Titular see

A titular see in various churches is an episcopal see of a former diocese that no longer functions, sometimes called a "dead diocese". The ordinary or hierarch of such a see may be styled a "titular metropolitan", "titular archbishop" or "titular bishop", which goes by the status conferred on the titular see; the term is used to signify a diocese that no longer functionally exists because the diocese once flourished but the territory was conquered by Muslims or no longer functions because of a schism. The Greek–Turkish population exchange of 1923 contributed to titular bishoprics; the see of Maximianoupolis along with the town that shared its name was destroyed by the Bulgarians under Emperor Kaloyan in 1207. Parthenia, in north Africa, was swallowed by desert sand. During the Muslim conquests of the Middle East and North Africa, some bishops fled to Christian-ruled areas. If they did not return and the Christian population of their dioceses dispersed or adopted Islam, they are seen as bishops of those dioceses, who could give rise after long interruption, to a'restored' line of apostolic succession on each see.

The Ordinary or hierarch of a Catholic titular see may be styled a "Titular Metropolitan", "Titular Archbishop" or "Titular bishop", which goes by the status conferred on the titular see, but exceptions ad hoc are being made, either above or below the titular see's rank, while titular sees have been promoted and/or demoted. Exceptionally, a pre-diocesan jurisdiction can be maintained in titular form, as with two Egyptian titular apostolic vicariates, Heliopolis of Egypt and Port-Said. Both have—without a single proper incumbent—been united on November 30, 1987, with Egypt's present only Latin Ordinary, whose full title thus became Apostolic Vicariate of Alexandria of Egypt–Heliopolis of Egypt–Port-Said. After a name change, an abandoned name may be'restored' as a titular see though a residential successor see exist. Furthermore, the Catholic church may create more than one titular see named after a single city, by creating one or more lines of apostolic succession assigned to the Latin and/or one or more Eastern Catholic rites, which are not of the same rank.

The term in partibus infidelium shortened to in partibus or i.p.i. Meaning "in the lands of the unbelievers", was added to the name of the see conferred on titular Latin Church bishops; when bishops fled from invading Muslims, they were welcomed by other churches, while preserving their titles and their rights to their own dioceses. They were entrusted with the administration of vacant sees of other dioceses. In days it was deemed fitting to preserve the memory of ancient Christian churches that had fallen into the hands of Muslims; these bishops do not reside in the sees whose titles they bear, cannot exercise any power over them, are not entrusted with their care. They are therefore called titular bishops, as opposed to diocesan bishops, the sees themselves are called titular sees, as opposed to residential sees. According to Auguste Boudinhon, in Catholic Encyclopedia, Prospero Fagnani said that the regular appointment of titular bishops dates back to the time of the Fifth Lateran Council, in 1514.

Pope Pius V extended the privilege to the sees. Since the practice has become more widespread. Although the normal constitution of the hierarchy has always been built on the idea of local jurisdiction of the bishops, there are indications, in the early history of the Church, of many who did not enjoy what is called ordinary jurisdiction. Besides those who were endowed with the episcopal character, in order to assist the local bishops there were those, driven from their dioceses by infidels or by heretics, or who for other reasons could not reside in the places to which they had been appointed; the spread of Islam through Muslim conquests in Asia and Africa was responsible for hundreds of abandoned sees. During the Crusades, the Latins, who established new Christian communities, composed of Europeans and belonging to the Latin Rite, procured the erection of new dioceses for their benefit, these in turn, during the growth of the Ottoman Empire, increased the number of abandoned sees; the final development of the list of sees, called in partibus infidelium, took shape, at first, from the attempt of the Holy See to keep up the succession of bishops in these dioceses, in the hope of reconquering their territory from the infidel.

When all hope of such redemption was given up, these titles were still conferred on those who were chosen to assist the diocesan bishops in their labors. After the 14th century the large increase of population in the great centers rendered such assistance necessary. In the 16th century the Holy See inaugurated the policy of consecrating nuncios and other prelates, delegated to represent the Pope in his relations with the different nations, so that they would be equals with the diocesan bishops of the countries in which they were ambassadors; the foundation of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, in 1622, gave a great impetus to the missionary work of the Church in China and Japan, elsewhere a great increase in the number of bishops became

1990 in Bangladesh

1990 was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1990th year of the Common Era and Anno Domini designations, the 990th year of the 2nd millennium, the 90th year of the 20th century, the 1st year of the 1990s decade. The year 1990 was the 19th year after the independence of Bangladesh, it was the last year under administration of caretaker government of Hussain Muhammad Ershad. President: Hussain Muhammad Ershad, Shahabuddin Ahmed Prime Minister: Kazi Zafar Ahmed Chief Justice: Badrul Haider Chowdhury, Shahabuddin Ahmed Note: For the year 1990 average official exchange rate for BDT was 34.57 per US$. 10 October - Naziruddin Jehad, an activist of the pro-democracy movement of Bangladesh, was killed due to the police excesses during the first nationwide strike of the full-fledged movement against Hussain Muhammad Ershad, in front of Dainik Bangla intersection of capital Dhaka. 30 October - A series of attacks against the Bengali Hindus in Bangladesh ensued following a rumour that the Babri mosque in Ayodhya in India had been demolished.

19 November - BNP led 7-party alliance, Awami League led 8-party alliance and Leftist 5-party alliance drafted a "Joint Declaration of Three Alliance". This declaration provided a road-map outlining the process to handover the Presidency of Ershad to a civil government; the declaration included the idea of a caretaker government that will take over after the fall of Ershad and will hold a free and fair election within 90 days of its arrival to the power. 27 November - Censorship imposed on the newspapers enabling strict monitoring, newspaper owners and journalists decided not to publish newspapers from the next day. Ershad declares state of emergency, curfew imposed. 4 December - The ongoing protests against the regime of H. M. Ershad turned into a mass uprising, when hundreds of thousands of people rallied in the streets of Dhaka bringing the capital of Bangladesh to a stand still. 6 December - President Hussain Muhammad Ershad is forced to resign. Bangladesh passes the Narcotics Control Act of 1990.

Asian Games: Bangladesh participated in the 1990 Asian Games held in Beijing, China from 22 September to 7 October. Bangladesh national kabaddi team won silver medal in kabaddi. Commonwealth Games: Bangladesh participated in the 1990 Commonwealth Games held in Auckland, New Zealand from 24 January to 13 February. Shooter Ateequr Rahman and Abdus Sattar won gold in men's 10m Air Pistol event and bronze in men's 50m Free Pistol event. Domestic football: Abahani KC won Dhaka League title while Mohammedan SC became runner-up. Cricket: Bangladesh played 2 ODIs as part of Austral-Asia Cup at Sharjah, UAE, 2 more as part of 1990–91 Asia Cup in India. Bangladesh lost all 4 of the matches, but Athar Ali Khan of Bangladesh was judged player of the match for his unbeaten 78 runs in their Asia cup match against Sri Lanka. 1 January – Rubel Hossain, cricketer 10 April – Jamal Bhuyan, footballer 19 June – Sahara, actor 17 August – Nabib Newaj Jibon, footballer 1 October – Salma Khatun, cricketer 15 January – Khoda Box and composer 23 July – Md Korban Ali, politician 31 August – Mumtaz Ali Khan, musician 31 December – Comrade Moni Singh, politician 1990s in Bangladesh List of Bangladeshi films of 1990 Timeline of Bangladeshi history

Cabinet National Security Committee (New Zealand)

The Cabinet National Security Committee is a cabinet-level committee of the New Zealand Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, created in October 2014 by the Fifth National Government. This body is modelled after the British National Security Council and the Australian National Security Committee of Cabinet; the NSC is headed by the Minister of National Intelligence. The NSC is given oversight over New Zealand's intelligence community and security services and tasked with considering policies and proposals relating to those departments. Another function of the Cabinet National Security Committee is to coordinate and direct national responses to major crises or national security problems; the members of the Committee are the Prime Minister and Ministers responsible for the Civil Defence, the Defence, Foreign Affairs, Government Communications Security Bureau, New Zealand Security Intelligence Service, Police portfolios