Tirumala limniace

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Blue tiger
Blue tiger (Tirumala limniace exoticus).jpg
Blue tiger (Tirumala limniace exoticus) male underside.jpg
Underside of male
both in Kerala, India
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Nymphalidae
Genus: Tirumala
Species:
T. limniace
Binomial name
Tirumala limniace
(Cramer, [1775])
Subspecies

See text

Tirumala limniace - Distribution.png
Synonyms
  • Papilio limniace Cramer, [1775]
  • Danais limniace fruhstorferi van Eecke, 1915
  • Danaida limniace kuchingana Moulton, 1915

Tirumala limniace, the blue tiger,[1][2] is a butterfly found in South Asia and Southeast Asia[1][2] that belongs to the crows and tigers, that is, the danaid group of the brush-footed butterfly family. This butterfly shows gregarious migratory behaviour in southern India.

Description[edit]

In general, all butterflies can directly absorb heat from the sun via their wings to facilitate autonomous flight. Studies on blue tiger butterflies show that high-intensity light significantly increased flight activity. Blue tiger butterflies have a wing surface color that is composed of both light and dark colors; the dark areas on the wing surfaces are the heat absorption areas that allow for the facilitation of autonomous flight.

Life cycle[edit]

Food plants[edit]

The butterfly larva generally feed on plants of family Asclepiadaceae; the recorded host plants are:

Larva[edit]

Yellowish white; 3rd and 12th segments, each with a pair of fleshy filaments, black and greenish white; each of the segments with four transverse black bars, the second bar on all broader than the others, bifurcated laterally, a yellow longitudinal line on each side; head, feet and claspers spotted with black;[3] the larva is around 1.21 centimetres (0.48 in) in length and weighs around 5 milligrams (0.077 gr) initially, but grows double that size and four times that weight within 48 hours.

Pupa[edit]

"Green with golden scattered spots and beaded dorsal crescent". (Frederic Moore quoted in Bingham)[3]

Range[edit]

South Asia and Southeast Asia.[1][2]

Subspecies[edit]

Listed alphabetically:[2]

  • T. l. bentenga (Martin, 1910) – Selajar
  • T. l. conjuncta Moore, 1883 – Java, Bali, Kangean, Bawean, Lesser Sunda Islands
  • T. l. exotica (Gmelin, 1790) – United Arab Emirates
  • T. l. ino (Butler, 1871) – Sula
  • T. l. leopardus (Butler, 1866) – Ceylon, India - southern Burma
  • T. l. limniace (Cramer, [1775]) – southern China, Indochina, Hainan, Taiwan
  • T. l. makassara (Martin, 1910) – southern Sulawesi
  • T. l. orestilla (Fruhstorfer, 1910) – Philippines (Luzon)
  • T. l. vaneeckeni (Bryk, 1937) – Timor, Wetar

Habits[edit]

This species migrates extensively during the monsoons in southern India; the migratory populations have been observed to consist nearly entirely of males.[4] It is also known to mud-puddle during migration.[5]

Gallery of life cycle[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Varshney, R.K.; Smetacek, Peter (2015). A Synoptic Catalogue of the Butterflies of India. New Delhi: Butterfly Research Centre, Bhimtal & Indinov Publishing. doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.3966.2164. ISBN 978-81-929826-4-9.
  2. ^ a b c d Savela, Markku. "Tirumala limniace (Cramer, [1775])". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
  3. ^ a b c One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a work now in the public domain: Bingham, Charles Thomas (1907). Fauna of British India. Butterflies Vol. 2. Taylor & Francis. p. 16.
  4. ^ Kunte, K. (2005). Species composition, sex-ratios and movement patterns in Danaine butterfly migrations in southern India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 102(3):280-286
  5. ^ Mathew, G.; Binoy, C.F. (2002). "Migration of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) in the New Amarambalam Reserve Forest of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve" (PDF). Zoos' Print Journal. 17 (8): 844–847. doi:10.11609/jott.zpj.17.8.844-7.

External links[edit]