Title IX is a federal civil rights law in the United States of America, passed as part of the Education Amendments of 1972. This is Public Law No. 92‑318, 86 Stat. 235, codified at 20 U. S. C. §§ 1681–1688. It was co-authored and introduced by Senator Birch Bayh in the U. S. Senate, Congresswoman Patsy Mink in the House, it was renamed the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act following Mink's death in 2002; the following is the original text as written and signed into law by President Richard Nixon in 1972: No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. Title IX was enacted as a follow-up to passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; the 1964 Act was passed to end discrimination in various fields based on race, religion, sex, or national origin in the areas of employment and public accommodation. The 1964 Act did not prohibit sex discrimination against persons employed at educational institutions.
A parallel law, Title VI, had been enacted in 1964 to prohibit discrimination in federally funded private and public entities. It covered race and national origin but excluded sex. Feminists during the early 1970s lobbied Congress to add sex as a protected class category. Title IX was enacted to fill this gap and prohibit discrimination in all federally funded education programs. Congressman John Tower proposed an amendment to Title IX that would have exempted athletics departments from the scope of Title IX's coverage; the Tower amendment was rejected, but it led to widespread misunderstanding of Title IX as a sports-equity law, rather than an anti-discrimination, civil rights law. While Title IX is best known for its impact on high school and collegiate athletics, the original statute made no explicit mention of sports; the United States Supreme Court issued decisions in the 1980s and 1990s, making clear that sexual harassment and assault is a form of sex discrimination. In 2011, President Barack Obama issued guidance reminding schools of their obligation to redress sexual assaults as civil rights matters under Title IX.
Obama issued guidance clarifying Title IX protections for LGBT students through Dear Colleague letters. The precursor to Title IX was an executive order, issued in 1967 by President Lyndon Johnson, forbidding discrimination in federal contracts. Before these orders were issued, the National Organization for Women had persuaded him through successful lobbying, or influencing, his personal aides or Members of Congress to include the addition of women. Executive Order 11375 required all entities receiving federal contracts to end discrimination on the basis of sex in hiring and employment. In 1969, a notable example of its success was Bernice Sandler who used the executive order to retain her job and tenure at the University of Maryland, she utilized university statistics to show how female employment at the University had plummeted as qualified women were replaced by men. Sandler brought her complaints to the Department of Labor's Office for Federal Fair Contracts Compliance, where she was encouraged to file a formal complaint.
Sandler soon began to file complaints against the University of Maryland and against other colleges while working with NOW and the Women's Equity Action League. Sandler filed two hundred and sixty-nine complaints against colleges and universities, which led to the events of 1970. In 1970, Sandler joined U. S. House Representative Edith Green's Subcommittee on Higher Education of the Education and Labor Committee, observed corresponding congressional hearings relating to women's issues on employment and equal opportunity. In these hearings and Sandler proposed the idea of Title IX. An early legislative draft was authored by Representative Patsy Mink with the assistance of Representative Edith Green. At the hearing, there were mentions of athletics; the idea behind the draft was a progressive one in somewhat instituting an affirmative action for women in all aspects of American education. Mink's initial draft of Title IX was formally introduced in Congress by Senator Birch Bayh of Indiana in 1971, its chief Senate sponsor with respect to congressional debate.
At the time, Bayh was working on numerous constitutional issues related to women's employment and sex discrimination—including but not limited to the revised draft of the Equal Rights Amendment. The ERA attempted to build "a powerful constitutional base from which to move forward in abolishing discriminatory differential treatment based on sex"; as he was having partisan difficulty in getting the ERA Amendment out of committee, the Higher Education Act of 1965 was on the Senate Floor for re-authorization. In his remarks on the Senate Floor, Bayh stated, "we are all familiar with the stereotype women pretty things who go to college to find a husband, go on to graduate school because they want a more interesting husband, marry, have children, never work again; the desire of many schools not to waste a'man's place' on a woman stems from such stereotyped notions. But the facts contradict these myths about the'weaker sex' and it is time to change our operating assumptions." He continued: ``, it is not a panacea.
It is, however, an important first step in the effort to provide for the women of America something, rightfully theirs—an equal chance to attend
United States Department of Education
The United States Department of Education referred to as the ED for Education Department, is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government. It began operating on May 4, 1980, having been created after the Department of Health and Welfare was split into the Department of Education and the Department of Health and Human Services by the Department of Education Organization Act, which President Jimmy Carter signed into law on October 17, 1979; the Department of Education is administered by the United States Secretary of Education. It has an annual budget of $68 billion; the 2019 Budget supports $129.8 billion in new postsecondary grants and work-study assistance to help an estimated 11.5 million students and their families pay for college. Its official abbreviation is "ED" and is often abbreviated informally as "DoEd"; the primary functions of the Department of Education are to "establish policy for and coordinate most federal assistance to education, collect data on US schools, to enforce federal educational laws regarding privacy and civil rights."
The Department of Education does not establish colleges. Unlike the systems of most other countries, education in the United States is decentralized, the federal government and Department of Education are not involved in determining curricula or educational standards; this has been left to state and local school districts. The quality of educational institutions and their degrees is maintained through an informal private process known as accreditation, over which the Department of Education has no direct public jurisdictional control; the Department of Education is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness, works with federal partners to ensure proper education for homeless and runaway youth in the United States. Opposition to the Department of Education stems from conservatives, who see the department as an undermining of states rights, libertarians who believe it results in a state-imposed leveling towards the bottom and low value for taxpayers' money; the U. S. Department of Education oversees the nation's education system.
The Department sets uniform standards which are applied nationwide. “Since the Department of Education began operations in fiscal year 1980, its mission has included promoting student achievement and ensuring equal access to educational opportunity. To do so, Education partners with state and local governments, which provide most of the resources to school districts for K-12 programs". Civil Rights and Equal Opportunity is one of the most forefront issues, discussed about within the U. S. Department of Education’s four walls; the goal of this agency is to make sure that every student in primary and secondary education has the tools that they need to succeed. Not all of their ideas always work out in the best favor of the students. Throughout recent history, the educational system has not always been focused on furthering the development of all students. However, coming out of the 20th century this ideal has been turned around and many new legislations have been put in place to break down these invisible walls that were surrounding the people who were affected by this hindrance.
“The U. S. like other countries in the 21st century, is operating in an interconnected world. New structures require that teachers and our next generations of students prepare and expand ideas about their responsibilities as citizens". For 2006, the ED discretionary budget was $56 billion and the mandatory budget contained $23 billion. In 2009 it received additional ARRA funding of $102 billion; as of 2011, the discretionary budget is $70 billion. A previous Department of Education was created in 1867 but was soon demoted to an Office in 1868; as an agency not represented in the president's cabinet, it became a minor bureau in the Department of the Interior. In 1939, the bureau was transferred to the Federal Security Agency, where it was renamed the Office of Education. In 1953, the Federal Security Agency was upgraded to cabinet-level status as the Department of Health and Welfare. In 1979, President Carter advocated for creating a cabinet-level Department of Education. Carter's plan was to transfer most of the Department of Health and Welfare's education-related functions to the Department of Education.
Carter planned to transfer the education-related functions of the departments of Defense, Justice and Urban Development, Agriculture, as well as a few other federal entities. Among the federal education-related programs that were not proposed to be transferred were Headstart, the Department of Agriculture's school lunch and nutrition programs, the Department of the Interior's Native Americans' education programs, the Department of Labor's education and training programs. Upgrading Education to cabinet level status in 1979 was opposed by many in the Republican Party, who saw the department as unconstitutional, arguing that the Constitution doesn't mention education, deemed it an unnecessary and illegal federal bureaucratic intrusion into local affairs. However, many see the department as constitutional under the Commerce Clause, that the funding role of the Department is constitutional under the Taxing and Spending Clause; the National Education Association supported the bill, while the American Federation of Teachers opposed it.
As of 1979, the Office of Education had an annual budget of $12 billion. Congress appropriated to the Department of Education an annual budget of $14 billion and 17,000