Kiryat Ata is a city in the Haifa District of Israel. Still known by its former name of Kfar Ata, in 2017 it had a population of 57,518; the present town is built over the site of the Arab village Kufrata, a site surveyed, but not excavated. It is thought by archaeologists Mordechai Aviam and Dan Barag to be the Capharatha mentioned by Josephus in the Lower Galilee, one of several views tentatively identified for the site. Archaeological surveys at Khirbet Sharta in the northeast part of the city revealed traces of habitation dating to the Bronze, Hellenistic, Roman and Mamluk eras. In 2010, an archaeological survey was conducted at the ancient site of Kiryat Ata by Hagit Turge on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority, in 2014 and 2016 by Orit Segal. Ceramics from the Byzantine era have been found here. In 1283 it was mentioned as part of the domain of the Crusaders, according to the hudna between the Crusaders and the Mamluk sultan Qalawun. At the time it was called Kafrata. Incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517, Kufrata appeared in the census of 1596, located in the Nahiya of Acca, part of Safad Sanjak.
The population was 15 households, all Muslim. They paid a fixed tax rate of 20% on wheat, fruit trees, cotton and beehives, in addition to occasional revenues; the village appeared under the name of Koufour Tai on the map that Pierre Jacotin compiled during Napoleon's invasion of 1799. In 1859 the population was estimated to be 100, the cultivation was 16 feddans. In 1875 Victor Guérin visited, found the village to have 50 houses. In 1881 the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described Kefr Etta as "a small adobe village, on the plain, with a well on the north and olives on the east."A population list from about 1887 showed that Kh. Kefr Etta had about 285 inhabitants. In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Kufritta showed a population of 400. In 1925 a Zionist organisation purchased 10,000 dunums in Kefr Etta from Alexander Sursock, of the Sursock family of Beirut. At the time, there were 75 families living there. In the 1931 census Kufritta had a population of 4 Muslims and 29 Jews, in a total of 13 occupied houses.
In the 1945 statistics the population of Kefar Atta consisted of 1,690 Jews and the land area was 6,131 dunams, according to an official land and population survey. Of this, 6 dunams were designated for citrus and bananas, 39 dunams for plantations and irrigable land, 1,527 for cereals, while 3,591 dunams were built-up areas. In the early 20th century, the lands of the Arab village of Kefr Etta were purchased by a Warsaw religious foundation named "Avodat Israel" through intermediaries in the American Zion Commonwealth. Avodat Israel founded Kfar Ata in 1925. During the 1929 Arab riots the town was abandoned. A year the residents returned and rebuilt the community, it was renamed Kiryat Ata in 1965. Kiryat Ata has a Mediterranean climate with cool and rainy winters; the hottest month is July and the coldest is February. Snowfall is rare, but snow was recorded three times in the 20th century: in 1950, 1992 and 1999. Annual precipitation is 524 millimeters. According to CBS, in 2001 the ethnic makeup of the city was 99.8% Jewish and other non-Arab, without significant Arab population.
See Population groups in Israel. According to CBS, in 2001 there were 23,700 males and 24,900 females; the population of the city was spread out with 31.4% 19 years of age or younger, 15.7% between 20 and 29, 18.5% between 30 and 44, 18.3% from 45 to 59, 4.1% from 60 to 64, 11.9% 65 years of age or older. The population growth rate in 2001 was 0.8%. In 2000, there were 1,226 self-employed; the mean monthly wage was ILS 5,157. Salaried males had a mean monthly wage of ILS 6,759 versus ILS 3,456 for females; the mean income for the self-employed was 6,470. There were 1,092 people who received unemployment benefits and 4,153 people who received an income guarantee. In 2000, there were 20 schools and 8,762 students in the city: 14 elementary schools with 4,899 students, 11 high schools with 3,863 students. 52.0% of 12th graders were entitled to a matriculation certificate in 2001. The city's main football club, Maccabi Ironi Kiryat Ata, plays in Liga Alef, the third tier of Israeli football; the local basketball club, Elitzur Kiryat Ata, are in the top division.
Reinickendorf, Germany Alon Abutbul, actor Tal Friedman, comedian and musician Yuval Noah Harari and historian, was born in Kiryat Ata Yaniv Katan, association football player Erich Moller, founder of ATA textile industries Hovi Star, singer Haim Yavin, television anchor and documentary filmmaker Eti Zach, singer CBS population estimates for 2005/2006 Municipality website Beit Fischer City Museum Survey of Western Palestine, Map 5: IAA, Wikimedia commons
Baqa al-Gharbiyye is a predominantly Arab city in the Haifa District of Israel, located near the Green Line. In 2003, Baqa al-Gharbiyye united with the Jatt local council to form Baqa-Jatt, a unification, dissolved a few years later; the city had a population of 29,035 in 2017. Pottery remains from the Intermediate Bronze Age, Iron Age II and Hellenistic era have been found here. An olive press, quarries and a winepress seeming to date to the Hellenistic or Early Roman period have been found. Ceramic objects from the late Roman or early Byzantine periods have been found, a burial cave, with remains dating to Byzantine and the beginning of the Umayyad periods. In 1265 Sultan Baibars divided the village between the emirs'Ala' al-Din Taibars al-Zahiri and Ala' al-Din'Ali al-Tunkuzi when the villages of Palestine were divided and given to the fighters who fought against the Crusaders. Baqa was mentioned in an Ottoman document in 1538, as a five-family small village with 11 non-married people. In 1596, Baqa al-Gharbiyye appeared in Ottoman tax registers as being in the Nahiya of Jabal Shami, part of the Sanjak of Nablus.
It had a population of 5 Muslim households who paid a fixed tax rate of 33,3% on wheat, summer crops, goats or beehives, a press for olives or grapes. Half of the revenue went to the waqf of al-Haramayn as-Sarifayn. In 1799, Pierre Jacotin misplaced Atil instead of Baka, on his map made during the French campaign in Egypt and Syria. In 1838 it was noted as a village, the west, in the western Esh-Sha'rawiyeh administrative region, north of Nablus. In 1870, the French explorer Victor Guérin visited the village, he described it as standing on a low hill. A few wells and cisterns looked ancient, the rest had a modern appearance, he estimated the population to be 1500. In 1882 the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described Baqa al-Gharbiyye as a village of moderate size white and conspicuous, it had a few olive trees, orchards to the south. In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Baqa Gharbiyeh had a population of 1,443. In the 1931 census of Palestine, Baqa was recorded as having a population of 1,640 Muslims living in 403 houses.
These numbers included the nearby smaller locality El Manshiya. Like other Palestinian villages a strict British martial law controlled the village; when the battles reached a peak in 1938 a state of emergency was declared by Britain and tough collective punishment was imposed on every village where militants were found. A British military camp was established near the al-Madrasa al-Foqa School. On 25 August 1938 a clash took place between British troops and local militants and resulted in an armed battle which resulted two dead British officers and injuring three militants; the same day British military forces stormed the village and larger battles begun and continued until next day morning by which British losses raised to three. The next day, 26 August 1938, the British ordered the villagers to leave homes without taking anything with them and those to refused were taken out by force, they were driven to a nearby camp. On raids over the village started and continued until evening, leaving a great devastation for such a small village then: most of the wooden homes were burnt and over 70 homes were flattened.
After the raids were over the villagers were forced to walk to the Nur al-Shams Camp near Tulkarm. The next day the villagers returned to the village to find out the huge damage that occurred to Baqa, the news spread out in the Palestinian cities; this was one of the largest British attacks on a Palestinian village during the revolt. In the 1945 statistics the population of Baqa al-Gharbiyye consisted of 2,240 Muslims with a total land area of 21,116 dunams, according to an official land and population survey. Of this, 861 dunams were designated for plantations and irrigable land, 18,986 for cereals, while 76 dunams were built-up areas. In the early years of Israeli independence, Baqa al-Gharbiyye was one of the headquarters of the Israeli military administration; the land holdings of the town, 21,116 dunams in 1945, were reduced to 8,228 dunams by 1962 due to expropriation in 1953–1954. In 1963, the Baka canning plant went into partnership with Priman, an Israeli company that relocated to Baqa al-Gharibiyye.
In 1996, Baqa al-Gharbiyye was declared a city. In 2003 it was combined with the nearby town Jatt to become the city of Baqa-Jatt. Baqa al-Gharbiyye is separated from its West Bank sister city, Baqa ash-Sharqiyya, by the Israeli West Bank barrier which in this section coincides with the Green Line; as a result, a concrete wall topped with barbed wire runs through one neighbourhood. As the Israeli foreign minister in April and June 2008, Tzipi Livni raised the possibility of territorial exchange with Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas, she proposed transferring Israeli Arab communities, among them Baqa al-Garbiyeh, to the Palestinian side of the border. The Palestinians rejected the proposal. In 2003, the official population was 24,000. Together with Jatt the estimated population is 32,500; the ethnic makeup of the city is Muslim Arab, with no Jewish population and some European and foreign exceptions. The city is made up of 49 % females. Baqa has a population growth rate of 3.1%. The population of the city is spread out with 48.6% 19 years of age or younger, 18.4% between 20 and 29, 18.9% between 30 and 44, 9.5% from 45 to 59, 1.8% from 60 to 64, 2.8% 65 years of age or older.
According to CBS, 47.8% of 12th grade students were entit
Maurepas is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France. It is located in the western suburbs of Paris 31.2 km from the center. Most ancient buildings are the ruins of the donjon, built in the 11th century and destroyed in 1425. There is near St Sauveur's church, dating from the 15th century. In 768, the French king Pepin the Short offered the village of Maurepas and its wooden keep to the Abbey of Saint-Denis. Facing the Normans' invasions, they left the domain to the Lords of Chevreuse; the castle and village were given to the family of Malrepast, a vassal of the Lords of Chevreuse, which gave its name to the village. In 1432, during the Hundred Years' War, the English destroyed the keep. After the war, the domain of Maurepas returned to the family of Chevreuse, but the castle remained a ruin. Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux from the Phélypeaux family, was Count of Maurepas, he was living in the next city of Jouars-Pontchartrain in the Château de Pontchartrain.
Who lived in Maurepas Erich von Stroheim -, Austrian-American actor, film director, producer born in Vienna, died at his home in Maurepas from cancer. Maurepas is served by no station of RER, or suburban rail network; the closest station to Maurepas is La Verrière station on the Transilien La Défense and Transilien Paris – Montparnasse suburban rail lines. This station is located in the neighboring commune of La Verrière, 0.7 km from the town center of Maurepas. Junior high schools: Collège Alexandre Dumas Collège Louis Pergaud Collège de la Mare aux Saules in nearby CoignièresSenior high schools/sixth-form colleges: Lycée des 7 Mares Lycée Dumont d'Urville It is twinned with Waterlooville in Hampshire, Tirat Carmel in Haifa district, Israel. Communes of the Yvelines department INSEE Official website
Nesher is a city in the Haifa District of Israel. In 2017 it had a population of 23,749. Nesher was founded in 1924 as a workers town for the Nesher Cement factory, established in September 1923 by Michael Pollack, a Jewish industrialist from Russia; the area was swampy and malaria-infested, but employees of the factory moved there with their families, bringing the population to 1,500. Nesher was floated as a public company in 1925. In 1929, the Arabs of Balad al-Sheikh burned down a farm. By the mid-1930s, Nesher Cement had both Jewish and Arab. In 1948, thousands of Jewish immigrants from Europe and North Africa settled in Nesher. In 1952, a local council was formed comprising four neighborhoods – Nesher, Giv’at Nesher, Ben-Dor and Tel Hanan; the first mayor was Yehuda Shimroni. CBS statistics for 2005 show Nesher's ethnic makeup as 99.5 % other non-Arabs. 30.7% of the population in 2005 were immigrants who came to Israel after 1990. The city's education system comprises six elementary schools, one comprehensive high school, two middle schools and 36 kindergartens and day care centers with an enrollment of 4,000 pupils.
Over 70% of Nesher’s high school students take the Bagrut matriculation exams, with a pass rate of 98%, one of the highest rates in Israel. Nesher's high school won the Israeli Education Prize twice in the span of a decade. In 2005, the Broward County Jewish Federation established a partnership with Nesher in an effort to create a people-to-people cultural exchange program that includes high school and college student exchanges and video conferencing for events such as school celebrations and concerts. Official website
Veszprém is one of the oldest urban areas in Hungary, a city with county rights. It lies 15 km north of the Lake Balaton, it is the administrative center of the county of the same name. The name of the city originates from a Slavic personal name Bezprem or Bezprym meaning "stubborn", "self-confident, not willing to retreat". Besprem, Bezpremensis; the form Vezprem originates in early medieval scribal habits and frequent exchange of B and V under the influence of Greek. The city was named either after a chieftain, or the son of Princess Judith, who settled here after her husband Boleslaus I of Poland expelled her and her son. Veszprém lies on both sides of the Séd creek 110 km from Budapest, it can be reached from Győr via Road 82 and from Székesfehérvár via Road 8. According to legend, Veszprém was founded on seven hills; the seven hills are Várhegy, Benedek-hegy, Jeruzsálem-hegy, Temetőhegy, Gulyadomb, Kálvária-domb, Cserhát. Anonymus Belæ Regis Notarius wrote that a castle stood here when the Hungarians first occupied the area.
The castle was a 9th-century Frankish fortress. The castles of Veszprém, Esztergom and Székesfehérvár, were the earliest Hungarian stone castles, built during the reign of High Prince Géza, a time when motte castles were much more common. Veszprém had an important religious role during the struggle to make Christianity the official religion of Hungary - Stephen I of Hungary defeated the armies of his chief opponent, Koppány, near Veszprém; the city became the first episcopal seat of Hungary in 1009 and an archiepiscopal seat in 1993. Comitatus Veszprém was one of the earliest historical counties of Hungary. During the 13th century Mongol invasion of Hungary, Veszprém was protected by its castle. Veszprém was the favorite city of the wife of St. Stephen. For centuries, the queens of Hungary were crowned by the bishop of Veszprém; the city is still called "the city of queens". In the year 1294 Queen Fenenna confirmed that, at that time, the former Queen Elizabeth had the privilege to collect the donations of the church in the Veszprém County.
Veszprém was among the first Hungarian cities to have a university - students studied law and arts here for several centuries. The university was destroyed by fire in 1276, when Peter I Csák invaded and devastated the Diocese of Veszprém. Veszprém became a university town again in the 20th century. Veszprém changed hands between Austrians and Ottomans until 1684 after the Battle of Mohács in 1526, it was a sanjak centre in Budin Province during Ottoman rule. The town was plundered by the Turks in 1552, but they could not maintain occupation: the region north of lake Balaton remained in the Kingdom of Hungary; the castle was demolished in 1706. Until 1918, VESZPRIM was part of province of Hungary. During World War II, Veszprém was captured by Soviet troops of the 3rd Ukrainian Front on 23 March 1945 in the course of the Vienna Offensive; the Hungarian automotive plastic spare parts manufacturer Videoton Plastic, the Hungarian kiosk manufacturer Kiosksystems, the Hungarian shutter manufacturer Roll-Lux, the Hungarian label manufacturer Imprenta, the Hungarian tool manufacturer Solidsteel, the Hungarian technical ceramics manufacturer Bakony Ipari Kerámia, the Hungarian furniture manufacturer Balaton Bútor, the Hungarian machine manufacturer Flexmont, the Hungarian watermanagement company PureAqua, the Hungarian automotive spare parts manufacturer Win-Pres, the Hungarian construction company VEMÉVSZER, the Hungarian metal manufacturer Ferro-Trio, the Hungarian OOK Printhouse, the Hungarian toolmanufacturer Plasticor, the Hungarian machine manufacturer Transmoduls, the Hungarian Prospektus Printhouse have both their headquarters and main production facilities in Veszprém.
The French pharmaceutical company Citoxlab, the Austrian plaster manufacturer Lasselsberger-Knauf, the Swiss electric motor manufacturer Maxon Motor, the Austrian tile manufacturer Bramac, the French automotive spare parts manufacturer Valeo, the German electromagnetical controlsystems manufacturer nass magnet, the German automotive spare parts manufacturer Continental AG, the German automotive spare parts manufacturer Thun, the German sensor manufacturer Pepperl+Fuchs, the Austrian chimney and ventilation system manufacturer Schiedel, the American power supply security company CoreComm, the German censor manufacturer Balluff, the German automotive spare parts manufacturer Jost, the German health devices manufacturer Beurer, the British-Dutch food producer Unilever and the Hungarian dairy product manufacturer Pannontej operate production plants in the city. The Dutch General Logistics Systems, the Hungarian Magyar Posta, the German Penny Market, the Hungarian Locargo and the Austrian Persped have logistics centres there.
The Hungarian owned Vöröskő electrical retailer is based in the city. The Veszprém Aréna provides place besides sport events for conferences. According to the 2011 census beside the 83.9% Hungarian majority the city has a historical German minority numbering 2.4% of the population. The second largest ethnic group is the Roma with 0.7%. The others
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed; the Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an autocratic semi-elective empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it dominated the North African coast and most of Western Europe, the Balkans and much of the Middle East.
It is grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, society, law, government, art, literature and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France, it achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
The Roman Empire emerged with the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, it stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century; this splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine; the new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf saved and raised them, when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.
The twins founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about, going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted; this caused a problem, in that Rome was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave.
One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving
Arabs are a population inhabiting the Arab world. They live in the Arab states in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa and western Indian Ocean islands, they form a significant diaspora, with Arab communities established around the world. The first mention of Arabs is from the mid-ninth century BCE as a tribal people in eastern and southern Syria and the north of the Arabian Peninsula; the Arabs appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, the succeeding Neo-Babylonian, Achaemenid and Parthian empires. Arab tribes, most notably the Ghassanids and Lakhmids, begin to appear in the southern Syrian Desert from the mid 3rd century CE onward, during the mid to stages of the Roman and Sasanian empires. Before the expansion of the Rashidun Caliphate, "Arab" referred to any of the nomadic and settled Semitic people from the Arabian Peninsula, Syrian Desert, North and Lower Mesopotamia. Today, "Arab" refers to a large number of people whose native regions form the Arab world due to the spread of Arabs and the Arabic language throughout the region during the early Muslim conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries and the subsequent Arabisation of indigenous populations.
The Arabs forged the Rashidun, Umayyad and the Fatimid caliphates, whose borders reached southern France in the west, China in the east, Anatolia in the north, the Sudan in the south. This was one of the largest land empires in history. In the early 20th century, the First World War signalled the end of the Ottoman Empire; this resulted in the defeat and dissolution of the empire and the partition of its territories, forming the modern Arab states. Following the adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945; the Charter of the Arab League endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland whilst respecting the individual sovereignty of its member states. Today, Arabs inhabit the 22 Arab states within the Arab League: Algeria, Comoros, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Mauritania, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen; the Arab world stretches around 13 million km2, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast.
Beyond the boundaries of the League of Arab States, Arabs can be found in the global diaspora. The ties that bind Arabs are ethnic, cultural, identical, nationalist and political; the Arabs have their own customs, architecture, literature, dance, cuisine, society and mythology. The total number of Arabs are an estimated 450 million. Arabs are a diverse group in terms of religious practices. In the pre-Islamic era, most Arabs followed polytheistic religions; some tribes had adopted Christianity or Judaism, a few individuals, the hanifs observed monotheism. Today, about 93% of Arabs are adherents of Islam, there are sizable Christian minorities. Arab Muslims belong to the Sunni, Shiite and Alawite denominations. Arab Christians follow one of the Eastern Christian Churches, such as the Greek Orthodox or Greek Catholic churches. Other smaller minority religions are followed, such as the Bahá'í Faith and Druze. Arabs have influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and architecture, philosophy, ethics, politics, music, cinema, medicine and technology in the ancient and modern history.
The earliest documented use of the word "Arab" to refer to a people appears in the Kurkh Monoliths, an Akkadian language record of the ninth century BCE Assyrian conquest of Aram, which referred to Bedouins of the Arabian Peninsula under King Gindibu, who fought as part of a coalition opposed to Assyria. Listed among the booty captured by the army of king Shalmaneser III of Assyria in the Battle of Qarqar are 1000 camels of "Gi-in-di-bu'u the ar-ba-a-a" or " Gindibu belonging to the Arab; the related word ʾaʿrāb is used to refer to Bedouins today, in contrast to ʿarab which refers to Arabs in general. The term Arab and ʾaʿrāb are mentioned around 40 times in pre-Islamic Sabaean inscriptions; the term Arab occurs in the titles of the Himyarite kings from the time of'Abu Karab Asad until MadiKarib Ya'fur. The term ʾaʿrāb is driven from the term Arab according to Sabaean grammar; the term is mentioned in Quranic verses referring to people who were living in Madina and it might be a south Arabian loan-word into Quranic language.
The oldest surviving indication of an Arab national identity is an inscription made in an archaic form of Arabic in 328 using the Nabataean alphabet, which refers to Imru' al-Qays ibn'Amr as "King of all the Arabs". Herodotus refers to the Arabs in the Sinai, southern Palestine, the frankincense region. Other ancient Greek historians like Agatharchides, Diodorus Siculus and Strabo mention Arabs living in Mesopotamia, in Egypt, southern Jordan, the Syrian steppe and in eastern Arabia. Inscriptions dating to the 6th century BCE in Yemen include the term "Arab"; the most popular Arab account holds that the word "Arab" came from an eponymous father called Ya'rub, the first to speak Arabic. A