2011 census, its population was 14,007, in 4,062 families. Fereydunshahr is situated inside the Zagros mountain range, it has one of the country's largest population of ethnic Georgians. People from Fereydunshahr speak a Georgian dialect along with Persian; the Georgian alphabet is used. Georgians in Iran Muliani, S. Jaygah-e Gorjiha dar Tarikh va Farhang va Tamaddon-e Iran. Esfahan: Yekta. Rahimi, M. M. Gorjiha-ye Iran. Esfahan: Yekta. Sepiani, M. Iranian-e Gorji. Esfahan: Arash. Esfahan's tourist exhibition, mentions the Georgians from Fereydan; the report of this exhibition is available in the web site of the Iranian Cultural Heritage News agency at:. Saakashvili visited Fereydunshahr and put flowers on the graves of the Iranian Georgian martyrs' graves, showing respect towards this community
Buin va Miandasht County
Buin va Miandasht County is a county in Isfahan Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Buin va Miandasht, it was split from Faridan County. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 27,586, in 6,666 families; the county has two Districts: 1- Central District 2- Karchambu District. The county has two cities: Afus. اطلس گیتاشناسی استانهای ایران
Ardestan is a city and capital of Ardestan County, Isfahan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 14,698, in 4,077 families. Ardestan is located at the southern foothills of the Karkas mountain chain and is 110 km northeast of Isfahan, it is believed the city has been founded in Sassanian times and was fortified in the 10th century. A Seljuk-era mosque, a bazaar, several ab anbars, historical houses of the old town are among the tourist attractions of Ardestan. Mulberry, pomegranate and a special kind of fig are the main orchard products of the town, it has been said. Imamzadeh Husayn: This Seljuk imamzadeh made part of a Seljuk madrasah. Only little of this structure remains today. A badly damaged portal with the remains of a minaret can still be found. Imamzadeh Ismael Jameh Mosque of Ardestan: The oldest parts indicate a pre-Seljuk building, it is possible the mosque was built on the site of a chahar taq; the structure was incorporated in a Seljuk kiosk mosque in the 12th century, further expanded to the classical four-iwan plan.
The stucco decoration of the mihrab was altered during the Il-Khanid period. Matheson, Sylvia A.. Persia: An Archaeological Guide. London: Faber and Faber Limited. ISBN 0-571-09305-1yektamob Photographs of Ardestan:— Masjed-e Jāme'eh Ardestān
Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab