Parents' Day is observed in South Korea and in the United States. The South Korean designation was established in 1973, replacing the Mother's Day marked on May 8, includes public and private celebrations; the United States day was created in 1994 under President Bill Clinton. June 1 has been proclaimed as "Global Day of Parents" by the United Nations as a mark of appreciation for the commitment of parents towards their children. In the Philippines, while it is not observed or celebrated, the first Monday of December each year is proclaimed as Parents' Day; the United Nations proclaimed June 1 to be the Global Day of Parents "to appreciate all parents in all parts of the world for their selfless commitment to children and their lifelong sacrifice towards nurturing this relationship". It is the same day as International Children's Day. In the United States, Parents' Day is held on the fourth Sunday of July; this was established in 1994 when President Bill Clinton signed a Congressional Resolution into law for "recognizing and supporting the role of parents in the rearing of children."
The bill was introduced by Republican Senator Trent Lott. It was supported by members of the Unification Church which celebrates a holiday called Parents' Day, although on a different date. Parents' Day is celebrated throughout the United States. In South Korea, Parent's Day is annually held on May 8. Parent's Day is celebrated by the government. Family events focus on the parents. Public events are led by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and include public celebrations and awards; the origins of Parent's Day can be traced back to the 1930s. Starting in 1930, some Christian communities began to celebrate Parents' Day; this tradition was combined with Korea's traditional Confucianism culture to establish Mother's Day. In 1956, the State Council of South Korea designated May 8 as an annual Mother's Day. However, the question of Father's Day was discussed and on March 30, 1973, May 8 was designated as Parents' Day under Presidential Decree 6615, or the Regulations Concerning Various Holidays; when Parents' Day was first established, the entire week with the 8th day was designated to be a week to respect the elderly, but respecting elders in the month of May was abolished in 1997 with October becoming the month designated for respecting the elderly.
Mothers' Day is traditionally celebrated on the first Monday of December. On this day, children placed pink cadena de amor on their chest. Children who no longer have mothers place white cadena de amor. In 1921, Circular No. 33 designating the first Monday every December as Mothers' day was issued, as a response to the appeal Ilocos Norte Federation of Woman's Clubs. During the Philippine Commonwealth Government President Quezon issued Proclamation No. 213, s. 1937 declaring the day designated as Mothers' Day as Parents' Day. This was due to finding petitions to set a special date for Fathers’ Day not advisable as there are set of numerous holidays set, deeming it more fitting to celebrate both Mothers' and Fathers' Day together and not apart. In 1980, a proclamation was issued declaring first Sunday and the first Monday of December as Father's Day and Mother's Day respectively. In 1988, the issued presidential proclamation followed the international day of celebration of Father's and Mother's Day which most Filipinos are familiar with.
However President Estrada tried to revive the tradition through Proclamation No. 58, s. 1998. Father's Day Mother's Day Grandparents Day Public holidays in the United States Public holidays in South Korea List of International observances National Parents' Day Coalition White House press release proclaiming Sunday, July 23, 2006 as Parents' Day
History of the steel industry (1850–1970)
The history of the modern steel industry began in the late 1850s. This article is intended only to address the business and social dimensions of the industry, since the bulk production of steel began as a result of Henry Bessemer's development of the Bessemer converter, in 1857. Steel was expensive to produce, only used in small, expensive items, such as knives and armor. Steel is an alloy composed with the balance being iron. From prehistory through the creation of the blast furnace, iron was produced from iron ore as wrought iron, 99.82 - 100 percent Fe, the process of making steel involved adding carbon to iron in a serendipitous manner, in the forge, or via the cementation process. The introduction of the blast furnace reversed the problem. A blast furnace produces pig iron — an alloy of 90 percent iron and 10 percent carbon; when the process of steel-making is started with pig iron, instead of wrought iron, the challenge is to remove a sufficient amount of carbon to reduce it to the 0.2 to 2 percentage for steel.
Before about 1860, steel was an expensive product, made in small quantities and used for swords and cutlery. Steelmaking was centered in Sheffield and Middlesbrough, which supplied the European and American markets; the introduction of cheap steel was due to the Bessemer and the open hearth processes, two technological advances made in England. In the Bessemer process, molten pig iron is converted to steel by blowing air through it after it was removed from the furnace; the air blast burned the carbon and silicon out of the pig iron, releasing heat and causing the temperature of the molten metal to rise. Henry Bessemer demonstrated the process in 1856 and had a successful operation going by 1864. By 1870 Bessemer steel was used for ship plate. By the 1850s, the speed and quantity of railway traffic was limited by the strength of the wrought iron rails in use; the solution was to turn to steel rails. Experience proved steel had much greater strength and durability and could handle the heavy and faster engines and cars.
After 1890 the Bessemer process was supplanted by open-hearth steelmaking and by the middle of the 20th century was no longer in use. The open-hearth process originated in the 1860s in France; the usual open-hearth process used pig iron and scrap, became known as the Siemens-Martin process. Its process allowed closer control over the composition of the steel; the crucible process remained important for making high-quality alloy steel into the 20th century. By 1900 the electric arc furnace was adapted to steelmaking and by the 1920s, the falling cost of electricity allowed it to supplant the crucible process for specialty steels. Britain led the world's Industrial Revolution with its early commitment to coal mining, steam power, textile mills, machinery and shipbuilding. Britain's demand for iron and steel, combined with ample capital and energetic entrepreneurs, made it the world leader in the first half of the 19th century. In 1875, Britain accounted for 47% of world production of pig iron, a third of which came from the Middlesbrough area and 40% of steel.
40% of British output was exported to the U. S., building its rail and industrial infrastructure. Two decades in 1896, the British share of world production had plunged to 29% for pig iron and 22.5% for steel, little was sent to the U. S; the U. S. was now the world leader and Germany was catching up to Britain. Britain had lost its American market, was losing its role elsewhere; the growth of pig iron output was dramatic. Britain went from 1.3 million tons in 1840 to 6.7 million in 1870 and 10.4 in 1913. The US grew faster. Germany went from 0.2 million tons in 1859 to 1.6 in 1871 and 19.3 in 1913. France, Austria-Hungary, Russia, went from 2.2 million tons in 1870 to 14.1 million tons in 1913, on the eve of the World War. During the war the demand for artillery shells and other supplies caused a spurt in output and a diversion to military uses. Abé explores the record of iron and steel firms in Victorian England by analyzing Bolckow Vaughan & Company, it was wedded for too long to obsolescent technology and was a late adopter of the open hearth furnace method.
Abé concludes that the firm—and the British steel industry—suffered from a failure of entrepreneurship and planning. Blair explores the history of the British Steel industry since the Second World War to evaluate the impact of government intervention in a market economy. Entrepreneurship was lacking in the 1940s. For generations the industry had followed a patchwork growth pattern which proved inefficient in the face of world competition. In 1946 the first steel development plan was put into practice with the aim of increasing capacity. However, the reforms were dismantled by the Conservative governments in the 1950s. In 1967, under Labour Party control again, the industry was again nationalized, but by twenty years of political manipulation had left companies such as British Steel with serious problems: a complacency with existing equipment, plants operating under capacity (low
Veterans Day is an official United States public holiday observed annually on November 11, honoring military veterans, that is, persons who have served in the United States Armed Forces. It coincides with other holidays including Armistice Day and Remembrance Day which are celebrated in other countries that mark the anniversary of the end of World War I. Major hostilities of World War I were formally ended at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918, when the Armistice with Germany went into effect. At the urging of major U. S. veteran organizations, Armistice Day was renamed Veterans Day in 1954. Veterans Day is distinct from Memorial Day, a U. S. public holiday in May. Veterans Day celebrates the service of all U. S. military veterans, while Memorial Day honors those. There is another military holiday, Armed Forces Day, a minor U. S. remembrance that occurs in May, which honors those serving in the U. S. military. On November 11, 1919, U. S. President Woodrow Wilson issued a message to his countrymen on the first Armistice Day, in which he expressed what he felt the day meant to Americans: ADDRESS TO FELLOW-COUNTRYMEN The White House, November 11, 1919.
A year ago today our enemies laid down their arms in accordance with an armistice which rendered them impotent to renew hostilities, gave to the world an assured opportunity to reconstruct its shattered order and to work out in peace a new and juster set of international relations. The soldiers and people of the European Allies had fought and endured for more than four years to uphold the barrier of civilization against the aggressions of armed force. We ourselves had been in the conflict something more than a half. With splendid forgetfulness of mere personal concerns, we remodeled our industries, concentrated our financial resources, increased our agricultural output, assembled a great army, so that at the last our power was a decisive factor in the victory. We were able to bring the vast resources and moral, of a great and free people to the assistance of our associates in Europe who had suffered and sacrificed without limit in the cause for which we fought. Out of this victory there arose new possibilities of economic concert.
The war showed us the strength of great nations acting together for high purposes, the victory of arms foretells the enduring conquests which can be made in peace when nations act justly and in furtherance of the common interests of men. To us in America the reflections of Armistice Day will be filled with solemn pride in the heroism of those who died in the country's service, with gratitude for the victory, both because of the thing from which it has freed us and because of the opportunity it has given America to show her sympathy with peace and justice in the councils of nations. WOODROW WILSON The United States Congress adopted a resolution on June 4, 1926, requesting that President Calvin Coolidge issue annual proclamations calling for the observance of November 11 with appropriate ceremonies. A Congressional Act approved May 13, 1938, made November 11 in each year a legal holiday: "a day to be dedicated to the cause of world peace and to be thereafter celebrated and known as'Armistice Day'."
In 1945, World War II veteran Raymond Weeks from Birmingham, had the idea to expand Armistice Day to celebrate all veterans, not just those who died in World War I. Weeks led a delegation to Gen. Dwight Eisenhower. Weeks led the first national celebration in 1947 in Alabama and annually until his death in 1985. President Reagan honored Weeks at the White House with the Presidential Citizenship Medal in 1982 as the driving force for the national holiday. Elizabeth Dole, who prepared the briefing for President Reagan, determined Weeks as the "Father of Veterans Day."U. S. Representative Ed Rees from Emporia, presented a bill establishing the holiday through Congress. President Dwight D. Eisenhower from Kansas, signed the bill into law on May 26, 1954, it had been eight and a half years since Weeks held his first Armistice Day celebration for all veterans. Congress amended the bill on June 1, 1954, replacing "Armistice" with "Veterans," and it has been known as Veterans Day since; the National Veterans Award was created in 1954.
Congressman Rees of Kansas received the first National Veterans Award in Birmingham, for his support offering legislation to make Veterans Day a federal holiday. Although scheduled for celebration on November 11 of every year, starting in 1971 in accordance with the Uniform Monday Holiday Act, Veterans Day was moved to the fourth Monday of October. In 1978, it was moved back to its original celebration on November 11. While the legal holiday remains on November 11, if that date happens to be on a Saturday or Sunday organizations that formally observe the holiday will be closed on the adjacent Friday or Monday, respectively; because it is a federal holiday, some American workers and many students have Veterans Day off from work or school. When Veterans Day falls on a Saturday either Saturday or the preceding Friday may be designated as the holiday, whereas if it falls on a Sunday it is observed on the following Monday; when it falls on weekend many private companies offer it as a floating holiday where employee can choose some other day.
A Society for Human Resource Management poll in 2010 found that 21 percent of employers planned to observe the holiday in 2011. Non-essential federal government offices are closed. No mail is delivered. All federal workers ar
National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific
The National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific is a national cemetery located at Punchbowl Crater in Honolulu, Hawaii. It serves as a memorial to honor those men and women who served in the United States Armed Forces, those who have given their lives in doing so, it is administered by the National Cemetery Administration of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Millions of visitors visit the cemetery each year, it is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Hawaii. In February 1948, Congress approved construction began on the national cemetery. Since the cemetery was dedicated on September 2, 1949 53,000 World War I, World War II, Korean War, Vietnam War veterans and their dependents have been interred; the cemetery now exclusively accepts cremated remains for above-ground placement in columbaria. Prior to the opening of the cemetery for the deceased, the remains of soldiers from locations around the Pacific Theater—including Guam, Wake Island, Japanese POW camps—were transported to Hawaii for final interment.
The first interment was made January 4, 1949. The cemetery opened to the public on July 19, 1949, with services for five war dead: an unknown serviceman, two Marines, an Army lieutenant and one noted civilian war correspondent Ernie Pyle; the graves at National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific were marked with white wooden crosses and Stars of David—like the American cemeteries abroad—in preparation for the dedication ceremony on the fourth anniversary of V-J Day. Over 13,000 soldiers and sailors who died during World War II would be laid to rest in the Punchbowl. Despite the Army's extensive efforts to inform the public that the star- and cross-shaped grave markers were only temporary, an outcry arose in 1951 when permanent flat granite markers replaced them; the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific was the first such cemetery to install Bicentennial Medal of Honor headstones, the medal insignia being defined in gold leaf. On May 11, 1976, a total of 23 of these were placed on the graves of medal recipients, all but one of whom were killed in action.
In August 2001, about 70 generic "Unknown" markers for the graves of men known to have died during the attack on Pearl Harbor were replaced with markers that included USS Arizona after it was determined they perished on this vessel. In addition, new information that identified grave locations of 175 men whose graves were marked as "Unknown" resulted in the installation of new markers in October 2002; the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific contains a "Memorial Walk", lined with a variety of memorial markers from various organizations and governments that honor America's veterans. As of 2012, there were 60 memorial boulders along the pathway. Additional memorials can be found throughout the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific—most commemorating soldiers of 20th-century wars, including those killed at Pearl Harbor. After their retreat in 1950, dead Soldiers and Marines were buried at a temporary military cemetery near Hungnam, North Korea. During Operation Glory, which occurred from July to November 1954, the dead of each side were exchanged.
In addition 546 civilians who died in United Nations prisoner of war camps were turned over to the South Korean Government. After "Operation Glory" 416 Korean War "unknowns" were buried in the Punchbowl Cemetery. According to one report, 1,394 names were transmitted during "Operation Glory" from the Chinese and North Koreans. Of 239 Korean War unaccounted for: 186 not associated with Punchbowl unknowns. Fifty-seven years after the Korean War, remains of two of the "Punchbowl unknowns" were identified—both from the 1st Marine Division. One was Pfc. Donald Morris Walker of Support Company/1st Service Battalion/1st Marine Division, KIA December 7, 1950 and the other was Pfc. Carl West of Weapons Company/1st Battalion/7th Regiment/1st Marine Division, KIA December 10, 1950. In 2011 remains of an unknown USAF pilot from Operation Glory were identified from the "Punchbowl Cemetery". From 1990 to 1994, North Korea excavated and turned over 208 sets of remains—possibly containing remains of 200–400 US Servicemen—but few identifiable because of co-mingling of remains.
In 2011 remains were identified. From 1996 to 2006, 220 remains were recovered near the Chinese border. In 2008, a total of 63 were identified. According to a report June 24, 2008, of 10 Korean War Remains disinterred from the "Punchbowl Cemetery" six have been identified. From January to April 2009, a total of twelve Unknowns have been identified—three from World War II. In 2011 remains returned in 2000 were identified. In 1964, the American Battle Monuments Commission erected the Honolulu Memorial at the National Memorial Cemetery "to honor the sacrifices and achievements of American Armed Forces in the Pacific during
North American Safe Boating Campaign
The Safe Boating Campaign is a year-round campaign focused on spreading the message of boating safety, encouraging boater education, helping to save lives. It kicks off each year the full week before Memorial Day Weekend with National Safe Boating Week, with focused efforts during the peak boating season of May – September. Promoting life jacket wear by every boater is the leading goal of the Campaign. Created in 1958 as National Safe Boating Week, the official entrance of Canada in 2000 transformed the event into a larger, international campaign known as North American Safe Boating Campaign; the Campaign is a core program of the National Safe Boating Council. The North American Boating Campaign was known as “Safe Boating Week,” observed by the U. S. Coast Guard Auxiliary as a Courtesy Examination weekend in Amesburg, Massachusetts in June 1952; this tradition continued until 1957 when an official National Safe Boating Week observation took place sponsored by the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary in various parts of the country.
As a result, the U. S. Coast Guard prepared a Resolution, on June 4, 1958, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed PL 85-445, to establish National Safe Boating Week as the first week starting on the first Sunday in June; the National Safe Boating Week Committee, now known as the National Safe Boating Council, organized the event by coordinating efforts among the various boating safety groups. In 1995, the date for National Safe Boating Week was changed to the full week before Memorial Day Weekend each year; this allowed the message of safe boating to reach more boaters before the season and enforce the message for a longer amount of time each year. The official entrance of Canada in 2000 transformed National Safe Boating Week into a larger, international event with partnerships with the Canadian Safe Boating Council and Canadian Coast Guard. National Safe Boating Week now serves as the kick off for the North American Safe Boating Campaign, a year-round campaign, focused during the summer months of May – September.
The Campaign provides the public with information about safe boating. Through press releases, public service announcements, informational campaign mailers, other efforts, the Campaign is able to reach a wide range of individuals with boating safety materials; this information is intended to enhance and supplement groups and organizations boating safety campaigns across the United States and Canada during National Safe Boating Week. Throughout the years, the Campaign has strengthened and worked to gain more national attention across the U. S. In 2006, “Wear It!” became the official slogan of the campaign. Routine and consistent life jacket wear during all water activities can make the difference between life and death. According to the U. S. Coast Guard: 90 percent of drowning victims in recreational boating accidents were not wearing a life jacket in 2007. Drowning is the reported cause of death in two-thirds of all boating fatalities. In 2007, The Delta region in Sacramento, California was chosen to be the first targeted area in the U.
S. for campaign efforts. As a result, life jacket wear rate increased from a baseline measurement of 6.2 percent to 12.2 percent in this area due to the intense marketing of a focused “Wear It!” Campaign and the efforts of the U. S. Coast Guard, the National Safe Boating Council, Boat U. S. Foundation, the California Department of Boating and Waterways; the National Safe Boating Council decided to continue this targeted approach in 2008, adding Tennessee to its efforts in addition to a general campaign across the country. In 2009, a third state was included – “Wear It Michigan!” began its own campaign using its law enforcement personnel to educate about the boating safety message. The National Safe Boating Council is joined by partner organizations in supporting the Campaign such as Boat U. S. Foundation, National Association of State Boating Law Administrators, Canadian Safe Boating Council, U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, U. S. Coast Guard, U. S. Coast Guard Auxiliary, U. S. Power Squadrons. Over time, the campaign logo has changed to reflect a newer, more comfortable life jacket in conjunction with the current trends of boating.
Although the logo and slogan have changed over the years – the message has always been clear – by boating safely and wearing your life jacket, boating can be a fun and safe activity. Official website Canadian Safe Boating Council National Safe Boating Council Wear It Australia Australian website
Memorial Day is a federal holiday in the United States for remembering and honoring persons who have died while serving in the United States Armed Forces. The holiday, observed every year on the last Monday of May, was most held on May 28, 2018. Memorial Day was observed on May 30 from 1868 to 1970. Memorial Day is considered the unofficial start of the summer vacation season in the United States, while Labor Day marks its end on the first Monday of September. In Canada, Victoria Day is a public holiday observed on a Monday one week before Memorial Day and indicates the start of summer. Many people visit cemeteries and memorials on Memorial Day to honor those who died in military service. Many volunteers place an American flag on each grave in national cemeteries. Two other days celebrate those who serve or have served in the U. S. military: Veterans Day, which celebrates the service of all U. S. military veterans. S. remembrance celebrated earlier in May honoring those serving in the U. S. military.
The history of Memorial Day in the United States is so controversial that it constitutes an area of research. At Columbus State University there is a Center for Memorial Day Research. It, together with the University of Mississippi's Center for Civil War Research, are excellent starting points for investigating the topic; the practice of decorating soldiers' graves with flowers is an ancient custom. Soldiers' graves were decorated in the U. S. before and during the American Civil War. Some believe that an annual cemetery decoration practice began before the American Civil War and thus may reflect the real origin of the "memorial day" idea. Annual Decoration Days for particular cemeteries are still held on a Sunday in late spring or early summer in some rural areas of the American South, notably in the mountain areas. In cases involving a family graveyard where remote ancestors, as well as those who died more are buried, this may take on the character of an extended family reunion to which some people travel hundreds of miles.
People gather, put flowers on graves, renew contacts with relatives and others. There is a religious service and a picnic-like "dinner on the grounds", the traditional term for a potluck meal at a church. On June 3, 1861, Virginia, was the location of the first Civil War soldier's grave to be decorated, according to a Richmond Times-Dispatch newspaper article in 1906. In 1862, women in Savannah, Georgia decorated Confederate soldiers' graves according to the Savannah Republican; the 1863 cemetery dedication at Gettysburg, was a ceremony of commemoration at the graves of dead soldiers. Some have therefore claimed. On July 4, 1864, ladies decorated soldiers' graves according to local historians in Boalsburg, yet the principal grave they claim to have decorated was of a man, not dead yet. Nonetheless, Boalsburg promotes itself as the birthplace of Memorial Day. In April 1865, following President Abraham Lincoln's assassination, commemorations were widespread; the more than 600,000 soldiers of both sides who died in the Civil War meant that burial and memorialization took on new cultural significance.
Under the leadership of women during the war, an formal practice of decorating graves had taken shape. In 1865, the federal government began creating national military cemeteries for the Union war dead. On May 1, 1865, in Charleston, South Carolina freed African-Americans held a parade of 10,000 people to honor 257 dead Union Soldiers, whose remains they had reburied from a mass grave in a Confederate prison camp. Historian David W. Blight cites contemporary news reports of this incident in the Charleston Daily Courier and the New-York Tribune. Although Blight claimed that "African Americans invented Memorial Day in Charleston, South Carolina", in 2012, Blight stated that he "has no evidence" that the event in Charleston inspired the establishment of Memorial Day across the country. Accordingly, investigators for Time Magazine, LiveScience, RealClearLife and Snopes have called this conclusion into question. In 1868, copying the Southern annual observance of the previous three years, General John A. Logan of the Grand Army of the Republic, an organization of Union veterans founded in Decatur, established Decoration Day as a time for the nation to decorate the graves of the Union war dead with flowers.
By the 20th century, various Union and Confederate memorial traditions, celebrated on different days and Memorial Day extended to honor all Americans who died while in the military service. On May 26, 1966, President Lyndon B. Johnson designated an "official" birthplace of the holiday by signing the presidential proclamation naming Waterloo, New York, as the holder of the title; this action followed House Concurrent Resolution 587, in which the 89th Congress had recognized that the patriotic tradition of observing Memorial Day had begun one hundred years prior in Waterloo, New York. The village credits druggist Henry C. Welles and county clerk John B. Murray as the founders of the holiday. Scholars have determined. Snopes and Live Science discredit the Waterloo account. On May 5, 1868, General John A. Logan issued a proclamation calling for "Decoration Day" to be observed annually and nationwide. With his proclamation, Logan adopted the Memorial Day practice that had begun in the Southern states three years earlier.
The first Northern Memorial Day was observed on May 30, 1868. One author claims that the date wa
Flag of the United States
The flag of the United States of America referred to as the American flag, is the national flag of the United States. It consists of thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red alternating with white, with a blue rectangle in the canton bearing fifty small, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows, where rows of six stars alternate with rows of five stars; the 50 stars on the flag represent the 50 states of the United States of America, the 13 stripes represent the thirteen British colonies that declared independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain, became the first states in the U. S. Nicknames for the flag include the Stars and Stripes, Old Glory, the Star-Spangled Banner; the current design of the U. S. flag is its 27th. The 48-star flag was in effect for 47 years until the 49-star version became official on July 4, 1959; the 50-star flag was ordered by the president Eisenhower on August 21, 1959, was adopted in July 1960. It is the longest-used version of the U. S. has been in use for over 58 years.
At the time of the Declaration of Independence in July 1776, the Continental Congress would not adopt flags with "stars, white in a blue field" for another year. The flag contemporaneously known as "the Continental Colors" has been referred to as the first national flag; the Continental Navy raised the Colors as the ensign of the fledgling nation in the American War for Independence—likely with the expedient of transforming their previous British red ensigns by adding white stripes—and would use this flag until 1777, when it would form the basis for the subsequent de jure designs. The name "Grand Union" was first applied to the Continental Colors by George Preble in his 1872 history of the U. S. flag. The flag resembles the British East India Company flag of the era, Sir Charles Fawcett argued in 1937 that the company flag inspired the design. Both flags could have been constructed by adding white stripes to a British Red Ensign, one of the three maritime flags used throughout the British Empire at the time.
However, an East India Company flag could have from nine to 13 stripes, was not allowed to be flown outside the Indian Ocean. Benjamin Franklin once gave a speech endorsing the adoption of the Company's flag by the United States as their national flag, he said to George Washington, "While the field of your flag must be new in the details of its design, it need not be new in its elements. There is in use a flag, I refer to the flag of the East India Company." This was a way of symbolising American loyalty to the Crown as well as the United States' aspirations to be self-governing, as was the East India Company. Some colonists felt that the Company could be a powerful ally in the American War of Independence, as they shared similar aims and grievances against the British government tax policies. Colonists therefore flew the Company's flag. However, the theory that the Grand Union Flag was a direct descendant of the flag of the East India Company has been criticised as lacking written evidence. On the other hand, the resemblance is obvious, a number of the Founding Fathers of the United States were aware of the East India Company's activities and of their free administration of India under Company rule.
In any case, both the stripes and the stars have precedents in classical heraldry. Mullets were comparatively rare in early modern heraldry, but an example of mullets representing territorial divisions predating the U. S. flag are those in the coat of arms of Valais of 1618, where seven mullets stood for seven districts. On June 14, 1777, the Second Continental Congress passed the Flag Resolution which stated: "Resolved, That the flag of the thirteen United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white. Flag Day is now observed on June 14 of each year. While scholars still argue about this, tradition holds that the new flag was first hoisted in June 1777 by the Continental Army at the Middlebrook encampment; the first official U. S. flag flown during battle was on August 3, 1777, at Fort Schuyler during the Siege of Fort Stanwix. Massachusetts reinforcements brought news of the adoption by Congress of the official flag to Fort Schuyler. Soldiers cut up their shirts to make the white stripes.
Abraham Swartwout's blue cloth coat. A voucher is extant that Capt. Swartwout of Dutchess County was paid by Congress for his coat for the flag; the 1777 resolution was most meant to define a naval ensign. In the late 18th century, the notion of a national flag was only nascent; the flag resolution appears between other resolutions from the Marine Committee. On May 10, 1779, Secretary of the Board of War Richard Peters expressed concern "it is not yet settled what is the Standard of the United States." However, the term, "Standard," referred to a national standard for the Army of the United States. Each regiment was to carry the national standard in addition to its regimental standard; the national standard was not a reference to the naval flag. The Flag Resolution did not specify any particular arrangement, number of points, nor orientation for the stars and the arrangement or whether the flag had to have seven red stripes and six white ones or vice versa; the appearance was up to the maker of the flag.
Some flag makers arranged the stars into one big star, in a circle or in rows and some re