The ancient boroughs were a historic unit of lower-tier local government in England and Wales. The ancient boroughs covered only important towns and were established by charters granted at different times by the monarchy, their history is concerned with the origin of such towns and how they gained the right of self-government. Ancient boroughs were reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, which introduced directly elected corporations and allowed the incorporation of new industrial towns. Municipal boroughs ceased to be used for the purposes of local government in 1974, with borough status retained as an honorific title granted by the Crown. Throughout western Europe, the effect of the Germanic invasions which completed the decline of the Roman Empire was to destroy the Roman municipal organisation. After the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, the ruins of Roman colonies and camps were used by the early English to form tribal strongholds. Despite their location, burhs on the sites of Roman colonies show no continuity with Roman municipal organisation, instead resemble the parallel revival of urban centres in continental Europe.
The resettlement of the Roman Durovernum under the name "burh of the men of Kent," Cant-wara-byrig or Canterbury, illustrates this point. The burh of the men of West Kent was Hrofesceaster and many other ceasters mark the existence of a Roman camp occupied by an early English burh; the tribal burh was protected by an earthen wall, a general obligation to build and maintain burhs at the royal command was enforced by Anglo-Saxon law. Offences in disturbance of the peace of the burh were punished by higher fines than breaches of the peace of the hām or ordinary dwelling. However, neither in the early English language nor in the contemporary Latin was there any fixed usage differentiating the various words descriptive of the several forms of human settlement, the fortified communal refuges cannot accordingly be distinguished from villages or the strongholds of individuals by any purely nomenclative test. At the end of the 9th century and beginning of the 10th century there is evidence of a systematic "timbering" of new burhs, with the object of providing strongholds for the defence of Wessex against the Danes, it appears that the surrounding districts were charged with their maintenance.
It is not until after the Danish invasions that it becomes easier to draw a distinction between the burhs that served as military strongholds for national defence and the royal vills which served no such purpose. Some of the royal vills entered the class of boroughs, but by another route, for the present the private stronghold and the royal dwelling may be neglected, it was the public stronghold and the administrative centre of a dependent district, the source of the main features peculiar to the borough. Many causes tended to create peculiar conditions in the boroughs built for national defence, they were placed where artificial defence was most needed, at the junction of roads, in the plains, on the rivers, at the centres marked out for trade where hills or marshes formed a sufficient natural defence. The fortification of a burh consisted of earth ramparts faced with timber. Palisades were sometimes used; the concept of a network of burhs as a defence in depth is attributed to Alfred. The solution that Alfred devised for this intractable predicament was nothing short of a revolution and that revolution began now in the 880s.
If the Vikings could attack anywhere at any time the West Saxons had to be able to defend everywhere all the time. To make this possible Alfred ordered the construction of a network of defended centres across his kingdom, some built on refortified Roman and Iron Age sites, some built from scratch; these burhs were to be distributed so that no West Saxon was more than twenty or so miles – a day's march – from one of them. This network is described in a manuscript document which has survived in iterations, named by scholars the Burghal Hidage, which lists thirty three burhs in Wessex and English Mercia. Most of these survived into the post Norman Conquest era and are the core of Parliamentary Boroughs and municipal corporations. Following the successful reconquest from the Vikings by Alfred's descendants Edward and Æthelstan, the latter made a series of reforms in law, the Codes issued at the Council of Grately, which gave additional impetus to the urban development of the burhs which hitherto had been forts.
The burhs drew commerce by every channel. The burh was provided by law with a mint and royal moneyers and exchangers, with an authorised scale for weights and measures. Mercantile transactions in the burhs or ports, as they were called when their commercial rather than their military importance was accentuated, were placed by law under special legal privileges in order no doubt to secure the king's hold upon his toll. Over the burh or port was set a reeve, a royal officer answerable to the king for his dues from the burh, his rents for lands and houses, his customs on commerce, his share of the profits from judicial fines. At least from the 10th century the burh had a moot or court, the relation of which to the other courts is matter of speculation. A law of Edgar, about 960, required that it should meet three times a year, these being in all likelihood assemblies at which attendance was compulsory on all tenants of the burghal district, when pleas concerning life and liberty and land were held, men were compelled to find pledges answerable for their good conduct.
At these great meetings the bor
Special Areas Board
The Special Areas Board is the governing body of Alberta's special areas. Special areas are designated rural municipalities similar to a municipal district, the elected advisory councils are overseen by four representatives appointed by the province, under the direct authority of Alberta Municipal Affairs; the three special areas were created in 1938 under the authority of the Special Areas Act as a result of hardship brought upon a particular area in southeastern Alberta during the drought of the 1930s. A special area is not to be confused with a specialized municipality, a different municipal status; the special areas are administered under the provisions of the Special Areas Act. The three special areas are located in southeast Alberta within Census Division 4; the Special Areas Act of 1938 created the six special areas of Tilley East, Berry Creek, Sullivan Lake, Sounding Creek, Neutral Hills, Bow West, special municipal areas. In 1939, these six special areas were consolidated into the four special areas listed below.
The original six special areas included 3.2 million hectares, while the current three only include 2.1 million hectares. Tilley East Special Area, No. 1: The northern part of this special area was withdrawn and added to Berry Creek-Sullivan Lake Special Area in 1941, now forms the portion of Special Area No. 2, south of the Red Deer River. Tilley East was still a special area in 1955, but was not by 1959; this area is now part of Cypress County the Municipal District of Cypress No. 1. Berry Creek-Sullivan Lake Special Area, No. 2: The eastern portion of this special area was withdrawn and added to the Sounding Creek-Neutral Hills Special Area in 1939. The northern part of Tilley East Special Area was added to this special area in 1941, it was renamed Special Area No. 2 in 1959. Sounding Creek-Neutral Hills Special Area, No. 3: The eastern portion of the Berry Creek-Sullivan Lake Special Area was added to this special area in 1939. It was renamed Special Area No. 3 in 1959. In 1969, the northern portion of Special Area No. 3 became Special Area No. 4.
Bow West Special Area, No. 4: This area was still a special area in 1955, but was not by 1959. It is now the Municipal District of Taber. Alberta's three special areas had a combined population totalling 4,499 in 2011. List of census divisions of Alberta List of communities in Alberta List of municipal districts in Alberta List of municipalities in Alberta Special Areas Act 1934, a British act imposed due to hardships Specialized municipalities of Alberta Official website
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Rape (county subdivision)
A rape is a traditional territorial sub-division of the county of Sussex in England used for various administrative purposes. Their origin is unknown; the rapes formed the basis of local government in Sussex. There are various theories about their origin. Surviving from the Romano-British era or representing the shires of the kingdom of Sussex, the Sussex rapes, like the Kentish lathes, go back to the dawn of English history when their main function would have been to provide food rents and military manpower to the king; the rapes may derive from the system of fortifications devised by Alfred the Great in the late ninth century to defeat the Vikings. The Sussex rapes each had a headquarters in the developed south where the lord's hall, demesne lands, principal church and peasant holdings were located, whereas to the north there were smaller dependent settlements in the marsh and heath; each rape was split into several hundreds. First suggested by William Somner in the 17th century, it seems that the derivation of the word from the Old English rāp has been made certain.
The suggestion that ropes were used to mark out territory, was well countered by J. H. Round, asking "do those who advance such views realize the size of the districts they have to deal with?" However, Heinrich Brunner explained the application of'rope' to an administrative district by the old German custom of defining the limits of the'peace' of popular open-air courts by stakes and ropes, the ropes giving a name first to the court and afterwards to the area of its jurisdiction, produced a case where reep, the Dutch cognate of rāp, is applied to such a judicial area. The parish of Rope, in Cheshire is one place name in England derived from the word rāp; the Saxon origin has been questioned, as the Normans showed little interest in learning the English language, thus it seems unlikely that they would have adopted a local word. It has been suggested that the term in fact comes from the old French raper, meaning to seize or take by force. One suggested etymology of the word, from Edward Lye in the 18th century, is in the Icelandic territorial division hreppr, meaning'district or tract of land'.
However, this is rejected in the New English Dictionary, according to the English Place-Name Society'phonologically impossible'. The origin of the rapes is not known, it is possible that the rapes represent the shires of the ancient kingdom of Sussex as in the 12th century they had sheriffs of their own. According to John Morris the boundary between the Rapes of Lewes and Pevensey, which cuts through the middle of Lewes pre-dates the founding of Lewes in the late 9th or early 10th century. If one boundary had existed so early it is quite possible that other boundaries existed. Sussex's rapes may have been a similar division to the six or seven lathes of neighbouring Kent which were undoubtedly early administrative units. Another possibility is that the rapes may derive from the system of fortifications, or burhs devised by Alfred the Great in the late ninth century to defeat the Vikings; the Rapes, or similar predecessors may have been created for the purpose of maintaining these early boroughs, or they may have re-used earlier divisions for this purpose.
In Sussex, the fortifications in the Burghal Hidage were recorded as being at Eorpeburnan on the Sussex-Kent border, Lewes and Chichester. The'Burghal Hidage' lists boroughs in geographical order. Burpham was the predecessor of Arundel and Eorpeburnan or Heorpeburnan should be the predecessor of Rye. Pevensey and Steyning were not included, it looks as if the lands of Steyning served Lewes and those of Pevensey served Hastings, while the eastern portion of the Hastings rape was attached to the Rye area. It is possible that these divisions might be rapes as four of them had the same centres as rapes. If this is the case the rapes must have been reorganised in the next century and a half. Since the system of fortifications introduced by Alfred the Great extended into Surrey and Wessex as well, but neither of these regions have rapes or any similar sub-divisions, it is possible that the'rape of Arundel', twice mentioned in the Domesday Book was the rape of Arundel and not the whole'rape of Earl Roger', which included the rape of Chichester.
The Normans are not to have created rapes and to have at once thrown two of them into one. The existence of the rapes before the Norman Conquest provides the most natural explanation of the fact that the two rapes of Chichester and Arundel are represented in the Domesday Book of the single'rape of Earl Roger', William the Conqueror's most important grantee in Sussex. William might of course have created five rapes only, one of which, out of all proportion to the others in size, was afterwards divided, but for this there is no evidence. At the time of the Norman Conquest there were four rapes: Arundel, Lewes and Hastings. Arundel and Bramber replaced Steyning as Rapal centres; the rape of Arundel consisted of the entire area of Sussex west of the River Adur, corresponding to the boundaries of both the western division of the church in Sussex and the boundaries of the traditional western area of the Sussex dialect. By the time of the Domesday Book, William the Conqueror had created the rape of Bramber as an afterthought out of parts of the Arundel and Lewes rapes, so that the Adur estuary could be better defended.
Although the origin and original purpose of the Rapes is not known, their function after 1066
Sussex, from the Old English Sūþsēaxe, is a historic county in South East England corresponding in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. It is bounded to the west by Hampshire, north by Surrey, northeast by Kent, south by the English Channel, divided for many purposes into the ceremonial counties of West Sussex and East Sussex. Brighton and Hove, though part of East Sussex, was made a unitary authority in 1997, as such, is administered independently of the rest of East Sussex. Brighton and Hove was granted City status in 2000; until Chichester was Sussex's only city. Sussex has three main geographic sub-regions, each oriented east to west. In the southwest is the fertile and densely populated coastal plain. North of this are the rolling chalk hills of the South Downs, beyond, the well-wooded Sussex Weald; the name derives from the Kingdom of Sussex, founded, according to legend, by Ælle of Sussex in AD 477. Around 827, it was absorbed subsequently into the kingdom of England, it was the home of some of Europe's earliest recorded hominids, whose remains have been found at Boxgrove.
It is the site of the Battle of Hastings. In 1974, the Lord-Lieutenant of Sussex was replaced with one each for East and West Sussex, which became separate ceremonial counties. Sussex continues to be recognised as cultural region, it has had a single police force since 1968 and its name is in common use in the media. In 2007, Sussex Day was created to celebrate history. Based on the traditional emblem of Sussex, a blue shield with six gold martlets, the flag of Sussex was recognised by the Flag Institute in 2011. In 2013, Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government Eric Pickles formally recognised and acknowledged the continued existence of England's 39 historic counties, including Sussex; the name "Sussex" is derived from the Middle English Suth-sæxe, in turn derived from the Old English Suth-Seaxe which means of the South Saxons. The South Saxons were a Germanic tribe that settled in the region from the North German Plain during the 5th and 6th centuries; the earliest known usage of the term South Saxons is in a royal charter of 689 which names them and their king, Noðhelm, although the term may well have been in use for some time before that.
The monastic chronicler who wrote up the entry classifying the invasion seems to have got his dates wrong. The New Latin word Suthsexia was used for Sussex by Dutch cartographer Joan Blaeu in his 1645 map. Three United States counties, a former county/land division of Western Australia, are named after Sussex; the flag of Sussex consists of six gold martlets, or heraldic swallows, on a blue background, blazoned as Azure, six martlets or. Recognised by the Flag Institute on 20 May 2011, its design is based on the heraldic shield of Sussex; the first known recording of this emblem being used to represent the county was in 1611 when cartographer John Speed deployed it to represent the Kingdom of the South Saxons. However it seems that Speed was repeating an earlier association between the emblem and the county, rather than being the inventor of the association, it is now regarded that the county emblem originated and derived from the coat of arms of the 14th-century Knight of the Shire, Sir John de Radynden.
Sussex’s six martlets are today held to symbolise the traditional six sub-divisions of the county known as rapes. Sussex by the Sea is regarded as the unofficial anthem of Sussex. Adopted by the Royal Sussex Regiment and popularised in World War I, it is sung at celebrations across the county, including those at Lewes Bonfire, at sports matches, including those of Brighton and Hove Albion Football Club and Sussex County Cricket Club; the county day, called Sussex Day, is celebrated on 16 June, the same day as the feast day of St Richard of Chichester, Sussex's patron saint, whose shrine at Chichester Cathedral was an important place of pilgrimage in the Middle Ages. Sussex's motto, We wunt be druv, is a Sussex dialect expression meaning "we will not be pushed around" and reflects the traditionally independent nature of Sussex men and women; the round-headed rampion known as the "Pride of Sussex", was adopted as Sussex's county flower in 2002. The physical geography of Sussex relies on its lying on the southern part of the Wealden anticline, the major features of which are the high lands that cross the county in a west to east direction: the Weald itself and the South Downs.
Natural England has identified the following seven national character areas in Sussex:South Coast Plain South Downs Wealden Greensand Low Weald High Weald Pevensey Levels Romney MarshesAt 280m, Blackdown is the highest point in Sussex, or county top. Ditchling Beacon is the highest point in East Sussex. At 113 kilometres long, the River Medway is the longest river flowing through Sussex; the longest river in Sussex is the River Arun, 60 kilometres long. Sussex's largest lakes are man-made reservoirs; the largest is Bewl Water on the Kent border, while the largest wholly within Sussex is Ardingly Reservoir. The coastal resorts of Sussex and neighbouring Hampshire are the sunniest places in the United Kingdom; the coast has more sunshine than the inland areas: sea breezes, blowing off the sea, tend to clear any cloud from the coast. Most of Sussex lies in Hardiness zon
An insular area of the United States is a U. S. territory, neither a part of one of the 50 states nor of a Federal district. Article IV, Section 3, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution grants to United States Congress the responsibility of overseeing these territories, of which there are 14—three in the Caribbean Sea and 11 in the Pacific Ocean; these territories are classified by whether they are incorporated and whether they have an organized territorial government established by the U. S. Congress through an Organic Act. All territories but one are unincorporated, all but four are considered to be unorganized. Five U. S. territories have a nonmilitary population. Each of them has a civilian government, a constitution, enjoys some degree of local political autonomy. Congress has extended citizenship rights by birth to all inhabited territories except American Samoa, these citizens may vote and run for office in any U. S. jurisdiction in which they are residents. The people of American Samoa are U.
S. nationals by place of birth, or they are U. S. citizens by naturalization after residing in a State for three months. Nationals are free to move around and seek employment within the United States without immigration restrictions, but cannot vote or hold office outside American Samoa. Residents of the five major populated insular areas do not pay U. S. federal income taxes but are required to pay other U. S. federal taxes such as import and export taxes, federal commodity taxes, social security taxes, etc. Individuals working for the federal government pay federal income taxes while all residents are required to pay federal payroll taxes. According to IRS Publication 570, income from other U. S. Pacific Ocean insular areas is taxable as income of United States residents; the U. S. State Department uses the term insular area to refer not only to territories under the sovereignty of the United States, but those independent nations that have signed a Compact of Free Association with the United States.
While these nations participate in many otherwise domestic programs, full responsibility for their military defense rests with the United States, they are distinct from the United States and their inhabitants are neither U. S. citizens nor nationals. The following islands, or island groups, are considered insular areas: None One Palmyra Atoll U. S. Territory of Palmyra Island Four Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico United States Virgin Islands One American Samoa Ten Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Wake Island Serranilla Bank Bajo Nuevo Bank Three Federated States of Micronesia Marshall Islands Palau Panama Canal Zone Philippines Dependent territory Guano Islands Act Guantanamo Bay Insular Cases Political divisions of the United States Territorial acquisitions of the United States Territories of the United States on stamps Office of Insular Affairs Department of the Interior Definitions of Insular Area Political Types Rubin, Richard, "The Lost Islands", The Atlantic Monthly, February 2001 Chapter 7: Puerto Rico and the Outlying Areas, U.
S. Census Bureau, Geographic Areas Reference Manual