The Institut français de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer is an oceanographic institution in France. Ifremer focuses its research activities in the following areas: Monitoring and enhancement of coastal seas Monitoring and optimization of aquaculture production Fishery resources Exploration and exploitation of the oceans and their biodiversity Circulation and marine ecosystems, mechanisms and forecasting Engineering of major facilities in the service of oceanography Knowledge transfer and innovation in its fields of its activitiesIn 1985, Ifremer partnered with Dr. Robert Ballard for an ultimately-successful expedition to locate the wreck of the RMS Titanic. In 1994 Ifremer assisted in the salvage of the cargo from the SS John Barry. Ifremer operates a number including the submarine Nautile. In 2008, Ifremer partnered with Dr. Bruce Shillito for the testing and initial operations of the PERISCOP, a deep sea fish recovery device. Ifremer is located in 26 sites, including a headquarters.
About twenty research departments are associated to these centres: Centre Manche - Mer du Nord, associated to Université Lille Nord de FranceCentre in Boulogne-sur-Mer Station of Port-en-Bessin Centre in Brest Station of Saint-Malo Station of Argenton-en-Landunvez Station of Concarneau Station of Lorient Station of La Trinité-sur-Mer Centre in Nantes Station of Bouin Station of La Rochelle Station of La Tremblade Station of Arcachon Laboratory of Bidart Centre Méditerranée Station of Sète Station of Palavas-les-Flots Unit of Montpellier Station of San-Giuliano Centre in Tahiti Délégation de Nouvelle-Calédonie Délégation of Guyane Délégation of la Réunion Délégation of Antilles Media related to Ifremer at Wikimedia Commons Ifremer's official website
Animals aboard the RMS Titanic
There were many animals aboard the RMS Titanic during her disastrous maiden voyage, which ended with the ship sinking on 15 April 1912 after colliding with an iceberg. They included dogs, chickens, other birds and an unknown number of rats. Three of the twelve dogs on the Titanic survived; the ship had her own official cat named Jenny, kept aboard Titanic as a mascot and worked to keep down the ship's population of rats and mice. Transferred over from Titanic's sister ship Olympic, Jenny gave birth in the week before Titanic sailed from Southampton, she lived in the galley, where the victualling staff fed her and her kittens on scraps from the kitchens. Stewardess Violet Jessop wrote that the cat "laid her family near Jim, the scullion, whose approval she always sought and who always gave her warm devotion". A number of dogs were brought aboard by passengers as pets. Most were kept in kennels on the ship's F Deck, though some First Class passengers kept theirs in their cabins – without the knowledge of the crew or with the turning of a blind eye, as they were not supposed to do so.
The ship's carpenter, John Hutchison, was responsible for the dogs' welfare. The kennel dogs were exercised daily on the poop deck by one of the bellboys; as for the lapdogs, the American painter Francis Davis Millet wrote disapprovingly in a letter sent from Titanic's last stop, Queenstown in Ireland, "Looking over the list I only find three or four people I know but there are... a number of obnoxious, ostentatious American women, the scourge of any place they infest, worse on shipboard than anywhere. Many of them carry tiny dogs, lead husbands around like pet lambs"; the dog owners had planned to hold a dog show aboard the ship on the morning of 15 April, but the Titanic would sink the preceding night. The details of several of the dogs aboard Titanic were recorded and included: A King Charles Spaniel and an elderly Airedale Terrier, owned by William Carter. Chow-Chow, a chow chow owned by Harry Anderson. A champion French Bulldog called Gamin de Pycombe, owned by Robert Williams Daniel, who had bought him in England for the high price of £150.
Kitty, another Airedale Terrier, owned by millionaire John Jacob Astor. A Pomeranian owned by Margaret Bechstein Hays, named Bebe. A dog owned by Elizabeth Rothschild kept in her cabin. A Pekingese called Sun Yat Sen, owned by his wife Myra. Frou-Frou, a toy dog owned by Helen Bishop; the dog was allowed to stay in her cabin as the stewards considered it "too pretty" to put among the bigger dogs in the kennels. Rigel, black Newfoundland dog said to have saved many survivors. There were more dogs aboard, but their details have not survived. Passenger Charles Moore of Washington, D. C. made a last-minute change to his plans to transport aboard Titanic 100 English foxhounds, which he intended to use to start an English-style fox hunt in the Washington area. They were instead shipped aboard another vessel; as well as the dogs and cats, there were a number of birds aboard. Ella Holmes White of New York brought four roosters and hens, which were kept in or near the F Deck dog kennels, she had imported them from France with the intention of improving her poultry stock at home.
Another woman was said to have brought 30 cockerels aboard and Elizabeth Ramel Nye brought her yellow canary. Two dogs and a canary disembarked with the passengers who left the ship at Cherbourg, Titanic's first port of call after Southampton; the animals travelled on their own tickets and the canary that left at Cherbourg had to be paid for, to the tune of 25 US cents. Like any other ship of the time, Titanic had a substantial population of rats. One was seen running across the Third Class Dining Room on the evening of the sinking, to the shock and amazement of the diners; some of the women who saw it burst into tears. Few of Titanic's animals survived the ship's sinking. Three of the dogs were taken aboard lifeboats by their owners. Margaret Hays' Pomeranian got away safely in Lifeboat 7 and lived until June 1917 when it ran away or was stolen, while Elizabeth Rothschild refused to board Lifeboat 6 unless her dog was allowed to come too. Henry and Myra Harper brought their Pekingese aboard Lifeboat 3, but Helen Bishop had to abandon Frou-Frou in her cabin, much to their mutual distress.
The dog attempted to stop her leaving by holding on to her dress with his teeth. Afterwards, Bishop spoke of her sorrow: "The loss of my little dog hurt me much. I will never forget, he so wanted to accompany me". None of the other animals survived. At some point during the sinking, someone decided to free the dogs from their kennels, leading to a pack of excited dogs racing up and down the slanting deck as the ship went down. One female passenger chose to stay aboard. Several days as the SS Bremen passed through an area still strewn with debris and bodies floating in the water, a single passenger saw the body of what she thought was a woman holding what could have been a large shaggy dog in her arms. Robert W. Daniel's bulldog Gamin de Pycombe was last seen in the water swimming for his life after the ship went down. After the sinking, several of the surviving animal owners made compensation claims for their lost pets and poultry. Daniel claimed $750 for the loss of his pedigree bulldog, while Carter claimed $300 for the loss of his two dogs.
White claimed $207.87 for her lost
Passengers of the RMS Titanic
A total of 2,208 people sailed on the maiden voyage of the RMS Titanic, the second of the White Star Line's Olympic-class ocean liners, from Southampton, England, to New York City. Partway through the voyage, the ship struck an iceberg and sank in the early morning of 15 April 1912, resulting in the deaths of over 1,500 people, including about 815 of the passengers; the Titanic's passengers were divided into three separate classes, determined not only by the price of their ticket, but by wealth and social class: those travelling in first class, most of them the wealthiest passengers on board, included prominent members of the upper class, politicians, high-ranking military personnel, bankers, entertainers and professional athletes. Second-class passengers were middle-class travellers and included professors, authors and tourists. Third-class or steerage passengers were emigrants moving to the United States and Canada. Titanic's passengers numbered 2,208 people: 319 in first class, 272 in second class, 709 in third class.
Of these, 1680 were male and 434 were female. The ship was under capacity on her maiden voyage, as she could accommodate 2,453 passengers—833 first class, 614 second class, 1,006 third class; the Titanic's first-class list was a "who's who" of the rich and prominent of the upper class in 1912. A single-person berth in first class cost between £30 and £870 for a parlour suite and small private promenade deck. First-class passengers enjoyed a number of amenities, including a gymnasium, a squash court, a saltwater swimming pool and Turkish baths, a barbershop, kennels for first-class dogs and both open and enclosed promenades. First-class passengers traveled accompanied by personal staff—valets, maids and governesses for the children and cooks. Members of the British aristocracy made the trip: The Countess of Rothes, wife of the 19th Earl of Rothes, embarked at Southampton with her parents and Clementina Dyer-Edwardes, cousin Gladys Cherry. Sir Cosmo Duff-Gordon, 5th Baronet of Halkin, his wife, Lady Duff-Gordon were on board, as well.
Sir Cosmo was a wealthy Scottish landowner and Olympic fencing medalist, while Lady Duff-Gordon, known professionally as Lucile, was a leading fashion designer, who served a wealthy and exclusive clientele including the British royal family. Colonel Archibald Gracie IV, a real estate investor and member of the wealthy Scottish-American Gracie family, embarked at Southampton; the Cavendishes of London were among other prominent British couples on board, as well. Lord Pirrie, chairman of Harland and Wolff, intended to travel aboard the Titanic, but illness prevented him from joining the ill-fated voyage; some of the most prominent members of the American social elite made the trip: real estate builder and multimillionaire Colonel John Jacob Astor IV and his 18-year-old pregnant wife Madeleine were returning to the United States for their child's birth. Astor was one of the richest men in the world. Among others were industrialist magnate and millionaire Benjamin Guggenheim. Swedish first class passenger and businessman Mauritz Håkan Björnström-Steffansson, owned the most valued single object on board.
White Star financier J. P. Morgan and Milton S. Hershey, founder of Hershey's chocolate, made plans to sail aboard the ship's maiden voyage, but cancelled their bookings before the ship set sail. Second-class passengers were leisure tourists, members of the clergy, middle-class English and American families; the ship's musicians travelled in second-class accommodations. The average ticket price for an adult second-class passenger was £13, the equivalent of £1,123 today, and for many of these passengers, their travel experience on the Titanic was akin to travelling first class on smaller liners. Second-class passengers had their own library and the men had access to a private smoking room. Second-class children could read the children's books provided in the library or play deck quoits and shuffleboard on the second-class promenade. Twelve-year-old Ruth Becker passed the time by pushing her two-year-old brother Richard around the enclosed promenade in a stroller provided by the White Star Line.
Two Roman Catholic priests on b
Sinking of the RMS Titanic
RMS Titanic sank in the early morning of 15 April 1912 in the North Atlantic Ocean, four days into the ship's maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City. The largest ocean liner in service at the time, Titanic had an estimated 2,224 people on board when she struck an iceberg at around 23:40 on Sunday, 14 April 1912, her sinking two hours and forty minutes at 02:20 on Monday, 15 April, resulted in the deaths of more than 1,500 people, making it one of history's deadliest marine disasters during peacetime. Titanic received six warnings of sea ice on 14 April but was travelling near her maximum speed when her lookouts sighted the iceberg. Unable to turn enough, the ship suffered a glancing blow that buckled her starboard side and opened six of her sixteen compartments to the sea. Titanic had been designed to stay afloat with four of her forward compartments flooded but no more, the crew soon realised that the ship would sink, they used distress flares and radio messages to attract help as the passengers were put into lifeboats.
In accordance with existing practice, Titanic's lifeboat system was designed to ferry passengers to nearby rescue vessels, not to hold everyone on board simultaneously. Compounding this, poor management of the evacuation meant many boats were launched before they were full; as a result, when Titanic sank, over a thousand passengers and crew were still on board. All those who jumped or fell into the water either drowned or died within minutes due to the effects of cold shock and incapacitation. RMS Carpathia arrived on the scene about an hour and a half after the sinking and rescued the last of the survivors by 09:15 on 15 April, some nine and a half hours after the collision; the disaster shocked the world and caused widespread outrage over the lack of lifeboats, lax regulations, the unequal treatment of the three passenger classes during the evacuation. Subsequent inquiries recommended sweeping changes to maritime regulations, leading to the establishment in 1914 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea.
At the time of her entry into service on 2 April 1912, Royal Mail Ship Titanic was the second of three Olympic-class ocean liner sister ships, was the largest ship in the world. She and her sister, RMS Olympic, were one and a half times the gross register tonnage of Cunard's RMS Lusitania and RMS Mauretania, the previous record holders, were nearly 100 feet longer. Titanic could carry 3,547 people in speed and comfort, was built on an unprecedented scale, her reciprocating engines were the largest, built, standing 40 feet high and with cylinders 9 feet in diameter requiring the burning of 600 long tons of coal per day. Her passenger accommodation the First Class section, was said to be "of unrivalled extent and magnificence", indicated by the fares that First Class accommodation commanded; the Parlour Suites with private promenade cost over US$4,350 for a one-way transatlantic passage. Third Class, though less luxurious than Second and First Classes, was unusually comfortable by contemporary standards and was supplied with plentiful quantities of good food, providing her passengers with better conditions than many of them had experienced at home.
Titanic's maiden voyage began shortly after noon on 10 April 1912 when she left Southampton on the first leg of her journey to New York. A few hours she called at Cherbourg in northern France, a journey of 80 nautical miles, where she took on passengers, her next port of call was Queenstown in Ireland. She left in the afternoon after taking on more stores. By the time she departed westwards across the Atlantic she was carrying 892 crew members and 1,320 passengers; this was only about half of her full passenger capacity of 2,435, as it was the low season and shipping from the UK had been disrupted by a coal miners' strike. Her passengers were a cross-section of Edwardian society, from millionaires such as John Jacob Astor and Benjamin Guggenheim, to poor emigrants from countries as disparate as Armenia, Italy, Sweden and Russia seeking a new life in America; the ship was commanded by 62-year-old Captain Edward John Smith, the most senior of the White Star Line's captains. He had four decades of seafaring experience and had served as captain of RMS Olympic, from which he was transferred to command Titanic.
The vast majority of the crew who served under him were not trained sailors, but were either engineers, firemen, or stokers, responsible for looking after the engines. The six watch officers and 39 able seamen constituted only around five percent of the crew, most of these had been taken on at Southampton so had not had time to familiarise themselves with the ship; the ice conditions were attributed to a mild winter that caused large numbers of icebergs to shift off the west coast of Greenland. A fire had begun in one of Titanic's coal bins 10 days prior to the ship's departure, continued to burn for several days into the voyage, but it was over on 14 April; the weather improved during the course of the day, from brisk winds and moderate seas in the morning to a crystal-clear calm by evening, as the ship's path took her beneath an arctic high pressure system. The waning crescent moon had set a few seconds after 15:00 on 14 Apri
News & Documentary Emmy Award
The News & Documentary Emmy Awards are presented by the National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences in recognition of excellence in American national news and documentary programming. Ceremonies are held in the fall, with the Emmys handed out in about 40 awards categories. Only two award categories honor local news programming; the rest of the Emmys for local news and documentary programming are instead awarded during the Regional Emmys. In September 2018, NASA won an Emmy Award for Outstanding Original Interactive Program for its presentation of the Cassini mission's Grand Finale at Saturn. Among the News & Documentary Emmy rules, a show, documentary or news report must air on American television during the eligibility period between January 1 and December 31, to at least 50 percent of the country. A foreign-produced show is ineligible unless it was a co-production with an American partner, was committed to be aired on American television right from the start. For the two award categories that honor local news programming, Outstanding Regional Story: Spot News and Outstanding Regional Story: Investigative Reporting, only news reports that have won a Regional Emmy are eligible.
Entries must be submitted by March. Most award categories require entries to include DVDs or tape masters of the show, documentary or news report. For the New Approaches categories, the video or multimedia is submitted online. In addition, a one-page essay describing why an entry is "Emmy-worthy" is required. Voting is done by peer judging panels between June; the Academy solicits anybody with significant experience in national news or documentary reporting or production to serve as judges. Most categories have two voting rounds, with separate judging panels in each round; the top entries in each category are announced as the "nominations", the top entry is announced as the Emmy winner at the awards ceremony. Moreover, it is in the News & Documentary Emmy Award that are announced the Emmy Awards Current Affairs & News in the international categories. Outstanding Regional News Story: Spot News Investigative Reporting Official website
Melissa Jo Peltier
Melissa Jo Peltier is a New York-based American producer and author. She is known for producing and directing the 1994 A&E documentary mini-series Titanic: Death of a Dream and Titanic: The Legend Lives On, the show Dog Whisperer with Cesar Millan and for co-authoring five books with Millan. In 2013, she published her first novel, entitled Reality Boulevard. Peltier has won two Emmy awards and received the Humanitas Prize in 1993 for the documentary Scared Silent: Exposing and Ending Child Abuse. Peltier was raised in New England, graduating cum laude from Pomona College in Claremont, she directed and co-wrote the primetime documentary special, Scared Silent: Exposing and Ending Child Abuse, hosted by Oprah Winfrey, released in 1992. The documentary earned her a Humanitas Prize, she directed and wrote the Breaking the Silence: Kids Against Child Abuse, which won a Peabody Award in 1995. In 1994, she was producer and writer of A&E’s four-hour miseries, Titanic: Death of a Dream and Titanic: The Legend Lives On.
Peltier received an award for this documentary for outstanding documentary writing. In 1996, Peltier co-founded MPH Entertainment with two other business partners, she executive-produced. She wrote and directed multiple episodes for the series. In 2010, she produced the movie White Irish Drinkers, directed by her husband. Peltier has co-authored, with Cesar Millan, five books all of which became New York Times Bestsellers, she co-authored The Mommy Docs Ultimate Guide to Pregnancy and Birth in 2011. In 2014, Peltier wrote Reality Boulevard; the story of the novel is based on what happens to a group of idealistic filmmakers after their long running documentary series is cancelled and they are thrust into the assembly line world of reality TV. Kirkus reviews called the novel "a dead-on satire—with a heart—of the reality TV scene from a knowledgeable, witty insider." The book was name to Kirkus Reviews' Best Books of 2013. Peltier is married to John Gray, a screenwriter and producer. Cesar's Way: The Natural, Everyday Guide to Understanding and Correcting Common Dog Problems co-authored with Cesar Millan..
ISBN 978-0-307-33797-9 Be the Pack Leader: Use Cesar's Way to Transform Your Dog... and Your Life co-authored with Cesar Millan.. ISBN 978-0-307-38167-5 A Member of the Family: Cesar Millan's Guide to a Lifetime of Fulfillment with Your Dog co-authored with Cesar Millan.. ISBN 978-0-307-40891-4 How to Raise the Perfect Dog: Through Puppyhood and Beyond co-authored with Cesar Millan.. ISBN 978-0-307-46129-2 Cesar's Rules: Your Way to Train a Well-Behaved Dog co-authored with Cesar Millan.. ISBN 978-0-307-71686-6 The Mommy Docs' Ultimate Guide to Pregnancy and Birth co-authored with Yvonne Bohn, Allison Hill, Alane Park.. ISBN 978-0738214603 Reality Boulevard.. ISBN 978-1910167540 Women in Film Award - 1991 Humanitas Prize for Scared Silent: Exposing and Ending Child Abuse - 1993 Emmy Award for Outstanding writing for Titanic: Death of a Dream - 1995
A Night to Remember (1958 film)
A Night to Remember is a 1958 British drama film adaptation of Walter Lord's 1955 book, which recounts the final night of RMS Titanic. Adapted by Eric Ambler and directed by Roy Ward Baker, the film stars Kenneth More and features Michael Goodliffe, Laurence Naismith, Kenneth Griffith, David McCallum and Tucker McGuire, it was filmed in the United Kingdom and tells the story of the sinking, portraying the main incidents and players in a documentary-style fashion with considerable attention to detail. The production team, supervised by producer William MacQuitty used blueprints of the ship to create authentic sets, while Fourth Officer Joseph Boxhall and ex-Cunard Commodore Harry Grattidge worked as technical advisors on the film, its budget of £600,000 was exceptional and made it the most expensive film made in Britain up to that time. The World Premiere was on 3 July 1958 at the Odeon Leicester Square. Titanic survivor Elizabeth Dowdell attended the American premiere in New York on Tuesday 16 December 1958.
The film received critical acclaim upon release and is still regarded as "the definitive cinematic telling of the story." Among the many films about the Titanic, A Night to Remember has long been regarded as the high point by Titanic historians and survivors alike for its accuracy, despite its modest production values, compared with the Oscar-winning version of Titanic. In 1912, the Titanic is the largest vessel afloat and is believed to be unsinkable. Passengers aboard for her maiden voyage are the cream of British society. Boarding are first class passengers Sir Richard and Lady Richard, second class passengers Mr. Clarke and Mrs. Clarke, a young newly wed couple, steerage passengers Mr. Murphy, Mr. Gallagher and Mr. James Farrel. Second Officer Charles Lightoller is readying for the voyage. On 10 April, Titanic sails out to sea. On 14 April, at sea, the ship receives a number of ice warnings from other steamers. Only a few of the messages are relayed to Captain Edward J. Smith, who orders a lookout, but does not slow the ship or consider changing course.
Late that night, the SS Californian spots float ice in the distance, tries to send a message to the Titanic. On board the Titanic, the steerage passengers are enjoying their time on the ship when Murphy spies a young Polish girl, asks her to dance with him. In the depths of the ship, Thomas Andrews, the ship's builder, inspects the boiler room. Up in the wireless room, wireless operators Jack Phillips and Harold Sydney Bride are changing shifts. Phillips receives an ice warning, but when more messages arrive for him to send out, it is lost under them. On the Californian, field ice is spotted, the ship stops, for it is too dangerous to proceed, a message is sent to the Titanic; because the Californian is so close, the message is loud, Phillips interrupts the message. On the Titanic, passengers begin to settle in for the night, while some, including Mr. Hoyle and Jay Yates stay up to gamble; the vessel collides with an iceberg. Captain Smith sends for Thomas Andrews. Andrews determines that the ship will sink within two hours, it lacks sufficient lifeboat capacity for everyone on board.
A distress signal is sent out, efforts begin to signal the SS Californian, visible on the horizon 10 miles away, but its radio operator is off duty and does not hear the distress signal. The radio operator on the RMS Carpathia receives the distress call and alerts Captain Arthur Rostron, who orders the ship to head to the site; the ship is 58 miles away, will take around four hours to reach the Titanic. Meanwhile, the Californian remains where it is, the crew failing to comprehend why the large ship they are in sight of is firing rockets. Captain Smith orders Officers William Murdoch to start lowering the lifeboats. On Lightoller's side, men are not allowed on board, but Murdoch, working the other side of the ship, is far more lenient, letting men board lifeboats. Chief Baker Charles Joughin, after giving up his space in a lifeboat, turns to the bottle to ease his ailments. In the Grand Staircase, Robbie Lucas runs into Mr. Andrews and asks if the ship is damaged. Andrews tells him to get his wife and children into the boats.
Lucas rouses his children and wife to go to the lifeboats. He gets them safety in a boat, turns away, realizing he will never see his family again. Murphy and Farrel help the Polish girl, her mother find their way though the ship, get them in a lifeboat; the Richards, Hoyle are admitted to a boat by Murdoch. Yates gives a female passenger a note to send to his sister. Andrews advises the Clarkes on; as the stewards struggle to hold back women and children in third-class, most of those from first- and second-class board the lifeboats and launch away from the ship. The ship fills with water, the passengers begin to realize the danger, as the ship lists more and more; when the third-class passengers are allowed up from below, chaos ensues. The Titanic's bow submerges, only two collapsible lifeboats are left. Lightoller and other able seamen struggle to free them. Captain Smith remained on the Titanic's bridge when the forward superstructure went under, died there. Lightoller and many others are swept off the ship.
Thomas Andrews, asked if he will save himself, remains in the first-class smoking room, lamenting his failure to build a strong and safe ship. Passengers jump into the sea; the Clarkes, struggling in the water, are killed by a falling funnel. The stricken liner sinks into the icy sea. Many passenge