A military chaplain ministers to military personnel and, in most cases, their families and civilians working for the military. In some cases they will work with local civilians within a military area of operations. Although the term chaplain had Christian roots, it is used today in military organizations to describe all professionals specially trained to serve any spiritual need, regardless of religious affiliation. In addition to offering pastoral care to individuals, supporting their religious rights and needs, military chaplains may advise the executive on issues of religion, ethics and morals as affected by religion, they may liaise with local religious leaders in an effort to understand the role of religion as a factor both in hostility and war and in reconciliation and peace. Military chaplains represent a religion or faith group but work with military personnel of all faiths and none; some countries, like the Netherlands and Belgium employ humanist chaplains who offer a non-religious approach to chaplain support.
In the United Kingdom, the Ministry of Defence employs chaplains, but their authority comes from their sending church. Royal Navy chaplains undertake a 16-week bespoke induction and training course, including a short course at Britannia Royal Naval College, specialist fleet time at sea alongside a more experienced chaplain. Naval chaplains called to service with the Royal Marines undertake a commando course at Commando Training Centre Royal Marines, Lympstone and if successful serve with a front-line Royal Marines unit. British Army chaplains undertake seven-weeks training at The Armed Forces Chaplaincy Centre Amport House and the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. Royal Air Force chaplains must complete 12 weeks Specialist Entrant course at the RAF College Cranwell followed by a Chaplains' Induction Course at Armed Forces Chaplaincy Centre Amport House of a further 2 weeks. In the United States, the term, nomination, is not applied to the process of becoming a military chaplain. Individuals volunteer, if they are accepted, they are commissioned as military staff officers in the Chaplain Corps.
Members of the clergy who meet the qualifications for service as an officer in the military are free to apply for service with any of the three United States Chaplain Corps: the Army and Air Force each has a Chaplain Corps, with Navy chaplains assigned to serve with Marine Corps units, Coast Guard units, the Merchant Marine Academy. Some clergy, like rabbis, can apply without permission from any individual or organization within their faith group; as the application process proceeds, the military determines whether the applicant will meet standards in areas such as health, physical fitness, education, past criminal history, suitability for service, which includes supporting the free exercise of religion for men and women of all faiths, an endorsement from an endorsing agency, recognized by the Department of Defense, representing one or more faith groups in the United States, will be required, in part to ensure that the separation of church and state is honored. Neither the government as a whole nor the military in particular will be put into the position of determining whether an individual is a bona fide priest, rabbi, etc.
Although ordination is required for chaplain service, some "equivalent" status is accepted for individuals from religious groups which do not have ordination, such as the Church of Christ. Additionally, in cases where an endorsing agency is not yet established for an individual's religion, it is possible for him or her to be endorsed by the endorsing agency of another group, a process, followed for the first Muslim chaplains in the military. In any event, this endorsement is recognized as necessary, but not sufficient for acceptance as a chaplain: in other words, the military will not accept an individual for service as a chaplain, nor allow him or her to continue to serve, without such an endorsement remaining in force; the Geneva Conventions are silent on. However, the Conventions do state that chaplains are non-combatants: they do not have the right to participate directly in hostilities, it is assumed that during World War II, chaplains were unarmed. Crosby describes an incident where a US chaplain became a trained tank gunner and was removed from the military for this "entirely illegal, not to mention imprudent" action.
At least some British chaplains serving in the Far East, were armed: George MacDonald Fraser recalls "the tall figure of the battalion chaplain, swinging along good style with his.38 on his hip" behind the lead platoon during a battalion attack. Fraser asks, "if the padre shot, what would the harvest be... apart from three ringing cheers from the whole battalion?" The Reverend Leslie Hardman, the British Second Army's senior Jewish chaplain, who became well known for his work amongst the liberated prisoners after the capture of Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, was a
An apostolic nuncio is an ecclesiastical diplomat, serving as an envoy or a permanent diplomatic representative of the Holy See to a state or to an international organization. A nuncio is appointed by and represents the Holy See, is the head of the diplomatic mission, called an Apostolic Nunciature, the equivalent of an embassy; the Holy See is distinct from the Vatican City or the Catholic Church. A nuncio is an archbishop. An apostolic nuncio is equivalent in rank to that of ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary, although in Catholic countries the nuncio ranks above ambassadors in diplomatic protocol. A nuncio has the same diplomatic privileges. Under the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, to which the Holy See is a party, a nuncio is an ambassador like those from any other country; the Vienna Convention allows the host state to grant seniority of precedence to the nuncio over others of ambassadorial rank accredited to the same country, may grant the deanship of that country's diplomatic corps to the nuncio regardless of seniority.
The representative of the Holy See in some situations is called a Delegate or, in the case of the United Nations, Permanent Observer. In the Holy See hierarchy, these rank to a nuncio, but they do not have formal diplomatic status, though in some countries they have some diplomatic privileges. In addition, the nuncio serves as the liaison between the Holy See and the Church in that particular nation, supervising the diocesan episcopate and has an important role in the selection of bishops; the name nuncio is derived from the ancient Latin word, meaning "envoy" or "messenger". Since such envoys are accredited to the Holy See as such and not to the State of Vatican City, the term "nuncio" emphasizes the unique nature of the diplomatic mission; the 1983 Code of Canon Law claims the "innate right" to send and receive delegates independent from interference of non-ecclesiastical civil power. Canon law only recognizes international law limitations on this right; the title Internuncio denoted a papal diplomatic representative of the second class, corresponding to Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary as a title for diplomatic representatives of states.
Before 1829, Internuncio was the title applied instead to the ad interim head of a mission when one Nuncio had left office and his replacement had not yet assumed it. A legate a latere is a representative for a special purpose; the most important type of apocrisiary was the equivalent of a nuncio, sent by the Pope to the Byzantine Empire. Pro-nuncio was a term used from 1965 to 1991 for a papal diplomatic representative of full ambassadorial rank accredited to a country that did not accord him precedence over other ambassadors and de jure deanship of the Diplomatic Corps. In those countries, the papal representative's precedence within the corps is on a par with that of the other members of ambassadorial rank, so that he becomes dean only on becoming the senior member of the corps. In countries with whom the Holy See does not have diplomatic ties, an Apostolic Delegate may be sent to act as a liaison with the Roman Catholic Church in that country, though not accredited to its government. Apostolic delegates have the same ecclesiastical rank as nuncios, but have no formal diplomatic status, though in some countries they have some diplomatic privileges.
For example, an apostolic delegate served as the Holy See's de facto diplomatic representative to the United States and the United Kingdom, until both major Anglo-Saxon states with a predominantly Protestant tradition established full-fledged relations with the Holy See in the late twentieth century, allowing for the appointment of a Papal Nuncio. Archbishop Pio Laghi, for example, was first apostolic delegate pro-nuncio, to the United States during the Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush presidencies. Apostolic delegates are sent to regions such as the West Indies and the islands of the Pacific; these delegates are appointed nuncio to at least some of the many states covered by their delegation, but the area entrusted to them contains one or more territories that either are not independent states or are states that do not have diplomatic relations with the Holy See. Article 16 of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations provides: Heads of mission shall take precedence in their respective classes in the order of the date and time of taking up their functions in accordance with Article 13.
Alterations in the credentials of a head of mission not involving any change of class shall not affect his precedence. This article is without prejudice to any practice accepted by the receiving State regarding the precedence of the representative of the Holy See. In accordance with this article, many states give precedence to the Nuncio over other diplomatic representatives, according him the position of Dean of the Diplomatic Corps reserved in other countries f
Cardinal Vicar is a title given to the vicar general of the Diocese of Rome for the portion of the diocese within Italy. The official title, as given in the Annuario Pontificio, is "Vicar General of His Holiness"; the Bishop of Rome is responsible for the spiritual administration of this diocese, but because the Bishop of Rome is the Pope, with many other responsibilities, he appoints a Cardinal Vicar with ordinary power to assist in this task. Canon law requires all Catholic dioceses to have one or more vicars general, but the Cardinal Vicar functions more like a de facto diocesan bishop than do other vicars general; the holder has been a cardinal. A similar position exists to administer the spiritual needs of the Vatican City, known as the Vicar General for Vatican City, or more Vicar General of His Holiness for Vatican City, it seems certain that in the twelfth century vicars were named only when the pope absented himself for a long time from Rome or its neighbourhood. When he returned, the vicar's duties ceased.
This may have lasted to the pontificate of Pope Innocent IV. Thus the nomination of a vicar on 28 April 1299, is dated from the Lateran; the office owes its full development to the removal of the Roman Curia to Southern France and its final settlement at Avignon. Since the list of vicars is continuous; the oldest commissions do not specify any period of duration. It is only in the sixteenth century; the nomination was by Bull. The oldest Bull of nomination known bears the date of 13 February 1264. An immemorial custom of the Curia demands that all its officials shall be duly sworn in, this was the case with the vicars. In all probability during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries such oaths were taken at the hands of the pope himself; the duty fell to the Apostolic Camera. The oath, whose text first appears in a document of 21 May 1427 resembles, in its first part, the usual episcopal oath; the oath is conceived in general terms and lays but slight stress on the special duties of the vicar. The official named on 18 October 1412, as representative of the vicar was sworn in, before entering on his office was admonished to take, in presence of a specified cardinal, the usual oath of fidelity to the pope and of a faithful exercise of the office.
According to the oldest known decree of nomination, 13 February 1264, both Romans and foreigners were subject to the jurisdiction of the vicar. In this document, neither the special rights of the vicar nor the local extent of his authority are made known, but it is understood that the territory in question is the city of Rome. On 27 June 1288, the vicar received the rights of "visitation and reformation in spiritual matters..... of dedicating churches and reconciling cemeteries, consecrating altars, blessing and ordaining suitable persons from the city". On 21 July 1296, Pope Boniface VIII added the authority to hear confessions and impose salutary penances. On 6 July 1202, the following variant is met with: "to reform the churches and people of Rome itself", the additional right to do other things pertaining to the office of vicar, his jurisdiction over all monasteries is first vouched for 16 June 1207. The inclusion among these of monasteries and non-exempt and their inmates, without the walls of Rome, was the first step in the local extension of the vicar's jurisdiction.
He was empowered to confer vacant benefices in the city. For a considerable length of time the above-mentioned rights exhibit the fulness of the vicar's authority. Special commissions, multiply in this period, bearing with them in each case a special extension or new application of authority. Under Pope Clement VI the territory of the vicar-general's jurisdiction was notably increased by the inclusion of the suburbs and the rural district about Rome; until the time of Pope Benedict XIV this was the extent of the vicar's jurisdiction. By the "district of the city of Rome" was understood a distance of forty Italian miles from the city walls. Since, the territory of the suburbicarian sees lay within these limits, the vicar came to exercise a jurisdiction concurrent with that of the local bishop and cumulatively; this was a source of frequent conflicts, until 21 December 1744, when the local jurisdiction of the suburbicarian bishops was abolished by Benedict XIV, insofar as their territory fell within the above-mentioned limits.
In the course of time the vicar acquired not only the position and authority of a vicar-general, who has ordinary but delegated power, but the right of subdelegation, whereby he named a vicegerent, his representative not alone in pontifical ceremonies, but in jurisdiction. For the rest, being delegatus a principe he can canonically subdelegate. By a Constitution of Clement VIII, 8 June 1592, the vicar's right to hold a visitation ordinary and extraordinary of churches, monasteries and the people was withdrawn in favour of the Congregatio Visitationis Apostolicæ, newly founded, for the current affairs of the ordinary visitation. Henceforth this duty pertains to the vicarius urbis only in
In Christianity, an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, such as the Lutheran Church of Sweden and the Church of England, the title is borne by the leader of the denomination. Like popes, metropolitans, cardinal bishops, diocesan bishops, suffragan bishops, archbishops are in the highest of the three traditional orders of bishops and deacons. An archbishop may be granted the title or ordained as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or another episcopal see to which the title of archbishop is attached. Episcopal sees are arranged in groups in which one see's bishop has certain powers and duties of oversight over the others, he is known as the metropolitan archbishop of. In the Catholic Church, canon 436 of the Code of Canon Law indicates what these powers and duties are for a Latin Church metropolitan archbishop, while those of the head of an autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches are indicated in canon 157 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches; as well as the much more numerous metropolitan sees, there are 77 Roman Catholic sees that have archiepiscopal rank.
In some cases, such a see is the only one in a country, such as Luxembourg or Monaco, too small to be divided into several dioceses so as to form an ecclesiastical province. In others, the title of archdiocese is for historical reasons attributed to a see, once of greater importance; some of these archdioceses are suffragans of a metropolitan archdiocese. Others are subject to the Holy See and not to any metropolitan archdiocese; these are "aggregated" to an ecclesiastical province. An example is the Archdiocese of Hobart in Australia, associated with the Metropolitan ecclesiastical province of Melbourne, but not part of it; the ordinary of such an archdiocese is an archbishop. Until 1970, a coadjutor archbishop, one who has special faculties and the right to succeed to the leadership of a see on the death or resignation of the incumbent, was assigned to a titular see, which he held until the moment of succession. Since the title of Coadjutor Archbishop of the see is considered sufficient and more appropriate.
The rank of archbishop is conferred on some bishops. They hold the rank not because of the see that they head but because it has been granted to them personally; such a grant can be given when someone who holds the rank of archbishop is transferred to a see that, though its present-day importance may be greater than the person's former see, is not archiepiscopal. The bishop transferred is known as the Archbishop-Bishop of his new see. An example is Gianfranco Gardin, appointed Archbishop-Bishop of Treviso on 21 December 2009; the title borne by the successor of such an archbishop-bishop is that of Bishop of the see, unless he is granted the personal title of Archbishop. The distinction between metropolitan sees and non-metropolitan archiepiscopal sees exists for titular sees as well as for residential ones; the Annuario Pontificio marks titular sees of the former class with the abbreviation Metr. and the others with Arciv. Many of the titular sees to which nuncios and heads of departments of the Roman Curia who are not cardinals are assigned are not of archiepiscopal rank.
In that case the person, appointed to such a position is given the personal title of archbishop. They are referred to as Archbishop of the see, not as its Archbishop-Bishop. If an archbishop resigns his see without being transferred to another, as in the case of retirement or assignment to head a department of the Roman Curia, the word emeritus is added to his former title, he is called Archbishop Emeritus of his former see; until 1970, such archbishops were transferred to a titular see. There can be several Archbishops Emeriti of the same see: The 2008 Annuario Pontificio listed three living Archbishops Emeriti of Taipei. There is no Archbishop Emeritus of a titular see: An archbishop who holds a titular see keeps it until death or until transferred to another see. In the Anglican Communion, retired archbishops formally revert to being addressed as "bishop" and styled "The Right Reverend", although they may be appointed "archbishop emeritus" by their province on retirement, in which case they retain the title "archbishop" and the style "The Most Reverend", as a right.
Archbishop Desmond Tutu is a prominent example, as Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town. Former archbishops who have not received the status of archbishop emeritus may still be informally addressed as "archbishop" as a courtesy, unless they are subsequently appointed to a bishopric, in which case, the courtesy ceases. While there is no difference between the official dress of archbishops, as such, that of other bishops, Roman Catholic metropolitan archbishops are distinguished by the use in liturgical ceremonies of the pallium, but only within the province over which they have oversight. Roman Catholic bishops and archbishops are styled "The Most Reverend" and addressed as "Your Excellency" in most cases. In English-speaking countries, a Catholic archbishop is addressed as "Your Grace", while a Catholic bishop is addressed as "Your Lordship". Before December 12, 1930, the title "Most Reverend" was only for archbishops, while bishops were styled as "Right Reverend"; this practice is still followed by Catholic bishops in the United Kingdom to mirror that of
Orthodoxy is adherence to correct or accepted creeds in religion. In the Christian sense the term means "conforming to the Christian faith as represented in the creeds of the early Church." The first seven ecumenical councils were held between the years of 325 and 787 with the aim of formalizing accepted doctrines. In some English-speaking countries, Jews who adhere to all the traditions and commandments as legislated in the Talmud are called Orthodox Jews, although the term "orthodox" first described Christian beliefs; the historical Buddha was known to denounce mere attachment to scriptures or dogmatic principles, as it was mentioned in the Kalama Sutta. Moreover, the Theravada school of Buddhism follows strict adherence to the Pāli Canon and the commentaries such as the Visuddhimagga. Hence, the Theravada school came to be considered the most orthodox of all Buddhist schools, as it is known to be conservative within the discipline and practice of the Vinaya. In classical Christian usage, the term orthodox refers to the set of doctrines which were believed by the early Christians.
A series of ecumenical councils were held over a period of several centuries to try to formalize these doctrines. The most significant of these early decisions was that between the Homoousian doctrine of Athanasius and Eustathius and the Heteroousian doctrine of Arius and Eusebius; the Homoousian doctrine, which defined Jesus as both God and man with the canons of the 431 Council of Ephesus, won out in the Church and was referred to as orthodoxy in most Christian contexts, since this was the viewpoint of previous Christian Church Fathers and was reaffirmed at these councils.. Following the 1054 Great Schism, both the Western Church and Eastern Church continued to consider themselves uniquely orthodox and catholic. Augustine wrote in On True Religion: “Religion is to be sought... only among those who are called Catholic or orthodox Christians, that is, guardians of truth and followers of right.” Over time, the Western Church identified with the "Catholic" label, people of Western Europe associated the "Orthodox" label with the Eastern Church.
This was in note of the fact that both Catholic and Orthodox were in use as ecclesiastical adjectives as early as the 2nd and 4th centuries respectively. Much earlier, Oriental Orthodoxy had split from Chalcedonian Christianity after the Council of Chalcedon, because of several christological differences. Since Oriental Orthodox Churches are maintaining the orthodox designation as a symbol of their theological traditions. Orthodox Hinduism refers to the religious teachings and practices of Sanātanī, one of the traditionalist branches of Hinduism. Sunni Islam is sometimes referred to as "orthodox Islam"; as of 2009, Sunni Muslims constituted 87–90% of the world's Muslim population. However, other scholars of Islam, such as John Burton believe that there is no such thing as "orthodox Islam". Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.
Theologically, it is chiefly defined by regarding the Torah, both Written and Oral, as revealed by God on biblical Mount Sinai and faithfully transmitted since. The movement advocates a strict observance of Jewish Law, or Halakha, to be interpreted only according to received methods due to its divine character. Orthodoxy considers Halakha as eternal and beyond historical influence, being applied differently to changing circumstances but unchangeable in itself. Orthodox Judaism is not a centralized denomination. Relations between its different subgroups are sometimes strained and the exact limits of Orthodoxy are subject to intense debate, it may be divided between Ultra-Orthodox or "Haredi", more conservative and reclusive, Modern Orthodox Judaism, open to outer society. Each of those is itself formed of independent streams, they are uniformly exclusionist, regarding Orthodoxy as the only authentic form of Judaism and rejecting all competing non-Orthodox interpretations as illegitimate. While adhering to traditional beliefs, the movement is a modern phenomenon.
It arose as a result of the breakdown of the autonomous Jewish community since the 18th Century and was much shaped by a conscious struggle against rival alternatives. Kemetic Orthodoxy is a Kemetic denomination, a reform reconstruction of Egyptian polytheism for modern followers, it claims to derive a spiritual lineage from the Ancient Egyptian religion. There are organizations of Slavic Native Faith which characterize the religion as Orthodoxy, by other terms. Orthodoxy is opposed to heresy. People who deviate from orthodoxy by professing a doctrine considered to be false are called heretics, while those who without professing heretical beliefs, break from the perceived main body of believers are called schismatics; the term employed sometimes depends on the aspect most in view: if one is addressing corporate unity, the emphasis may be on schism. A deviation lighter than heresy is called error, in the sense of not being grave enough to cause total estrangement, while yet affecting communion.
Sometimes error is used to cover both full heresies an
In the past, the term lay brother and lay sister was used within some Christian religious institutes to distinguish members who were not ordained from those members who were clerics. This term is now considered controversial by some because of the history of inequality between Brothers and clerics; the term "lay" has been used in the past to designate someone as "uneducated" in contrast to "illiterate". Instead, the term "religious Brother" or "Brother" is appropriate when referring to a professed male religious, neither a priest, nor seminarian; the vocational title "Brother" is capitalized to distinguish it from the word "brother" in the sense of "a male sibling". In modern religious communities, Brothers are no longer restricted by institutional inequalities of the past and enjoy the same status and opportunities as priestly and seminarian confreres, except where sacramental ministry is concerned. Brothers today pursue academic, professional, or technical training, appropriate to their interests and skills and can be found in a variety of non-sacramental ministries.
Many Brothers study theology and philosophy to some degree, although there is a great deal of variance regarding the intensity and duration of these academic curriculums. Although religious life began with communities of desert hermits and monks in which none of the members were ordained, over time the Church began to blend monastic life with the ordained ministry. Within this context, a rigid hierarchy emerged in which the lay Brothers were restricted to ancillary roles, manual labor, other secular affairs of a monastery or friary. In contrast, the choir monks of the same monastery attended to the Liturgy of the Hours, or Opus Dei, sacramental ministry, celebration of the liturgy, formal studies; the term is used of those who are Brothers in those religious congregations which have been established since the Reformation. While taking vows particular to their religious community they have not been ordained by a bishop as deacon or priest. In this regard they are considered "lay religious," where "lay" means "non-clerical".
No such distinction existed in early Western monasticism. The majority of St. Benedict's monks were not clerics, all performed manual labour, the word conversi being used only to designate those who had received the habit late in life, to distinguish them from the oblati and nutriti. But, by the beginning of the 11th century, the time devoted to study had increased, thus a larger proportion of the monks were in Holy Orders though great numbers of illiterate persons had embraced the religious life. At the same time, it was found necessary to regulate the position of the famuli, the hired servants of the monastery, to include some of these in the monastic family. So in Italy the lay Brothers were instituted. At Cluny Abbey the manual work was relegated to paid servants, but the Carthusians, the Cistercians, the Order of Grandmont, most subsequent religious orders possessed lay Brothers, to whom they committed their secular cares. At Grandmont, the complete control of the order's property by the lay brothers led to serious disturbances, to the ruin of the order.
In England, the "Black Monks" were reported by some writers to have made but slight use of lay brothers, finding the service of paid attendants more convenient. Thus one monastic historian, Dom Taunton asserted that, "in those days in English Benedictine monasteries there were no lay brothers". On the contrary, they are mentioned in the customaries of the Abbey of St. Augustine at Canterbury and the Abbey of St. Peter at Westminster. Many lay brothers were illiterate peasants who performed the domestic or agricultural work of the community; some were skilled in artistic handicrafts, others filled administrative positions. Speaking, lay brothers roles were limited within most communities; this is not to suggest. Lay brothers were sometimes distinguished from their brethren by some difference in their habit: for instance, the Cistercian lay brother wore a brown tunic, instead of white, with the black scapular. In some orders they were required to recite daily the Little Office of Our Lady, but their labor in the fields prevented them from participating in the Liturgy of the Hours.
Lay brothers would instead pray Paters and Glorias. Lay sisters were found in most of the orders of women, their origin, like that of the lay brothers, is to be found in the necessity of providing the choir nuns with more time for the Office and study, they served as the "extern sister" of the community: the sister with the task of greeting visitors and handling relations between the cloistered nuns and th
The Roman Curia comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the central body through which the affairs of the Catholic Church are conducted. It acts in the Pope’s name and with his authority for the good and for the service of the particular Churches and provides the central organization for the Church to advance its objectives; the structure and organization of responsibilities within the Curia are at present regulated by the apostolic constitution Pastor bonus, issued by Pope John Paul II on 28 June 1988, which Pope Francis has decided to revise. Other bodies that play an administrative or consulting role in Church affairs are sometimes mistakenly identified with the Curia, such as the Synod of Bishops and regional conferences of bishops. Cardinal Gerhard Müller, former prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, wrote in 2015 that "the Synod of Bishops is not a part of the Roman Curia in the strict sense: it is the expression of the collegiality of bishops in communion with the Pope and under his direction.
The Roman Curia instead aids the Pope in the exercise of his primacy over all the Churches." Curia in medieval and Latin usage means "court" in the sense of "royal court" rather than "court of law". The Roman Curia is sometimes anglicized as the Court of Rome, as in the 1534 Act of Parliament that forbade appeals to it from England, it assists the Pope in carrying out his functions. The Roman Curia can be loosely compared to cabinets in governments of countries with a Western form of governance, but only the Second Section of the Secretariat of State, known as the Section for Relations with States, the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State and the Congregation for Catholic Education, can be directly compared with specific ministries of a civil government, it is normal for every Latin Catholic diocese to have its own curia for its administration. For the Diocese of Rome, these functions are not handled by the Roman Curia, but by the Vicariate General of His Holiness for the City of Rome, as provided by the apostolic constitution Ecclesia in Urbe.
The Vicar General of Rome, traditionally a cardinal, his deputy the vicegerent, who holds the personal title of archbishop, supervise the governance of the diocese by reference to the Pope himself, but with no more dependence on the Roman Curia, as such, than other Catholic dioceses throughout the world. A distinct office, the Vicar General for Vatican City, administers the portion of the Diocese of Rome in Vatican City; until there still existed hereditary officers of the Roman Curia, holding titles denominating functions that had ceased to be a reality when the Papal States were lost to the papacy. A reorganization, ordered by Pope Pius X, was incorporated into the 1917 Code of Canon Law. Further steps toward reorganization were begun by Pope Paul VI in the 1960s. Among the goals of this curial reform were the modernization of procedures and the internationalization of the curial staff; these reforms are reflected in the 1983 Code of Canon Law. The offices of the Vatican City State are not part of the Roman Curia, composed only of offices of the Holy See.
The following organs or charges, according to the official website of the Holy See, comprise the Curia. All members of the Curia except the Cardinal Camerlengo and the Major Penitentiary resign their office after a papal death or resignation. See sede vacante. Sr. Luzia Premoli, superior general of the Combonian Missionary Sisters, was appointed a member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples in 2014, becoming the first woman to be appointed a member of a Vatican congregation; the principal departments of the Roman Curia are called dicasteries. The most recent comprehensive constitution of the church, Pastor bonus, provides this definition: "By the word "dicasteries" are understood the Secretariat of State, Tribunals and Offices"; those remain the five principal categories of departments, with the noteworthy change in that there is now more than a single Secretariat. Two new departments announced to begin functioning on 1 August 2016 and 1 January 2017 have been identified only as dicasteries–Dicastery for the Laity and Life and Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development.
Both are headed by a prefect. The Secretariat of State is the oldest dicastery in the Roman Curia, the government of the Roman Catholic Church, it is headed by the Secretary of State, since 15 October 2013 by Cardinal Pietro Parolin, responsible for all the political and diplomatic functions of the Holy See. The Secretariat is divided into two sections, the Section for General Affairs and the Section for Relations with States, known as the First Section and Second Section, respectively; the Secretariat of State was created in the 15th century and is now the department of the curia most involved in coordinating the Holy See's activities. Matters not within the competence of another dicastery are dealt with by the Secretariat of State; the Secretariat for the Economy was established by Pope Francis in 2014, with the Australian Cardinal George Pell the Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Sydney, as its Cardinal Prefect. Pell's appointment was terminated on 12 December 2018. Two departments of the Roman Curia established by Pope Francis in 2016 have been identified as "dicasteries" rather than as one of the traditional department types.
A third dicastery was named on 23 June 2018. Pope Francis announced on 15 August 2016 the creation of the Dicastery for the Laity and Life, effective 1 September 2016, it took over the responsibilities of the Pontifical Council for the Laity and the Pontifical Council for the Family. As its first Prefect, Francis named Bishop Kevin Farrell