Gori Ganga is a river in the Munsiari tehsil of the Pithoragarh District, part of the state of Uttarakhand in northern India. Its principal source is the Milam Glacier, just northeast of Nanda Devi along with the Glaciers of the Ralam River, the Pyunshani and Uttari & Dakshini Balati Glaciers that lie on the western face of the Panchachuli Peaks; the alpine trans-humant village of Milam is located one kilometer below the snout of the glacier. Here a left-bank stream called; the valley provides the approach route for access to peaks such as Nanda Devi East, Trishuli and Nanda Kot. The Gori is fed by glaciers and streams flowing from the eastern slopes of the east wall of the Nanda Devi Sanctuary, those flowing west from the high peaks of Panchchuli and Chaudhara, including the Ralam Gad and the Pyunsani Gadhera; the Kalabaland-Burfu Kalganga glacier system flows into the Gori Ganga Valley from the east. The principal rivers joining the main trunk Gori river are listed below - Panchu Gad - True Right Bank at Panchu / Ganghar Burfu Gad - True Left Bank at Burfu Lwa Gad - True Right Bank below Martoli Poting Gad - True Right Bank at Bogdayar Ralam Gad - True Left Bank upstream of Ruspiabagad Jimia Gad - True Right Bank at Jimmighat Suring Gad - True Right Bank at Suring Gad / Ghat Madkani or Madkanya - True Left Bank at Madkot - This river originates from the Pyunshani and Balati Glaciers at the base of the Panchachuli Peaks Ghosi Gad - True Left Bank at Baram Rauntees - True Right Bank at Garjia.
This is the only major rain fed stream joining the Gori River. Goriganga joins the Kali River at Jauljibi. In the local language "gori" means fair. "Gad" and "ganga" both mean river. The water of this river froths and contains white clay/sand, so it looks white most of the time
Dunagiri is one of the high peaks of the Chamoli District Himalayas in the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand. It lies at the northwest corner of the Sanctuary Wall, a ring of peaks surrounding Nanda Devi and enclosing the Nanda Devi Sanctuary. Dunagiri was first climbed on 5 July 1939 by the Swiss climbers André Roch, F. Steuri, D. Zogg, via the southwest ridge. In 1975, Joe Tasker and Dick Renshaw climbed a difficult route on the southeast buttress in a significant milestone for alpine-style climbing. In 1978 the first Australian Himalayan expedition by the Australian National University Mountaineering Club made the fourth ascent via the south-west ridge. Lincoln Hall and Tim Macartney-Snape made the final summit attempt with Macartney-Snape summiting
Nanda Devi is the second highest mountain in India, the highest located within the country. It is the 23rd-highest peak in the world, it was considered the highest mountain in the world before computations in 1808 proved Dhaulagiri to be higher. It was the highest mountain in India before 1975 when Sikkim, the state in which Kangchenjunga is located, joined the Republic of India, it is part of the Garhwal Himalayas, is located in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand, between the Rishiganga valley on the west and the Goriganga valley on the east. The peak, whose name means "Bliss-Giving Goddess", is regarded as the patron-goddess of the Uttarakhand Himalaya. In acknowledgment of its religious significance and for the protection of its fragile ecosystem, the peak as well as the circle of high mountains surrounding it—the Nanda Devi sanctuary—were closed to both locals and climbers in 1983; the surrounding Nanda Devi National Park was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. Nanda Devi is a two-peaked massif.
The western summit is higher, the eastern summit, called Nanda Devi East, is the lower one. The main summit stands guarded by a barrier ring comprising some of the highest mountains in the Indian Himalayas, twelve of which exceed 6,400 metres in height, further elevating its sacred status as the daughter of the Himalaya in Indian myth and folklore; the interior of this insurmountable ring is known as the Nanda Devi Sanctuary, is protected as the Nanda Devi National Park. Nanda Devi East lies on the eastern edge of the ring, at the border of Chamoli and Bageshwar districts. Together the peaks may be referred to as the peaks of the goddesses Sunanda; these goddesses have occurred together in ancient Sanskrit literature and are worshipped together as twins in the Kumaon, Garhwal and as well as elsewhere in India. The first published reference to Nanda Devi East as Sunanda Devi appears to be in a recent novel that has the Kumaon region as backdrop. In addition to being the 23rd highest independent peak in the world, Nanda Devi is notable for its large, steep rise above local terrain.
It rises over 3,300 metres above its immediate southwestern base on the Dakkhini Nanda Devi Glacier in about 4.2 kilometres, its rise above the glaciers to the north is similar. This makes it among the steepest peaks in the world at this scale comparable, for example, to the local profile of K2. Nanda Devi is impressive when considering terrain, a bit further away, as it is surrounded by deep valleys. For example, it rises over 6,500 metres above the valley of the Goriganga in only 50 km. On the northern side of the massif lies the Uttari Nanda Devi Glacier, flowing into the Uttari Rishi Glacier. To the southwest, one finds the Dakkhini Nanda Devi Glacier, flowing into the Dakkhini Rishi Glacier. All of these glaciers are located within the Sanctuary, drain west into the Rishiganga. To the east lies the Pachu Glacier, to the southeast lie the Nandaghunti and Lawan Glaciers, feeding the Lawan Gad. To the south is the Pindari Glacier, draining into the Pindar River. Just to the south of Sunanda Devi, dividing the Lawan Gad drainage from the Dakkhini Nanda Devi Glacier, is Longstaff Col, 5,910 m, one of the high passes that guard access to the Nanda Devi Sanctuary.
For a list of notable peaks of the Sanctuary and its environs, see Nanda Devi National Park. The ascent of Nanda Devi necessitated fifty years of arduous exploration in search of a passage into the Sanctuary; the outlet is the Rishi Gorge, a deep, narrow canyon, difficult to traverse safely, is the biggest hindrance to entering the Sanctuary. Hugh Ruttledge failed each time. In a letter to The Times he wrote that'Nanda Devi imposes on her votaries an admission test as yet beyond their skill and endurance', adding that gaining entry to the Nanda Devi Sanctuary alone was more difficult than reaching the North Pole. In 1934, the British explorers Eric Shipton and H. W. Tilman, with three Sherpa companions, Angtharkay and Kusang discovered a way through the Rishi Gorge into the Sanctuary; when the mountain was climbed in 1936 by a British-American expedition, it became the highest peak climbed by man until the 1950 ascent of Annapurna, 8,091 metres. It involved steeper and more sustained terrain than had been attempted at such a high altitude.
The expedition climbed the south ridge known as the Coxcomb Ridge, which leads directly to the main summit. The summit pair were Noel Odell. Noted mountaineer and mountain writer H. Adams Carter was on the expedition, notable for its small scale and lightweight ethic: it included only seven climbers, used no fixed ropes, nor any Sherpa support above 6,200 m. Eric Shipton, not involved in the climb itself, called it "the finest mountaineering achievement performed in the Himalaya."After abortive attempts by Indian expeditions in 1957 and 1961, the second ascent of Nanda Devi was accomplishe
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Trisul is a group of three Himalayan mountain peaks of western Kumaun, with the highest reaching 7120m. The three peaks resemble a trident - in Hindi/Sanskrit, trident, is the weapon of Shiva; the Trishul group forms the southwest corner of the ring of peaks enclosing the Nanda Devi Sanctuary, about 15 kilometres west-southwest of Nanda Devi itself. The main peak, Trisul I, was the first peak over 7,000 m to have been climbed, in 1907; the three peaks are named Trisul I, Trisul II, Trisul III. The massif is a north-south ridge, with Trisul I at Trisul III at the south; the massif runs North-South, hence appears compressed when viewed from the south, more stretched out from the Southeast. Nanda Ghunti lies a few kilometers to the northwest. T. G. Longstaff made the first climbing reconnaissance of Trisul, in September 1905, focussing on the western and southern sides, he returned in 1907 with two other Britons, three Alpine guides, a number of Gurkhas. They ascended through the Rishiganga valley, to the north of the peak, onto the Trisul Glacier, which lies on the east side.
From there they climbed the northeast flank to the north ridge. At the time Trisul was the highest mountain to have been climbed; the climb was noted for the first use of supplementary oxygen in a major climb. During the 1950s Harold Williams led Indian Army expeditions to the summit. Routes on the west face and south ridge of Trisul I have been climbed; the west face was first ascended in 1976. Trisul II and Trisul III were first climbed in 1960 by the Yugoslav team JAHO I, they climbed from the Bidalgwar glacier, achieving the summit of Trisul II via the southern ridge and Trisul III via the north ridge. Another Yugoslav expedition made the first traverse of the three peaks in 1987, two members paraglided from the summit. Aleš Kunaver was a member of the first Yugoslav team which climbed Trisul in 1960. In 1987, his daughter Vlasta Kunaver was one of the paragliders; the Trisul massif can be accessed via the following route: Almora - Kausani - Garur- Gwaldam - Debal - Bagargad - Wan - Bedini Bugyal - Kalu Vinayak - Roopkund - Trisul.
This My Voyage by T. G. Longstaff. Across Peaks and Passes of Kumaun Himalayas by Harish Kapadia
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The range has many including the highest, Mount Everest; the Himalayas include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 m in elevation, including ten of the fourteen 8,000-metre peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia is 6,961 m tall. Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate, the Himalayan mountain range runs west-northwest to east-southeast in an arc 2,400 km long, its western anchor, Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus river. Its eastern anchor, Namcha Barwa, is just west of the great bend of the Yarlung Tsangpo River; the Himalayan range is bordered on the northwest by the Hindu Kush ranges. To the north, the chain is separated from the Tibetan Plateau by a 50–60 km wide tectonic valley called the Indus-Tsangpo Suture. Towards the south the arc of the Himalaya is ringed by the low Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The range varies in width from 350 km in the west to 150 km in the east. The Himalayas are distinct from the other great ranges of central Asia, although sometimes the term'Himalaya' is loosely used to include the Karakoram and some of the other ranges; the Himalayas are inhabited by 52.7 million people, are spread across five countries: Nepal, Bhutan and Pakistan. Some of the world's major rivers – the Indus, the Ganges and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra – rise in the Himalayas, their combined drainage basin is home to 600 million people; the Himalayas have a profound effect on the climate of the region, helping to keep the monsoon rains on the Indian plain and limiting rainfall on the Tibetan plateau. The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of the Indian subcontinent; the name of the range derives from himá and ā-laya. They are now known as the "Himalaya Mountains" shortened to the "Himalayas", they were described in the singular as the Himalaya. This was previously transcribed Himmaleh, as in Emily Dickinson's poetry and Henry David Thoreau's essays.
The mountains are known as the Himālaya in Nepali and Hindi, the Himalaya or'The Land of Snow' in Tibetan, the Hamaleh Mountain Range in Urdu and the Ximalaya Mountain Range in Chinese. In the middle of the great curve of the Himalayan mountains lie the 8,000 m peaks of Dhaulagiri and Annapurna in Nepal, separated by the Kali Gandaki Gorge; the gorge splits the Himalayas into Western and Eastern sections both ecologically and orographically – the pass at the head of the Kali Gandaki, the Kora La is the lowest point on the ridgeline between Everest and K2. To the east of Annapurna are the 8,000 m peaks of Manaslu and across the border in Tibet, Shishapangma. To the south of these lies Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal and the largest city in the Himalayas. East of the Kathmandu Valley lies valley of the Bhote/Sun Kosi river which rises in Tibet and provides the main overland route between Nepal and China – the Araniko Highway/China National Highway 318. Further east is the Mahalangur Himal with four of the world's six highest mountains, including the highest: Cho Oyu, Everest and Makalu.
The Khumbu region, popular for trekking, is found here on the south-western approaches to Everest. The Arun river drains the northern slopes of these mountains, before turning south and flowing through the range to the east of Makalu. In the far east of Nepal, the Himalayas rise to the Kanchenjunga massif on the border with India, the third highest mountain in the world, the most easterly 8,000 m summit and the highest point of India; the eastern side of Kanchenjunga is in the Indian state of Sikkim. An independent Kingdom, it lies on the main route from India to Lhasa, which passes over the Nathu La pass into Tibet. East of Sikkim lies the ancient Buddhist Kingdom of Bhutan; the highest mountain in Bhutan is Gangkhar Puensum, a strong candidate for the highest unclimbed mountain in the world. The Himalayas here are becoming rugged with forested steep valleys; the Himalayas continue, turning northeast, through the Indian State of Arunachal Pradesh as well as Tibet, before reaching their easterly conclusion in the peak of Namche Barwa, situated in Tibet inside the great bend of the Yarlang Tsangpo river.
On the other side of the Tsangpo, to the east, are the Kangri Garpo mountains. The high mountains to the north of the Tsangpo including Gyala Peri, are sometimes included in the Himalayas. Going west from Dhaulagiri, Western Nepal is somewhat remote and lacks major high mountains, but is home to Rara Lake, the largest lake in Nepal; the Karnali River cuts through the center of the region. Further west, the border with India follows the Sarda River and provides a trade route into China, where on the Tibetan plateau lies the high peak of Gurla Mandhata. Just across Lake Manasarovar from this lies the sacred Mount Kailash, which stands close to the source of the four main rivers of Himalayas and is revered in Hinduism, Sufism and Bonpo. In the newly created Indian state of Uttarkhand, the Himalayas rise again as the Garhwal Himalayas with the high peaks of Nanda Devi and Kamet; the state is an important pilgrimage destination, with
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle