Tichina Rolanda Arnold is an American actress and singer. She began her career as a child actor, appearing in supporting roles in Little Shop of Horrors and How I Got into College before being cast as Pamela "Pam" James on the FOX sitcom Martin, which she played from 1992 until the show ended in 1997. Arnold played the family matriarch Rochelle on the UPN/CW sitcom Everybody Hates Chris from 2005 to 2009, portrayed Judi Mann in the TV Land original sitcom Happily Divorced from 2011 to 2013. From 2014 to 2017, she played the lead role of Cassie Calloway on Survivor's Remorse. Arnold was born in New York, to a middle-class African-American family, her mother was a sanitation department worker and her father was a police officer. She was raised in the Church of God in Christ, she attended the Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School of Art and Performing Arts. In 1986, Arnold appeared as Crystal, one of the three chorus girls who perform R&B numbers in Frank Oz's film musical Little Shop of Horrors along with future Martin co-star Tisha Campbell.
Arnold was only seventeen at the time of filming, her career continued after that, with a role or two every year, including the films How I Got into College and the Paul Mazursky/Woody Allen collaboration Scenes from a Mall. In February 1987 Arnold scored her first big break on television, with a permanent role on the soap opera Ryan's Hope, her critically lauded role, as young heroine Zena Brown, landed her a Daytime Emmy Award nomination in 1988. She continued in the role until the series ended in January 1989; that year, Arnold was cast as Sharla Valentine, a high-school friend of Emily Ann Sago on the ABC-TV daytime drama All My Children. She continued in the role until 1991. Arnold's best-known television role was Pamela James on Martin Lawrence's sitcom Martin, she played the recurring role of Nicole Barnes on the sitcom One on One. In 2000, she was reunited with Martin Lawrence in Big Momma's House. In 2007, she again reunited with Lawrence in the big screen road comedy/buddy film Wild Hogs.
In 2003, she appeared in Civil Brand. Arnold played the role of the matriarch, Rochelle, on the sitcom Everybody Hates Chris which premiered in September 2005 and ended in May 2009. In a departure from her known comedic roles, she played the title role in The Lena Baker Story, about the first and only woman to be executed by the electric chair in Georgia. Arnold played the voice of the friend in The Boondocks, episode "Attack of the Killer Kung-fu Wolf Bitch" which aired in 2007. In 2009, Arnold appeared onstage in The Wiz revival at the New York City Center in the part of Evillene, The Wicked Witch of the West. In 2010 she guest starred in the one-hour episode premiere of the Disney XD Original Series Pair of Kings as Aunt Nancy, reprise her role for one more episode. Arnold played the best friend of Fran Drescher in the TV Land sitcom Happily Divorced, based on Fran Drescher's real-life marriage and divorce to series co-creator Peter Marc Jacobson. In 1998, Arnold started her own company of designer headgear called "China Moon Rags".
The headbands were Swarovski crystal-embroidered bandanas. Celebrities such as her best friend Michel'le, Tisha Campbell, Janet Jackson, Vivica A. Fox, Regina King, Christina Aguilera and LisaRaye McCoy have modeled and been seen wearing Arnold's designs; when her daughter was born, she stopped production. Arnold has Alijah Kai Haggins, with music producer Carvin Haggins. In an interview with Joan Rivers, Arnold revealed that she had thought she was unable to conceive after bouts with endometriosis. On August 18, 2012, Arnold married St. Johns Men's Basketball assistant coach and former Golden State Warriors assistant coach DaRico Hines in Honolulu, Hawaii. In January 2016, Arnold's representative confirmed. In 2013, Arnold and her sister created the We a foundation for people with lupus. Official website Tichina Arnold on IMDb Tichina Arnold at AllMovie Tichina Arnold at TV Guide
School Daze is a 1988 American musical comedy drama film and directed by Spike Lee, starring Larry Fishburne, Giancarlo Esposito, Tisha Campbell-Martin. Based in part on Spike Lee's experiences at Atlanta's Morehouse College, Spelman College, Morris Brown College and Clark Atlanta University, it is a story about fraternity and sorority members clashing with other students at a black college during homecoming weekend, it touches upon issues of colorism and hair texture bias within the African-American community. The second feature film by Spike Lee, School Daze was released on February 12, 1988 by Columbia Pictures. Vaughn "Dap" Dunlap is a politically conscious black American student at Mission College, a leading black college in Atlanta, Georgia whose motto is "Uplift the Race." The college administration is portrayed as inept. Dunlap leads anti-apartheid demonstrations encouraging students and school administrators to divest from South Africa; when his buddies go into town, they find the local boys are not impressed with their activities, but think of them as privileged college boys.
Open conflict breaks out between the groups. Dunlap feuds with Julian Eaves aka Dean Big Brother Almighty of Gamma Phi Gamma Fraternity, Incorporated; this group is characterized as "wannabees," as in "wannabe better than me." The fraternity brothers are preparing for Homecoming parties. Meanwhile, Dap's younger cousin, aka "Half-Pint," is a Gamma pledge; the Gamma women's auxiliary, the Gamma Rays, who are sleek and light-skinned, confront non-Greek black co-eds over skin color and the nature of their hair. Some of the Rays use contact lens to change eye color. Larry Fishburne as Vaughn "Dap" Dunlap Giancarlo Esposito as Julian "Dean Big Brother Almighty" Eaves Tisha Campbell as Jane Toussaint Kyme as Rachel Meadows Joe Seneca as President Harold McPherson Ellen Holly as Odrie McPherson Art Evans as Cedar Cloud Ossie Davis as Coach Odom Bill Nunn as Grady James Bond III as Monroe Branford Marsalis as Jordan Edward D. Bridges as Moses Kadeem Hardison as Edge Eric Payne as Booker T. Spike Lee as Darrell "Half-Pint" Dunlap Anthony Thompkins as Doo-Doo Breath Darryl M. Bell as Big Brother X—Ray Vision Joie Lee as Lizzie Life Alva Rogers as Doris Witherspoon Paula Brown as Miriam Jasmine Guy as Dina Samuel L. Jackson as Leeds Roger Guenveur Smith as Yoda Dominic Hoffman as Mustafa Cinqué Lee as Buckwheat Kasi Lemmons as Perry Adrienne-Joi Johnson as Cecilia Guy Killum as Double Rubber Cylk Cozart as Big Brother Dr. Feelgood Rusty Cundieff as Big Brother Chucky Tyra Ferrell as Tasha Leonard L. Thomas as Big Brother General Patton Cassi Davis as Paula Erik Dellums as Slim Daddy Gregg Burge as Virgil Cloyd Kirk Taylor as Sir Nose Monique Mannen as Monique "Mo-Freak" Leslie Sykes as Miss Mission Tanya Lynne Lee as Tanya Eartha Robinson as Eartha Toni Ann Johnson as Muriel Kevin Rock as Mussolini Phyllis Hyman as Phyllis Spike Lee arranged for the two groups of actors to stay in separate hotels during filming.
The actors playing the "wannabees" were given better accommodations than the ones playing the "jigaboos." This favoritism contributed to tension on the set, which showed in the on-camera animosity between the two camps. In School Daze, the method approach yielded strong results — the fight that occurs at the step show between Dap's crew and the Gammas was not in the script. On the day the scene was shot, the fight broke out between the two sides. Lee ordered the cameras to keep rolling. Officials of Morehouse and Clark Atlanta University asked Lee to stop filming on the campuses before he completed his work because the colleges' Boards of Directors had concerns on how he was portraying the black colleges in the film. Lee had to finish filming at the neighboring Morris Brown College; the film received positive reviews for its exploration of issues within the black community. Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times noted, "There is no doubt in my mind that'School Daze,' in its own way, is one of the most honest and revealing movies I've seen about modern middle-class black life in America."
He noted its frank exploration of issues of discrimination within the black community related to skin tone and nature of hair. He said. All of the characters and bad, are black, all of the character's references are to each other."On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 59%, based on 22 reviews, an average rating of 5.8/10. Kadeem Hardison, Darryl M. Bell, Jasmine Guy became principal cast members on The Cosby Show spin-off, A Different World — a TV series about life at a black college. Other School Daze cast members appeared on A Different World, including Dominic Hoffman, Tisha Campbell, Art Evans, Guy Killum and Roger Guenveur Smith. In 2009, Alicia Keys paid homage to School Daze in the music video for her song "Teenage Love Affair". "Da Butt," written by Marcus Miller and Mark Stevens, performed by the group E. U. hit number 35 on its Pop chart. The School Daze soundtrack features the song, "Be One," written by Bill Lee and performed by Phyllis Hyman, who appears in the film.
Black colleges and universities Colorism Stepping School Daze on IMDb School Daze at AllMovie School Daze at Rotten Tomatoes
EMI Group Limited was a British Transnational conglomerate founded in March 1931 in London. At the time of its break-up in 2012, it was the fourth largest business group and record label conglomerate in the music industry, was one of the big four record companies; the company was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, but faced financial troubles and US$4 billion in debt, leading to its acquisition by Citigroup in February 2011. Citigroup's ownership was temporary, as EMI announced in November 2011 that it would sell its music arm to Vivendi's Universal Music Group for $1.9 billion and its publishing business to a Sony/ATV consortium for around $2.2 billion. Other members of the Sony consortium include the Estate of Michael Jackson, The Blackstone Group, the Abu Dhabi–owned Mubadala Development Company. EMI's locations in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada were all disassembled to repay debt, but the primary head office located outside those countries is still functional, it is owned by Sony/ATV Music Publishing, the music publishing division of Sony Music which bought another 70% stake in EMI Music Publishing.
Electric and Musical Industries Ltd was formed in March 1931 by the merger of the Columbia Graphophone Company and the Gramophone Company, with its "His Master's Voice" record label, firms that have a history extending back to the origins of recorded sound. The new vertically integrated company produced sound recordings as well as recording and playback equipment; the company's gramophone manufacturing led to forty years of success with larger-scale electronics and electrical engineering. In 1934, the company developed the electronic Marconi-EMI system for television broadcasting, which replaced Baird's electro-mechanical system following its introduction in 1936. After the war, the company resumed its involvement in making broadcasting equipment, notably providing the BBC's second television transmitter at Sutton Coldfield, it manufactured broadcast television cameras for British television production companies as well as for the BBC. The commercial television ITV companies used them alongside cameras made by Pye and Marconi.
Their best-remembered piece of broadcast television equipment was the EMI 2001 colour television camera, which became the mainstay of much of the British television industry from the end of the 1960s until the early 1990s. Exports of this piece of equipment were low, EMI left this area of product manufacture. Alan Blumlein, an engineer employed by EMI, conducted a great deal of pioneering research into stereo sound recording many years prior to the practical implementation of the technique in the early 1950s, he was killed in 1942 whilst conducting flight trials on an experimental H2S radar set. During and after World War II, the EMI Laboratories in Hayes, Hillingdon developed radar equipment, microwave devices such as the reflex klystron oscillator, electro-optic devices such as infra-red image converters, guided missiles employing analogue computers; the company was for many years an internationally respected manufacturer of photomultipliers. This part of the business was transferred to Thorn as part of Thorn-EMI later became the independent concern Electron Tubes Ltd.
The EMI Electronic Business Machine, a valve and magnetic drum memory computer, was built in the 1950s to process the British Motor Corporation payroll. In 1958 the EMIDEC 1100, the UK's first commercially available all-transistor computer, was developed at Hayes under the leadership of Godfrey Hounsfield, an electrical engineer at EMI. In the early 1970s, with financial support by the UK Department of Health and Social Security as well as EMI research investment, Hounsfield developed the first CT scanner, a device which revolutionised medical imaging. In 1973 EMI was awarded a prestigious Queen's Award for Technological Innovation for what was called the EMI scanner, in 1979 Hounsfield won the Nobel Prize for his accomplishment. After brief, but brilliant, success in the medical imaging field, EMI's manufacturing activities were sold off to other companies, notably Thorn. Subsequently and manufacturing activities were sold off to other companies and work moved to other towns such as Crawley and Wells.
Emihus Electronics, based in Glenrothes, was owned 51% by Hughes Aircraft, of California, US, 49% by EMI. It manufactured integrated circuits electrolytic capacitors and, for a short period in the mid-1970s, hand-held calculators under the Gemini name. Early in its life, the Gramophone Company established subsidiary operations in a number of other countries in the British Commonwealth, including India and New Zealand. Gramophone's Australian and New Zealand subsidiaries dominated the popular music industries in those countries from the 1920s until the 1960s, when other locally owned labels began to challenge the near monopoly of EMI. Over 150,000 78-rpm recordings from around the world are held in EMI's temperature-controlled archive in Hayes, some of which have been released on CD since 2008 by Honest Jon's Records. In 1931, the year the company was formed, it opened the legendary recording studios at Abbey Road, London. During the 1930s and 1940s, its roster of artists included Arturo
Edward Regan Murphy is an American comedian, screen writer and film producer. Murphy was a regular cast member on Saturday Night Live from 1980 to 1984, he has worked as a stand-up comedian and was ranked #10 on Comedy Central's list of the 100 Greatest Stand-ups of All Time. In films, Murphy has received Golden Globe Award nominations for his performances in 48 Hrs. the Beverly Hills Cop series, Trading Places, The Nutty Professor. In 2007, he won the Golden Globe for Best Supporting Actor and received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his portrayal of soul singer James "Thunder" Early in Dreamgirls. Murphy's work as a voice actor in films includes Thurgood Stubbs in The PJs, Donkey in DreamWorks Animation's Shrek series, the Chinese dragon Mushu in Disney's Mulan. In some films, he plays multiple roles in addition to his main character, intended as a tribute to one of his idols Peter Sellers, who played multiple roles in Dr. Strangelove and elsewhere, he has played multiple roles in Coming to America, Wes Craven's Vampire in Brooklyn, the Nutty Professor films, The Adventures of Pluto Nash and Meet Dave.
As of 2014, Murphy's films have grossed over $3.8 billion in the United States and Canada box office and $6.6 billion worldwide. In 2015, his films made him the sixth-highest grossing actor in the United States. In 2015, Murphy was awarded the Mark Twain Prize for American Humor by the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. Murphy was born in Brooklyn, New York City, raised in the borough's Bushwick neighborhood, his mother, was a telephone operator, his father, Charles Edward Murphy, was a transit police officer and an amateur actor and comedian. His father died in 1969. "My mother and father broke up when I was three, he died when I was eight, so I have dim memories… He was a victim of the Murphy charm. A woman stabbed my father. I never got all the logistics, it was supposed to be one of those crimes of passion:'If I can't have you, no one else will'-kind of deal. Someone said to me one day,'That's why you don't trust women.' Get the fuck outta here. What are you, a fucking psychiatrist?"When Murphy's single mother became ill, the eight-year-old Murphy and his older brother Charlie lived in foster care for one year.
In interviews, Murphy has said that his time in foster care was influential in developing his sense of humor. He and his brother were raised in Roosevelt, New York, by his mother and stepfather Vernon Lynch, a foreman at an ice cream plant; when Murphy was 15 he listened to Richard Pryor's comedy album That Nigger's Crazy, which inspired his decision to become a comedian. Other early influences included Bill Cosby, Redd Foxx, Robin Williams. On July 9, 1976, the date with which Murphy marks the beginning of his career, he performed in a talent show at the Roosevelt Youth Center, doing an impersonation of singer Al Green as Green's song "Let's Stay Together" played; this led to work at other clubs within walking distance, late night jobs at locations that required him to commute by train. To do this he secretly skipped school, after his mother discovered this at the end of his senior year, he was required to attend summer school. Murphy's early comedy was characterized by copious profanity and sketches lampooning a diverse group of people.
Murphy released two stand-up specials. Eddie Murphy was his first album, released in 1982. Delirious was filmed in 1983 in Washington, D. C. Due to the popularity of Delirious, his concert film Eddie Murphy Raw received a wide theatrical release, grossing $50 million. Comedians who cite Murphy as influencing them include Russell Brand, Dave Chappelle, Chris Rock. Murphy first earned national attention as a cast member on Saturday Night Live and was credited with helping to revitalize the show during the early 1980s, his notable characters included a grown-up version of the Little Rascals character Buckwheat. Do Buckwheat!" In Rolling Stone's February 2015 appraisal of all 141 SNL cast members to date, Murphy was ranked second. "It is customary to say that Eddie Murphy is the only reason SNL survived the five-year wilderness without Lorne Michaels," they noted. In 1982, Murphy made his big screen debut in the film 48 Hrs. with Nick Nolte. 48 Hrs. proved to be a hit when it was released in the Christmas season of 1982.
Nolte was scheduled to host the December 11, 1982, Christmas episode of Saturday Night Live, but became too ill to host, so Murphy took over. He became the only cast member to host while still a regular. Murphy opened the show with the phrase, "Live from New York, It's the Eddie Murphy Show!" The following year, Murphy starred in Trading Places with fellow SNL alumnus Dan Aykroyd. The movie marked the first of Murphy's collaborations with director John Landis and proved to be an greater box office success than 48 Hrs. In 1984, Murphy appeared in Best Defense, co-starring Dudley Moore
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcast television network, a flagship property of Walt Disney Television, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company. The network is headquartered in Burbank, California on Riverside Drive, directly across the street from Walt Disney Studios and adjacent to the Roy E. Disney Animation Building, But the network's second corporate headquarters and News headquarters remains in New York City, New York at their broadcast center on 77 West 66th Street in Lincoln Square in Upper West Side Manhattan. Since 2007, when ABC Radio was sold to Citadel Broadcasting, ABC has reduced its broadcasting operations exclusively to television; the fifth-oldest major broadcasting network in the world and the youngest of the Big Three television networks, ABC is nicknamed as "The Alphabet Network", as its initialism represents the first three letters of the English alphabet, in order. ABC launched as a radio network on October 12, 1943, serving as the successor to the NBC Blue Network, purchased by Edward J. Noble.
It extended its operations to television in 1948, following in the footsteps of established broadcast networks CBS and NBC. In the mid-1950s, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, a chain of movie theaters that operated as a subsidiary of Paramount Pictures. Leonard Goldenson, the head of UPT, made the new television network profitable by helping develop and greenlight many successful series. In the 1980s, after purchasing an 80 percent interest in cable sports channel ESPN, the network's corporate parent, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. merged with Capital Cities Communications, owner of several print publications, television and radio stations. In 1996, most of Capital Cities/ABC's assets were purchased by The Walt Disney Company; the television network has eight owned-and-operated and over 232 affiliated television stations throughout the United States and its territories. Some of the ABC-affiliated stations can be seen in Canada via pay-television providers, certain other affiliates can be received over-the-air in areas within the Canada–United States border.
ABC News provides news and features content for select radio stations owned by Citadel Broadcasting, which purchased the ABC Radio properties in 2007. In the 1930s, radio in the United States was dominated by three companies: the Columbia Broadcasting System, the Mutual Broadcasting System, the National Broadcasting Company; the last was owned by electronics manufacturer Radio Corporation of America, which owned two radio networks that each ran different varieties of programming, NBC Blue and NBC Red. The NBC Blue Network was created in 1927 for the primary purpose of testing new programs on markets of lesser importance than those served by NBC Red, which served the major cities, to test drama series. In 1934, Mutual filed a complaint with the Federal Communications Commission regarding its difficulties in establishing new stations, in a radio market, being saturated by NBC and CBS. In 1938, the FCC began a series of investigations into the practices of radio networks and published its report on the broadcasting of network radio programs in 1940.
The report recommended that RCA give up control of either NBC NBC Blue. At that time, the NBC Red Network was the principal radio network in the United States and, according to the FCC, RCA was using NBC Blue to eliminate any hint of competition. Having no power over the networks themselves, the FCC established a regulation forbidding licenses to be issued for radio stations if they were affiliated with a network which owned multiple networks that provided content of public interest. Once Mutual's appeals against the FCC were rejected, RCA decided to sell NBC Blue in 1941, gave the mandate to do so to Mark Woods. RCA converted the NBC Blue Network into an independent subsidiary, formally divorcing the operations of NBC Red and NBC Blue on January 8, 1942, with the Blue Network being referred to on-air as either "Blue" or "Blue Network"; the newly separated NBC Red and NBC Blue divided their respective corporate assets. Between 1942 and 1943, Woods offered to sell the entire NBC Blue Network, a package that included leases on landlines, three pending television licenses, 60 affiliates, four operations facilities, contracts with actors, the brand associated with the Blue Network.
Investment firm Dillon, Read & Co. offered $7.5 million to purchase the network, but the offer was rejected by Woods and RCA president David Sarnoff. Edward J. Noble, the owner of Life Savers candy, drugstore chain Rexall and New York City radio station WMCA, purchased the network for $8 million. Due to FCC ownership rules, the transaction, to include the purchase of three RCA stations by Noble, would require him to resell his station with the FCC's approval; the Commission authorized the transaction on October 12, 1943. Soon afterward, the Blue Network was purchased by the new company Noble founded, the American Broadcasting System. Noble subsequently acquired the rights to the American Broadcasting Company name from George B. Storer in 1944. Meanwhile, in August 1944, the West Coast division of the Blue Network, which owned San Francisco radio station KGO, bought Los Angeles station KECA f
Contemporary R&B is a music genre that combines elements of rhythm and blues, soul, hip hop and electronic music. The genre features a distinctive record production style, drum machine-backed rhythms, pitch corrected vocals, a smooth, lush style of vocal arrangement. Electronic influences are becoming an increasing trend and the use of hip hop or dance-inspired beats are typical, although the roughness and grit inherent in hip hop may be reduced and smoothed out. Contemporary R&B vocalists are known for their use of melisma, popularized by vocalists such as Michael Jackson, R. Kelly, Craig David, Stevie Wonder, Whitney Houston and Mariah Carey. Contemporary R&B originated at the end of the disco era, in the late-1970s, when Michael Jackson and Quincy Jones added more electronic elements to the sound of the time to create a smoother dancefloor-friendly sound; the first result was Off the Wall, which—according to Stephen Thomas Erlewine from AllMusic—"was a visionary album, that found a way to break disco wide open into a new world where the beat was undeniable, but not the primary focus" and "was part of a colorful tapestry of lush ballads and strings, smooth soul and pop, soft rock, alluring funk".
Richard J. Ripani wrote that Janet Jackson's Control was "important to the development of R&B for a number of reasons", as she and her producers, Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis, "crafted a new sound that fuses the rhythmic elements of funk and disco, along with heavy doses of synthesizers, sound effects, a rap music sensibility." Ripani wrote that "the success of Control led to the incorporation of stylistic traits of rap over the next few years, Janet Jackson was to continue to be one of the leaders in that development." That same year, Teddy Riley began. This combination of R&B style and hip hop rhythms was termed new jack swing and was applied to artists such as Michael Jackson, Bobby Brown, Keith Sweat, Al B. Sure!, Guy and Bell Biv DeVoe. In contrast to the works of Boyz II Men and similar artists, other R&B artists and groups from this same period began adding more of a hip-hop sound to their work, like the innovative group Jodeci; the synthesizer-heavy rhythm tracks of new jack swing were replaced by grittier East Coast hip hop-inspired backing tracks, resulting in a genre labeled hip hop soul by Mary J. Blige and producer Sean Combs who had mentored group Jodeci in the beginning and helped them with their unique look.
The style became less popular by the end of the 1990s, but experienced a resurgence. In 1990, Mariah Carey released Vision of Love, it was immensely popular peaking at number 1 in many worldwide charts including the Billboard Hot 100, it propelled Mariah's career. The song is said to have popularized the use of melisma and brought it in to mainstream R&B. During the mid-1990s, Whitney Houston's The Bodyguard: Original Soundtrack Album sold over 40 million copies worldwide becoming the best-selling soundtrack of all time. Janet Jackson's self-titled fifth studio album janet. which came after her historic multimillion-dollar contract with Virgin Records, sold over twenty million copies worldwide. Boyz II Men and Mariah Carey recorded several Billboard Hot 100 No. 1 hits, including "One Sweet Day", a collaboration between both acts, which became the longest-running No. 1 hit in Hot 100 history. Carey released a remix of her 1995 single "Fantasy", with Ol' Dirty Bastard as a feature, a collaboration format, unheard of at this point.
Carey, Boyz II Men and TLC released albums in 1994 and 1995 -- II and CrazySexyCool. In the late 1990s, neo soul, which added 1970s soul influences to the hip hop soul blend, led by artists such as D'Angelo, Erykah Badu, Lauryn Hill and Maxwell. Hill and Missy Elliott further blurred the line between hip hop by recording both styles. Beginning in 1995, the Grammy Awards enacted the Grammy Award for Best R&B Album, with II by Boyz II Men becoming the first recipient; the award was received by TLC for CrazySexyCool in 1996, Tony Rich for Words in 1997, Erykah Badu for Baduizm in 1998 and Lauryn Hill for The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill in 1999. At the end of 1999, Billboard magazine ranked Mariah Carey and Janet Jackson as the first and second most successful artists of the 1990s. In the second half of the 1990s, The Neptunes and Timbaland set influential precedence on contemporary R&B and hip hop music. R&B acts such as Michael Jackson, Whitney Houston, Janet Jackson, Mariah Carey and Toni Braxton are some of the best-selling music artists of all time.
Following periods of fluctuating success, urban music attained commercial dominance during the early 2000s, which featured massive crossover success on the Billboard charts by R&B and hip hop artists. In 2001, Alicia Keys released "Fallin"', it peaking at number one on the Billboard Hot 100, Mainstream Top 40 and Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs charts. It won three Grammy Awards in 2002, including Song of the Year, Best R&B Song, Best Female R&B Vocal Performance, it was nominated for Record of the Year. Beyoncé's solo studio debut album Dangerously in Love has sold over 5 million copies in the United States and earned five Grammy Awards. Usher's Confessions sold 1.1 million copies in its first week and over 8 million copies in 2004, since it has been certified Diamond by the Recording Industry Association of America and, as of 2016, has sold over 10 million copies in the US and over 20 million copies worldwide. Confessions had four consecutive Billboard Hot 100 number one singles—"Yeah!", "Burn", "Confessions Part II" and "My Boo".
In 2004, all 12 songs that topped Billboard Hot 100 were
Diahann Carroll is an American actress and model. She rose to stardom in performances in some of the earliest major studio films to feature black casts, including Carmen Jones in 1954 and Porgy and Bess in 1959. In 1962, Carroll won a Tony Award for best actress, a first for a black woman, for her role in the Broadway musical No Strings, her 1968 debut in Julia, the first series on American television to star a black woman in a nonstereotypical role, was a milestone both in her career and the medium. In the 1980s she played the role of a mixed-race diva in the primetime soap opera Dynasty. Carroll is the recipient of numerous stage and screen nominations and awards, including the Golden Globe Award for "Best Actress In A Television Series" in 1968, she received an Academy Award for Best Actress nomination for the 1974 film Claudine. A breast cancer survivor and activist, Carroll was scheduled to return to the Broadway stage in the 2014 revival of A Raisin in the Sun as Mama, but withdrew prior to opening citing the demands of the rehearsal and performance schedule.
Carroll was born in the Bronx, New York, to John Johnson, of Aiken, South Carolina, Mabel, of Bladenboro, North Carolina. When Carroll was an infant, the family moved to Harlem, she attended Music and Art High School, was a classmate of Billy Dee Williams. In many interviews about her childhood, Diahann Carroll recalls her parents' support, enrolling her in dance and modeling classes. By the time Carroll was 15, she was modeling for Ebony. After graduating from high school, she attended New York University. Carroll got her big break at 18, when she appeared as a contestant on the Dumont Television Network program, Chance of a Lifetime, hosted by Dennis James. On the show which aired January 8, 1954, she took the $1,000 top prize for a rendition of the Jerome Kern/Oscar Hammerstein song, "Why Was I Born?" She went on to win the following four weeks. Engagements at Manhattan's Café Society and Latin Quarter nightclubs soon followed. Carroll's film debut was a supporting role in Carmen Jones as a wholesome country-bred rival to the sultry lead character played by Dorothy Dandridge.
That same year, she starred in House of Flowers. In 1959, she played Clara in the film version of George Gershwin's Porgy and Bess, but her character's singing parts were dubbed by opera singer Loulie Jean Norman, she made a guest appearance in the series Peter Gunn, in the 1960 episode "Sing a Song of Murder". She starred with Sidney Poitier, Paul Newman, Joanne Woodward in the 1961 film Paris Blues. In 1962, Carroll won the Tony Award for best actress for the role of Barbara Woodruff in the Samuel A. Taylor and Richard Rodgers musical No Strings. In 1974, she was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress for the film Claudine; the role of Claudine had been written for actress Diana Sands, but shortly before filming was to begin, Sands found out that she was terminally ill with cancer. Sands attempted to carry on with the role, but as filming began, she became too ill to continue, recommended her friend Carroll take over the role. Sands would not live to see Claudine, she died in September of 1973.
Diahann Carroll is well known for her title role in the 1968 television series Julia, which made her the first African American actress to star in her own television series where she did not play a domestic worker. That role won her the Golden Globe Award for "Best Actress In A Television Series" in 1968, a nomination for an Emmy Award in 1969; some of her earlier work included appearances on shows hosted by Jack Paar, Merv Griffin, Johnny Carson, Judy Garland, Ed Sullivan, on The Hollywood Palace variety show. In 1984, Carroll joined the nighttime soap opera Dynasty as the mixed-race jet set diva Dominique Deveraux, half-sister of Blake Carrington, her high-profile role on Dynasty reunited her with schoolmate Billy Dee Williams, who played her onscreen husband Brady Lloyd. Carroll remained on the show until 1987 making several appearances on its short-lived spin-off, The Colbys, she received her third Emmy nomination in 1989 for the recurring role of Marion Gilbert in A Different World. In 1991, Carroll played the role of Eleanor Potter, the wife of Jimmy Potter, portrayed by Chuck Patterson, in The Five Heartbeats, a musical drama film in which Jimmy manages a vocal group.
In this role, Carroll was a doting and protective wife alongside actor and musician Robert Townsend, Michael Wright, others. In a 1995 reunion with Billy Dee Williams in Lonesome Dove: The Series, she played Mrs. Greyson, the wife of Williams' character. In 1996, Carroll starred as the self-loving and deluded silent movie star Norma Desmond in the Canadian production of Andrew Lloyd Webber's musical version of the classic film Sunset Boulevard. In 2001, Carroll made her animation début in The Legend of Tarzan, in which she voiced Queen La, an evil sorceress and ruler of the ancient city of Opar. In 2006, she appeared in the television medical drama Grey's Anatomy as Jane Burke, the demanding mother of Dr. Preston Burke. In December 2008, Carroll was cast in USA Network's series White Collar as June, the savvy widow who rents out her guest room to Neal Caffrey. In 2010, Carroll was featured in UniGlobe Entertainment's breast cancer docudrama entitled, 1 a Minute, she appeared as Nana in two Lifetime movies: At Risk and The Front, movie adaptations of two Patricia Cornwell novels.
Carroll was present on stage for the 2013 Emmy Awards, to speak about being th