Early Cyrillic alphabet
The Early Cyrillic alphabet is a writing system, developed in the First Bulgarian Empire during the late 9th century on the basis of the Greek alphabet The objective was to make it possible to have Christian service in Slavic tongue, instead of in Greek, which locals did not understand, to bring Bulgarian subjects closer to the cultural influence of Christianity, the official religion of the Byzantine Empire. It was used by Slavic peoples in South East and Eastern Europe, it was developed in the Preslav Literary School in the capital city of the First Bulgarian Empire in order to write the Old Church Slavonic language. The modern Cyrillic script is still used for some Slavic languages, for East European and Asian languages that were under Russian cultural influence during the 20th century. Among some of the traditionally culturally influential countries using Cyrillic script are Bulgaria, Russia and Ukraine; the earliest form of manuscript Cyrillic, known as ustav, was based on Greek uncial script, augmented by ligatures and by letters from the Glagolitic alphabet for consonants not found in Greek.
The Glagolitic alphabet was created by the monk Saint Cyril with the aid of his brother Saint Methodius, around 863. It was an adaptation designed to link the language of their mother, of Slavic origin, their father, the Roman military commander of Thessaloniki, the second most important city of the Byzantine Empire. Cyrillic, on the other hand, was a creation of Cyril's students in the 890s at the Preslav Literary School under Bulgarian Tsar Simeon the Great as a more suitable script for church books, though retaining the original Bulgarian symbols in Glagolitic. An alternative hypothesis proposes that it emerged in the border regions of Greek proselytization to the Slavs before it was codified and adapted by some systematizer among the Slavs. One possibility is that this systematization of Cyrillic was undertaken at the Council of Preslav in 893, when the Old Church Slavonic liturgy was adopted by the Bulgarian Empire; the Cyrillic alphabet was well suited for the writing of Old Church Slavic following a principle of "one letter for one significant sound", with some arbitrary or phonotactically-based exceptions.
This principle is violated by certain vowel letters, which represent plus the vowel if they are not preceded by a consonant. It is violated by a significant failure to distinguish between /ji/ and /jĭ/ orthographically. There was no distinction of capital and lowercase letters, though manuscript letters were rendered larger for emphasis, or in various decorative initial and nameplate forms. Letters served as numerals as well as phonetic signs. Letters without Greek equivalents had no numeral values, whereas one letter, had only a numeric value with no phonetic value. Since its creation, the Cyrillic script has adapted to changes in spoken language and developed regional variations to suit the features of national languages, it has been the subject of political decrees. Variations of the Cyrillic script are used to write languages throughout Eastern Asia; the form of the Russian alphabet underwent a change when Tsar Peter the Great introduced the Civil Script, in contrast to the prevailing Church Typeface, in 1708.
Some letters and breathing marks which were only used for historical reasons were dropped. Medieval letterforms used in typesetting were harmonized with Latin typesetting practices, exchanging medieval forms for Baroque ones, skipping the western European Renaissance developments; the reform subsequently influenced Cyrillic orthographies for most other languages. Today, typesetting standards only remain in use in Church Slavonic. A comprehensive repertoire of early Cyrillic characters is included in the Unicode since version 5.1 standard, which published on April 4, 2008. These characters and their distinctive letterforms are represented in specialized computer fonts for Slavistics. In addition to the basic letters, there were a number of scribal variations, combining ligatures, regionalisms used, all of which varied over time; each letter had a numeric value inherited from the corresponding Greek letter. A titlo over a sequence of letters indicated their use as a number. In numerals, the ones place was to the left of the tens place, the reverse of the order used in modern Arabic numerals.
Thousands are formed using a special symbol, ҂, attached to the lower left corner of the numeral. Many fonts display this symbol incorrectly as being in line with the letters instead of subscripted below and to the left of them. Titlos were used to form abbreviations of nomina sacra. Manuscripts made increasing use of a different style of abbreviation, in which some of the left-out letters were superscripted above the abbreviation and covered with a pokrytie diacritic. Several diacritics, adopted from Polytonic Greek orthography, were used, but were redundant (these may not appea
Double acute accent
The double acute accent is a diacritic mark of the Latin script. It is used in written Hungarian, is sometimes referred to by typographers as Hungarumlaut; the signs formed with a regular umlaut are letters in their own right in the Hungarian alphabet—for instance, they are separate letters for the purpose of collation. Letters with the double acute, are considered variants of their equivalents with the umlaut, being thought of as having both an umlaut and an acute accent. Length marks first appeared in Hungarian orthography in the 15th-century Hussite Bible. Only á and é were marked, since they are different in quality as well as length. Í, ó, ú were marked as well. In the 18th century, before Hungarian orthography became fixed, u and o with umlaut + acute were used in some printed documents. 19th century typographers introduced the double acute as a more aesthetic solution. In Hungarian, the double acute is thought of as the letter having both an umlaut and an acute accent. Standard Hungarian has 14 vowels in a symmetrical system: seven short vowels and seven long ones, which are written with an acute accent in the case of á, é, í, ó, ú, with the double acute in the case of ő, ű.
Vowel length has phonemic significance in Hungarian, that is, it distinguishes different words and grammatical forms. At the beginning of the 20th century, the letter A̋ a̋ was sometimes used in Slovak as a long variant of the short vowel Ä ä, representing the vowel /æː/ in dialect or in some loanwords. Other long vowels are written with a single acute accent; the letter is still used for this purpose in Slovak phonetic transcription systems. In handwriting in German and Swedish, the umlaut is sometimes written to a double acute; the Chuvash language written in the Cyrillic script uses a double-acute Ӳ, ӳ /y/ as a front counterpart of Cyrillic letter У, у /u/ after the analogy of handwriting in Latin script languages. In other minority languages of Russia, the umlauted form Ӱ is used instead. Classical Danish handwriting uses "ó" for "ø", which becomes a problem when writing Faroese in the same tradition, as "ó" is a part of the Faroese alphabet, thus ő is sometimes used for ø in Faroese. The IPA and many other phonetic alphabets use two systems to indicate tone: a diacritic system and an adscript system.
In the diacritic system, the double acute represents an extra high tone. One may encounter this use as a tone sign in some IPA-derived orthographies of minority languages, such as in the North American Native Tanacross. In line with the IPA usage it denotes the extra-high tone. O and U with double acute accents are supported in the Code page 852, ISO 8859-2 and Unicode character sets; some of the box drawing characters of the original DOS code page 437 were sacrificed in order to put in more accented letters. In ISO 8859-2 Ő, ő, Ű, ű take the place of some similar looking letters of ISO 8859-1. All occurrences of "double acute" in character names in the Unicode 9.0 standard: In LaTeX, the double acute accent is typeset with the \H command. For example, the name Paul Erdős would be typeset as In modern X11 systems, the double acute can be typed by pressing the Compose key followed by = and desired letter. Acute accent Double grave accent Umlaut/Diaeresis Hungarian alphabet Diacritics Project—All you need to design a font with correct accents
Cyrillic numerals are a numeral system derived from the Cyrillic script, developed in the First Bulgarian Empire in the late 10th century. It was used by South and East Slavic peoples; the system was used in Russia as late as the early 18th century, when Peter the Great replaced it with Arabic numerals as part of his civil script reform initiative. Cyrillic numbers played a role in Peter the Great's currency reform plans, with silver wire kopecks issued after 1696 and mechanically minted coins issued between 1700 and 1722 inscribed with the date using Cyrillic numerals. By 1725, Russian Imperial coins had transitioned to Arabic numerals; the Cyrillic numerals may still be found in books written in the Church Slavonic language. The system is a quasi-decimal alphabetic system, equivalent to the Ionian numeral system but written with the corresponding graphemes of the Cyrillic script; the order is based on the original Greek alphabet rather than the standard Cyrillic alphabetical order. A separate letter is assigned to each unit, each multiple of ten, each multiple of one hundred.
To distinguish numbers from text, a titlo is sometimes drawn over the numbers, or they are set apart with dots. The numbers are written as pronounced in Slavonic from the high value position to the low value position, with the exception of 11 through 19, which are written and pronounced with the ones unit before the tens. Examples: – 1706 – 7118To evaluate a Cyrillic number, the values of all the figures are added up: for example, ѰЗ is 700 + 7, making 707. If the number is greater than 999, the thousands sign is used to multiply the number's value: for example, ҂Ѕ is 6000, while ҂Л҂В is parsed as 30,000 + 2000, making 32,000. To produce larger numbers, a modifying sign is used to encircle the number being multiplied. Two scales existed in such cases, one giving a new name and sign every order of magnitude, the other, each squaring except for the end Glagolitic numerals are similar to Cyrillic numerals except that numeric values are assigned according to the native alphabetic order of the Glagolitic alphabet.
Glyphs for the ones and hundreds values are combined to form more precise numbers, for example, ⰗⰑⰂ is 500 + 80 + 3 or 583. As with Cyrillic numerals, the numbers 11 through 19 are written with the ones digit before the glyph for 10. Whereas Cyrillic numerals use modifying signs for numbers greater than 999, some documents attest to the use of Glagolitic letters for 1000 through 6000, although the validity of 3000 and greater is questioned. Early Cyrillic alphabet Glagolitic alphabet Relationship of Cyrillic and Glagolitic scripts Greek numerals Combining Cyrillic Millions
The acute accent is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. An early precursor of the acute accent was the apex, used in Latin inscriptions to mark long vowels; the acute accent was first used in the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek, where it indicated a syllable with a high pitch. In Modern Greek, a stress accent has replaced the pitch accent, the acute marks the stressed syllable of a word; the Greek name of the accented syllable was and is ὀξεῖα "sharp" or "high", calqued into Latin as acūta "sharpened". The acute accent marks the stressed vowel of a word in several languages: Blackfoot uses acute accents to show the place of stress in a word: soyópokistsi "leaves". Bulgarian: stress, variable in Bulgarian, is not indicated in Bulgarian except in dictionaries and sometimes in homonyms that are distinguished only by stress. However, Bulgarian uses the grave accent to mark the vowel in a stressed syllable, unlike Russian, which uses the acute accent.
Catalan uses it in stressed vowels: é, í, ó, ú. Dutch uses it to mark a more closed vowel if it is not clear from context. Sometimes, it is used for disambiguation, as in één – een, meaning "one" and "a". Galician Hopi has acute to mark a higher tone. Italian The accent is used to indicate the stress in a word, or whether the vowel is "open" or "wide", or "closed", or "narrow". For example, pèsca "peach" and pésca "fishing". Lakota. For example, kákhi "in that direction" but kakhí "take something to someone back there". Leonese uses it for marking disambiguation. Modern Greek marks the stressed vowel of every polysyllabic word: ά, έ, ή, ί, ό, ύ, ώ. Navajo where the acute marks a higher tone. Norwegian and Danish use the acute accent to indicate that a terminal syllable with the e is stressed and is omitted if it does not change the meaning: armen means "the arm" while armén means "the army". Stress-related are the different spellings of the words en/én and et/ét; the acute points out that there is one and only one of the object, which derives from the obsolete spelling een and eet.
Some loanwords from French, are written with the acute accent, such as Norwegian and Swedish kafé and Danish café. Occitan Portuguese: á, é, í, ó, ú, it may indicate height. Russian. Stress is irregular in Russian, in reference and teaching materials, stress is indicated by an acute accent above the stressed vowel; the acute accent can be used both sometimes in the romanised text. Spanish marks stressed syllables in words, it is used to distinguish homophones such as el and él. Ukrainian: marks the stress, but in regular typography is only used when it can help to distinguish between homographs: за́мок vs. замо́к. Used in dictionaries and some children books. Welsh: word stress falls on the penultimate syllable, but one way of indicating stress on a final vowel is by the use of the acute accent. In the Welsh orthography, it can be on any vowel: á, é, í, ó, ú, ẃ, or ý. Examples: casáu "to hate", sigarét "cigarette", ymbarél "umbrella"; the acute accent marks. To mark high vowels: Bislama; the acute is used only on é, but only in one of the two orthographies.
It distinguishes é from e. The orthography after 1995, does not distinguish these sounds. Catalan; the acute marks the quality of the vowels é, ó. French; the acute is used only on é. It is known as accent aigu, in contrast to the accent grave, the accent sloped the other way, it distinguishes é from è, ê, e. Unlike other Romance languages, the accent marks do not imply stress in French. Italian; the acute accent is compulsory only in words of more than one syllable stressed on their final vowel. Words ending in stressed -o are never marked with an acute accent, but with a grave accent. Therefore, only é and è are contrasted in words ending in -ché, such as perché; the symbol ó can be used in the body of a word for disambiguation, for instance between bótte and bòtte, though this is not mandatory: in fact standard Italian keyboards lack a dedicated ó key. Occitan; the acute marks the quality of the vowels é, ó and á. Scottish Gaelic uses/used a system in which é is contrasted with è and ó with ò. Both the grave and acute indicate length.
Besides, á appears in the words á, ám and ás in order to distinguish them from a, am and as respectively. The other vowels (i and
A diacritic – diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph. The term derives from the Ancient Greek διακριτικός, from διακρίνω. Diacritic is an adjective, though sometimes used as a noun, whereas diacritical is only an adjective; some diacritical marks, such as the acute and grave, are called accents. Diacritical marks may appear above or below a letter, or in some other position such as within the letter or between two letters; the main use of diacritical marks in the Latin script is to change the sound-values of the letters to which they are added. Examples are the diaereses in the borrowed French words naïve and Noël, which show that the vowel with the diaeresis mark is pronounced separately from the preceding vowel. In other Latin-script alphabets, they may distinguish between homonyms, such as the French là versus la that are both pronounced /la/. In Gaelic type, a dot over a consonant indicates lenition of the consonant in question.
In other alphabetic systems, diacritical marks may perform other functions. Vowel pointing systems, namely the Arabic harakat and the Hebrew niqqud systems, indicate vowels that are not conveyed by the basic alphabet; the Indic virama and the Arabic sukūn mark the absence of vowels. Cantillation marks indicate prosody. Other uses include the Early Cyrillic titlo stroke and the Hebrew gershayim, which mark abbreviations or acronyms, Greek diacritical marks, which showed that letters of the alphabet were being used as numerals. In the Hanyu Pinyin official romanization system for Chinese, diacritics are used to mark the tones of the syllables in which the marked vowels occur. In orthography and collation, a letter modified by a diacritic may be treated either as a new, distinct letter or as a letter–diacritic combination; this varies from language to language, may vary from case to case within a language. English is the only major modern European language requiring no diacritics for native words.
In some cases, letters are used as "in-line diacritics", with the same function as ancillary glyphs, in that they modify the sound of the letter preceding them, as in the case of the "h" in the English pronunciation of "sh" and "th". Among the types of diacritic used in alphabets based on the Latin script are: accents ◌́ – acute ◌̀ – grave ◌̂ – circumflex ◌̌ – caron, wedge ◌̋ – double acute ◌̏ – double grave ◌̃ - tilde dots ◌̇ – overdot ◌̣ – an underdot is used in Rheinische Dokumenta and in Hebrew and Arabic transcription ◌·◌ – interpunct tittle, the superscript dot of the modern lowercase Latin i and j ◌̈ – diaeresis or umlaut ◌ː – triangular colon, used in the IPA to mark long vowels. Curves ◌̆ – breve ◌̑ - inverted breve ◌͗ – sicilicus, a palaeographic diacritic similar to a caron or breve ◌̃ – tilde ◌҃ – titlo vertical stroke ◌̩ – syllabic a subscript vertical stroke is used in IPA to mark syllabicity and in Rheinische Dokumenta to mark a schwa macron or horizontal line ◌̄ – macron ◌̱ – underbar overlays ◌⃓ – vertical bar through the character ◌̷ – slash through the character ◌̵ – crossbar through the character ring ◌̊ – overring superscript curls ◌̓ – apostrophe ◌̉ – hoi ◌̛ – horn subscript curls ◌̦ – undercomma ◌̧ – cedilla ◌̡ ◌̢ – hook, left or right, sometimes superscript ◌̨ – ogonek double marks ◌͝◌ – double breve ◌͡◌ – tie bar or top ligature ◌᷍◌ – double circumflex ◌͞◌ – longum ◌͠◌ – double tilde double sub/superscript diacritics ◌̧ ̧ - double cedilla ◌̨ ̨ - double ogonek ◌̈ ̈ - double diaeresisThe tilde, comma, apostrophe and colon are sometimes diacritical marks, but have other uses.
Not all diacritics occur adjacent to the letter. In the Wali language of Ghana, for example, an apostrophe indicates a change of vowel quality, but occurs at the beginning of the word, as in the dialects ’Bulengee and ’Dolimi; because of vowel harmony, all vowels in a word are affected, so the scope of the diacritic is the entire word. In abugida scripts, like those used to write Hindi and Thai, diacritics indicate vowels, may occur above, before, after, or around the consonant letter they modify; the tittle on the letter i of the Latin alphabet originated as a diacritic to distinguish i from the minims of adjacent letters. It first appeared in the 11th century in the sequence ii spread to i adjacent to m, n, u, to all lowercase i's; the j a variant of i, inherited the tittle. The shape of the diacritic developed from resembling today's acute accent to a long flourish by the 15th century. With the advent of Roman type it was reduced to the round. Hamza: indicates a glottal stop. Tanwīn symbols: Serve a grammatical role in Arabic.
The sign ـً is most written in combination with alif, e.g. ـًا. Shadda: Gemination of consonants. Waṣla: Comes most at the beginning of a word. Indicates a type of hamza, pronounced only when the letter is read at the beginnin
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD. It is one of the Semitic abjads descending from the Aramaic alphabet through the Palmyrene alphabet, shares similarities with the Phoenician, Hebrew and the traditional Mongolian scripts. Syriac is written from right to left in horizontal lines, it is a cursive script where not all, letters connect within a word. Spaces separate individual words. All 22 letters are consonants, although there are optional diacritic marks to indicate vowels and other features. In addition to the sounds of the language, the letters of the Syriac alphabet can be used to represent numbers in a system similar to Hebrew and Greek numerals. Apart from Classical Syriac Aramaic, the alphabet has been used to write other dialects and languages. Several Christian Neo-Aramaic languages from Turoyo to the Northeastern Neo-Aramaic dialects of Assyrian and Chaldean, once vernaculars began to be written in the 19th century; the Serṭā variant has been adapted to write Western Neo-Aramaic, traditionally written in a square Aramaic script related to the Hebrew alphabet.
Besides Aramaic, when Arabic began to be the dominant spoken language in the Fertile Crescent after the Islamic conquest, texts were written in Arabic using the Syriac script as knowledge of the Arabic alphabet was not yet widespread. Such writings are called Karshuni or Garshuni. In addition to Semitic languages, Malayalam was written with Syriac script and was called Suriyani Malayalam, as well as Sogdian. There are three major variants of the Syriac alphabet: ʾEsṭrangēlā, Maḏnḥāyā and Serṭā; the oldest and classical form of the alphabet is ʾEsṭrangēlā. Although ʾEsṭrangēlā is no longer used as the main script for writing Syriac, it has received some revival since the 10th century, it is used in scholarly publications, in titles, in inscriptions. In some older manuscripts and inscriptions, it is possible for any letter to join to the left, older Aramaic letter forms are found. Vowel marks are not used with ʾEsṭrangēlā; the East Syriac dialect is written in the Maḏnḥāyā form of the alphabet. Other names for the script include Swāḏāyā, ʾĀṯūrāyā, Kaldāyā, inaccurately, "Nestorian".
The Eastern script resembles ʾEsṭrangēlā somewhat more than the Western script. The Eastern script uses a system of dots above or below letters, based on an older system, to indicate vowel sounds not found in the script: A dot above and a dot below a letter represent, transliterated as a or ă, Two diagonally-placed dots above a letter represent, transliterated as ā or â or å, Two horizontally-placed dots below a letter represent, transliterated as e or ĕ, Two diagonally-placed dots below a letter represent, transliterated as ē, The letter Waw with a dot below it represents, transliterated as ū or u, The letter Waw with a dot above it represents, transliterated as ō or o, The letter Yōḏ with a dot beneath it represents, transliterated as ī or i, A combination of Rḇāṣā karyā followed by a letter Yōḏ represents, transliterated as ē or ê, it is thought that the Eastern method for representing vowels influenced the development of the niqqud markings used for writing Hebrew. In addition to the above vowel marks, transliteration of Syriac sometimes includes ə, e̊ or superscript e to represent an original Aramaic schwa that became lost on at some point in the development of Syriac.
Some transliteration schemes find its inclusion necessary for showing spirantization or for historical reasons. Whether because its distribution is predictable or because its pronunciation was lost, both the East and the West variants of the alphabet have no sign to represent the schwa; the West Syriac dialect is written in the Serṭā or Serṭo form of the alphabet known as the Pšīṭā,'Maronite' or the'Jacobite' script. Most of the letters are derived from ʾEsṭrangēlā, but are simplified, flowing lines. A cursive chancery hand is evidenced in the earliest Syriac manuscripts, but important works were written in ʾEsṭrangēlā. From the 8th century, the simpler Serṭā style came into fashion because of its more economical use of parchment; the Western script is vowel-pointed, with miniature Greek vowel letters above or below the letter which they follow: Capital Alpha represents, transliterated as a or ă, Lowercase Alpha represents, transliterated as
The diaeresis and the umlaut are two homoglyphic diacritical marks that consist of two dots placed over a letter a vowel. When that letter is an i or a j, the diacritic replaces the tittle: ï; the diaeresis and the umlaut are diacritics marking two distinct phonological phenomena. The diaeresis represents the phenomenon known as diaeresis or hiatus in which a vowel letter is pronounced separately from an adjacent vowel and not as part of a digraph or diphthong; the umlaut, in contrast, indicates a sound shift. These two diacritics originated separately. In modern computer systems using Unicode, the umlaut and diaeresis diacritics are identically encoded, e.g. U+00E4 ä LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS represents both a-umlaut and a-diaeresis; the same symbol is used as a diacritic in other cases, distinct from both diaeresis and umlaut. For example, in Albanian and Tagalog ë represents a schwa; the word diaeresis is from Greek diaíresis, meaning "division", "separation", or "distinction". The word trema, used in French linguistics and classical scholarship, is from the Greek trē̂ma and means a "perforation", "orifice", or "pip", thus describing the form of the diacritic rather than its function.
Umlaut is the German name of both the Germanic umlaut, a sound-law known as i-mutation, the corresponding diacritic. The diaeresis indicates that two adjoining letters that would form a digraph and be pronounced as one are instead to be read as separate vowels in two syllables; the diaeresis indicates. For example, in the spelling coöperate, the diaeresis reminds the reader that the word has four syllables co-op-er-ate, not three, *coop-er-ate. In British English this usage has been considered obsolete for many years, in US English, although it persisted for longer, it is now considered archaic as well, it is still used by the US magazine The New Yorker. In English language texts it is most familiar in the spellings naïve, Noël, Chloë, is used in the name of the island Teän. Languages such as Dutch, French and Spanish make regular use of the diaeresis. Two dots, called a trema, were used in the Hellenistic period on the letters ι and υ, most at the beginning of a word, as in ϊδων, ϋιος, ϋβριν, to separate them from a preceding vowel, as writing was scriptio continua, where spacing was not yet used as a word divider.
However, it was used to indicate that a vowel formed its own syllable, as in ηϋ and Αϊδι. In Modern Greek, αϊ and οϊ represent the diphthongs /ai̯/ and /oi̯/, εϊ the disyllabic sequence /e.i/, whereas αι, οι, ει transcribe the simple vowels /e/, /i/, /i/. The diacritic can be the only one on a vowel, as in ακαδημαϊκός akadimaïkos "academic", or in combination with an acute accent, as in πρωτεΐνη proteïni "protein". Ÿ is sometimes used in transcribed Greek, where it represents the Greek letter υ in hiatus with α. For example, it can be seen in the transcription Artaÿctes of the Persian name Ἀρταΰκτης at the end of Herodotus, or the name of Mount Taÿgetus on the southern Peloponnesus peninsula, which in modern Greek is spelled Ταΰγετος; the diaeresis was borrowed for this purpose in several languages of western and southern Europe, among them Occitan, French, Dutch and English. When a vowel in Greek was stressed, it did not assimilate to a preceding vowel but remained as a separate syllable; such vowels were marked with an accent such as the acute, a tradition, adopted by other languages, such as Spanish and Portuguese.
For example, the Portuguese words saia "skirt" and the imperfect saía " used to leave" differ in that the sequence /ai/ forms a diphthong in the former, but is a hiatus in the latter. In Catalan, the digraphs ai, ei, oi, au, eu, iu are read as diphthongs. To indicate exceptions to this rule, a diaeresis mark is placed on the second vowel: without this the words raïm and diürn would be read * and *, respectively; the Occitan use of diaeresis is similar to that of Catalan: ai, ei, oi, au, eu, ou are diphthongs consisting of one syllable but aï, eï, oï, aü, eü, oü are groups consisting of two distinct syllables. In Welsh, where the diaeresis appears, it is on the stressed vowel, this is most on the first of the two adjacent vowels, it is used on the first of two vowels that would otherwise form a diphthong and on the first of three vowels to separate it from a following diphthong: crëwyd is pronounced rather than. In Dutch, spellings such as coëfficiënt are necessary because the digraphs oe and ie represent the simple vowels and, respectively.
However, hyphenation is now preferred for compound words. In German, diaeresis occurs in a few proper names, such as Bernhard Hoëcker. In Galician, diaeresis is employed to indicate hiatus in the first and second persons of the plural of the imperfect tense of verbs ended in -aer, -oer, -aír and -oír; this stems from the fact that an unstressed -i- is left betwe