Pocharam lake is located in Nizamabad district in the Indian state of Telangana. It is adjacent to Pocharam Forest & Wildlife Sanctuary
Calotropis is a genus of flowering plants in the dogbane family, first described as a genus in 1810. It is native to southern North Africa, they are known as milkweeds because of the latex they produce. Calotropis species are considered common weeds in some parts of the world; the flowers are fragrant and are used in making floral tassels in some mainland Southeast Asian cultures. Fibers of these plants are called mader. Calotropis species are found in abandoned farmland. Calotropis gigantea and C. procera are the two most common species in the genus. Calotropis gigantea grows to a height of 8 to 10 ft while C. procera grows to about 3 to 6 ft. The leaves are sessile and sub-sessile, ovate, cordate at the base; the flowers are about 1.5 to 2 in in size, with umbellate lateral cymes and are colored white to pink and are fragrant in case of C. procera while the flowers of C. gigantea are without any fragrance and are white to purple colored, but in rarer cases are light green-yellow or white. The seeds are compressed, broadly ovoid, with a tufted micropylar coma of long silky hair.
Pollination is performed by bees by the following mechanism: The stigmas and androeciums are fused to form a gynostegium. The pollen are enclosed in pollinia; the pollinia are attached to an adhesive glandular disc at the stigmatic angle. When a bee lands on one of these, the disc adheres to its legs, the pollinium is detached from the flower when the bee flies away; when the bee visits another flower, the flower is pollinated by the adhering pollinium on the bee. SpeciesCalotropis acia Buch.-Ham. - India Calotropis gigantea Dryand. - China, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia Calotropis procera Dryand. - China, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, Middle East, North Africaformerly includedCalotropis sussuela, syn of Hoya imperialis The milky exudation from the plant is a corrosive poison. Calotropis species are poisonous plants. Calotropin is similar in structure to two cardiac glycosides which are responsible for the cytotoxicity of Apocynum cannabinum. Extracts from the flowers of Calotropis procera have shown strong cytotoxic activity.
The extracts are harmful to the eyes. Cattle stay away from the plants because of their unpleasant taste and their content of cardiac glycosides; the flowers of the plant are offered to Ganesha, Hanuman. USDA classification for Calotropis Calotropis procera PIER - Calotropis giantea
Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi
Charles Thomas Bingham
Charles Thomas Bingham was an Irish military officer and entomologist. Bingham was born in India of an old Irish family, he was educated in Ireland, his military career began in India where he was a soldier in the Bombay Staff Corps and with the Bengal Staff Corps. At first interested in ornithology he took up entomology from 1877 following a posting to Burma where he was conservator of forests. On his retirement in 1894 he settled with two sons in London. Here he worked, unpaid, in the Insect Room of the Natural History Museum and cataloguing the world collection of aculeate Hymenoptera, he took over from William Thomas Blanford the editorship of two of the Hymenoptera volumes of The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma series and two of the butterfly volumes. He was elected a fellow of the Entomological Society of London in 1895 and was a member of its council from 1903 to 1906. In the same year he became a fellow of the Zoological Society of London, he collaborated with other naturalists across India to produce his works on the Indian Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera.
The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera. Volume 1. Wasps and Bees. London: Taylor and Francis; the Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Volume 2. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps. London: Taylor and Francis; the Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Butterflies Volume 1. London: Taylor and Francis; the Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Butterflies Volume 2. London: Taylor and Francis From Sikkim my friend Mr. Fritz Möller has sent me large collections in the most perfect condition. Many of the forms in these were procured at high altitudes, are most interesting and rare. To Col. E. R. Johnson, late of the Indian Medical Service, I owe the gift of a small but valuable collection from Simla and from Shillong in Assam. To Col. Swinhoe I am indebted, not only for the gift of many specimens, but for the privilege of examining at leisure the fine series of Indo-Malayan forms contained in his collection. Mr. Gilbert Rogers, of the Imperial Forest Service of India, in the most lavish way, employed native collectors in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, has generously placed the material collected at my disposal.
Messrs. Allan and Craddock, of the Burma Forest Department, have sent me small but useful collections from Pegu and the Southern Shan States. Major E. Stokes-Roberts, R. E. sent me several collections made in the Nilgiri Hills in Southern India. These were valuable to me for comparison with the northern Indian forms, he extensively improved on the earlier published information from Frederic Moore and Lionel de Nicéville. The following is from his preface to the butterflies volume of The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma: I am indebted to the information contained in Mr. Moore's great work, the Lepidoptera Indica as will be seen from the frequent quotations from and references to the volumes so far completed. Of the three volumes issued of the Butterflies of India, the first two are out of date and, I believe, out of print. Col. Marshall and Mr. de Niceville were pioneers in the systematic investigation of the Indian Lepidopterous Fauna. De Niceville's enthusiasm communicated itself to others, his ready and generous help encouraged many who, like myself, feel that his early death has been an irreparable loss to Indian Entomology.
Had my late friend lived, the compilation of the present work would never have been attempted by me. As it is, it will be good news to many that the Trustees of the Indian Museum acquired the MSS. of the volumes on the Papilionidae and Hesperiidae left incompleted at Mr. de Niceville's death. These MSS. have been generously placed at my disposal for use in the compilation of the future volumes of this work. In connection with this, I ought to add that the unique collection of Indo-Malayan Lepidoptera brought together by the late Mr. de Niceville was acquired some little time before his death by the Indian Museum, that through the kindness of Major Alcock, I. M. S. O. I. E. F. R. S. Superintendent Indian Museum, I have had the privilege of examining many of the types. In Dutch, the white-headed bulbul is named for Bingham as Binghams buulbuul. Several species of ants and wasps are named after him including Tetraponera binghami, Aenictus binghami and Vespa binghami, his Hymenoptera are in the Natural History Museum, with duplicates in the Natural History Museum, Berlin.
The Lepidoptera were scattered and sold. His Parnassius, the snow Apollo butterflies, are in Belfast. Anonymous 1909: "Bingham, C. T." Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 45 Dodd, F. P.. "Notes upon some remarkable parasitic insects from North Queensland. Z. S, Dr Beno Wandolleck". Trans. Ent. Soc. London. 1906: 119–124. Maxwell-Lefroy, Harold. "Obituary Lieut.-Colonel C. T. Bingham". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 19: 214–215. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Butterflies. Volume 1 Volume 2 Hymenoptera. Volume 1
Tirumala is a genus of brush-footed butterflies. Its species are distributed in Africa and Australia. Tirumala formosa – forest monarch or beautiful tiger Tirumala petiverana – African blue tiger Tirumala gautama – scarce blue tiger Tirumala euploeomorpha – crow tiger Tirumala choaspes Tirumala limniace – blue tiger Tirumala septentrionis – dark blue tiger Tirumala hamata – dark blue tiger, blue wanderer, or blue tiger Tirumala ishmoides Moore, 1883 Tirumala alba Chou & Gu, 1994 Tirumala at Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms Media related to Tirumala at Wikimedia Commons
Heliotropium indicum known as Indian heliotrope, is an annual, hirsute plant, a common weed in waste places and settled areas. It is native to Asia, it is used in native medicine in Tamil Nadu, India. Indian heliotrope is an annual, branched plant that can grow to a height of about 15–50 cm, it has a hairy stem, bearing alternating ovate to oblong-ovate leaves. It has small purple flowers with a green calyx; the plant is native to Asia. A common weed in waste settled areas. In the Philippines, the plant is chiefly used as a traditional medicine; the extracted juice from the pounded leaves of the plants is used on wounds, skin ulcers and furuncles. The juice is used as an eye drop for conjunctivitis; the pounded leaves are used as poultice. Heliotropium indicum contains tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Media related to Heliotropium indicum at Wikimedia Commons Heliotropium indicum in West African plants – A Photo Guide
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India. Situated in the south-east of the country, it is the seventh-largest state in India, covering an area of 162,970 km2; as per the 2011 census, it is the tenth most populous state, with 49,386,799 inhabitants. The largest city in Andhra Pradesh is Visakhapatnam. Telugu, one of the classical languages of India, is the major and official language of Andhra Pradesh. On 2 June 2014, the north-western portion of Andhra Pradesh was separated to form the new state Telangana and the longtime capital of Andhra Pradesh, was transferred to Telangana as part of the division. However, in accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Hyderabad was to remain as the acting capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the new riverfront de facto capital, Amaravati, is under the jurisdiction of the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority. Andhra Pradesh has a coastline of 974 km – the second longest coastline among the states of India, after Gujarat – with jurisdiction over 15,000 km2 of territorial waters.
The state is bordered by Telangana in the north-west and Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south, to the east lies the Bay of Bengal. The small enclave of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, lies to the south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta on the eastern side of the state; the state is made up of the two major regions of Rayalaseema, in the inland southwestern part of the state, Coastal Andhra to the east and northeast, bordering the Bay of Bengal. The state comprises thirteen districts in total, nine of which are located in Coastal Andhra and four in Rayalaseema; the largest city and commercial hub of the state are Visakhapatnam, located on the Bay of Bengal, with a GDP of US$43.5 billion. The economy of Andhra Pradesh is the seventh-largest state economy in India with ₹8.70 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹142,000. Andhra Pradesh hosted 121.8 million visitors in 2015, a 30% growth in tourist arrivals over the previous year, making it the third most-visited state in India.
The Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in Tirupati is one of the world's most visited religious sites, with 18.25 million visitors per year. Other pilgrimage centres in the state include the Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga at Srisailam, the Srikalahasteeswara Temple at Srikalahasti, the Ameen Peer Dargah in Kadapa, the Mahachaitya at Amaravathi, the Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada, Prasanthi Nilayam in Puttaparthi; the state's natural attractions include the beaches of Visakhapatnam, hill stations such as the Araku Valley and Horsley Hills, the island of Konaseema in the Godavari River delta. A tribe named. According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda, the Andhra left north India and settled in south India; the Satavahanas have been mentioned by the names Andhra, Andhrara-jateeya and Andhrabhrtya in the Puranic literature. They did not refer themselves as Andhra in any of their inscriptions. Archaeological evidence from places such as Amaravati and Vaddamanu suggests that the Andhra region was part of the Mauryan Empire.
Amaravati might have been a regional centre for the Mauryan rule. After the death of Emperor Ashoka, Mauryan rule weakened around 200 BCE and was replaced by several smaller kingdoms in the Andhra region; the Satavahana dynasty dominated the Deccan region from the 1st century BC to the 3rd century. The Satavahanas made Dharanikota and Amaravathi their capital, which according to the Buddhists is the place where Nagarjuna, the philosopher of Mahayana lived in the 2nd and 3rd centuries; the Andhra Ikshvakus, with their capital at Vijayapuri, succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna River valley in the latter half of the 2nd century. Pallavas, who were executive officers under the Satavahana kings, were not a recognised political power before the 2nd century AD and were swept away by the Western Chalukyan invasion, led by Pulakesin II in the first quarter of the 7th century CE. After the downfall of the Ikshvakus, the Vishnukundinas were the first great dynasty in the 5th and 6th centuries, held sway over the entire Andhra country, including Kalinga and parts of Telangana.
They played an important role in the history of Deccan during the 5th and 6th century CE, with Eluru and Puranisangam. The Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the Andhra region between Godavari and Krishna with their capital at Vengi from 300 to 440 CE; the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, whose dynasty lasted for around five hundred years from the 7th century until 1130 C. E. merged with the Chola empire. They continued to rule under the protection of the Chola empire until 1189 C. E. when the kingdom succumbed to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas. The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur district and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the fifth century CE. Kakatiyas constructed several forts, they were succeeded by the Musunuri Nayaks. The Reddy dynasty was established by Prolaya Vema Reddi in the early 14th century, who ruled from present day Kondaveedu. Prolaya Vema Reddi was part of the confederation of states that started a movement against the invading Turkic Muslim armies of the Delhi