National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Colleen Margaretta McCullough was an Australian author known for her novels, her most well-known being The Thorn Birds and The Ladies of Missalonghi, the latter of, involved in a plagiarism controversy. McCullough was born in 1937 in Wellington, in the Central West region of New South Wales, to James and Laurie McCullough, her father was of Irish descent and her mother was a New Zealander of part-Māori descent. During her childhood, the family moved around a great deal and she was "a voracious reader", her family settled in Sydney where she attended Holy Cross College, having a strong interest in both science and the humanities. She had a younger brother, who drowned off the coast of Crete when he was 25 while trying to rescue tourists in difficulty, she based a character in The Thorn Birds on him, wrote about him in Life Without the Boring Bits. Before her tertiary education, McCullough earned a living as a teacher and journalist. In her first year of medical studies at the University of Sydney she suffered dermatitis from surgical soap and was told to abandon her dreams of becoming a medical doctor.
Instead, she worked at Royal North Shore Hospital in Sydney. In 1963, McCullough moved for four years to the United Kingdom, she spent 10 years researching and teaching in the Department of Neurology at the Yale Medical School in New Haven, United States. While at Yale she wrote her first two books. One of these, The Thorn Birds, became an international best seller and one of the best selling books in history, with sales of over 30 million copies worldwide, that in 1983 inspired one of the most-watched television miniseries of all time; the success of these books enabled her to give up her medical-scientific career and to try to "live on own terms." In the late 1970s, after stints in London and Connecticut, she settled on the isolation of Norfolk Island, off the coast of mainland Australia, where she met her husband, Ric Robinson. They married in April 1984. Under his birth name Cedric Newton Ion-Robinson, he was a member of the Norfolk Legislative Assembly, he changed his name formally to Ric Newton Ion Robinson in 2002.
McCullough's 2008 novel, The Independence of Miss Mary Bennet engendered controversy with her reworking of characters from Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice. Susannah Fullerton, the president of the Jane Austen Society of Australia, said she "shuddered" while reading the novel, as she felt that Elizabeth Bennet was rewritten as weak, Mr. Darcy as savage. Fullerton said: " is one of the strongest, liveliest heroines in literature … Darcy's generosity of spirit and nobility of character make her fall in love with him – why should those essential traits in both of them change in 20 years?" McCullough died on 29 January 2015, at the age of 77, in the Norfolk Island Hospital from apparent renal failure after suffering from a series of small strokes. She had suffered from failing eyesight due to hemorrhagic macular degeneration, trigeminal neuralgia and uterine cancer, was confined to a wheelchair, she was buried in a traditional Norfolk Island funeral ceremony at the Emily Bay cemetery on the island.
In 1984, a portrait of McCullough, painted by Wesley Walters, was a finalist in the Archibald Prize. The prize is awarded for the "best portrait painting preferentially of some man or woman distinguished in Art, Science or Politics"; the depth of historical research for the novels on ancient Rome led to her being awarded a Doctor of Letters degree by Macquarie University in 1993. She was appointed an Officer of the Order of Australia on 12 June 2006, "or service to the arts as an author and to the community through roles supporting national and international educational programs, medico-scientific disciplines and charitable organisations and causes". Tim The Thorn Birds An Indecent Obsession A Creed for the Third Millennium The Ladies of Missalonghi The Song of Troy Morgan's Run The Touch Angel Puss The Independence of Miss Mary Bennet Bittersweet The First Man in Rome The Grass Crown Fortune's Favorites Caesar's Women Caesar The October Horse Antony and Cleopatra McCullough published five murder mysteries in the Carmine Delmonico series.
On, Off Too Many Murders Naked Cruelty The Prodigal Son Sins of the Flesh The Courage and the Will: The Life of Roden Cutler VC Life Without the Boring Bits Tim – made into a movie in 1979 starring Mel Gibson and Piper Laurie The Thorn Birds – made into a TV miniseries in 1983 starring Richard Chamberlain and Barbara Stanwyck An Indecent Obsession – made into a movie in 1985 starring Gary Sweet The Thorn Birds: The Missing Years – made into a TV miniseries in 1996 starring Richard Chamberlain. It covers a 14-year period from the novel, omitted from the first production. Mary Jean DeMarr: Colleen McCullough: A Critical Companion. Greenwood Publishing Group 1996.
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Cornelianus Scipio Nasica, in modern scholarship referred to as Metellus Scipio, was a Roman consul and military commander in the Late Republic. During the civil war between Julius Caesar and the senatorial faction led by Pompeius Magnus, he remained a staunch optimate, he led troops against Caesar's forces in the battles of Pharsalus and Thapsus, where he was defeated. He committed suicide. Ronald Syme called him "the last Scipio of any consequence in Roman history." Metellus Scipio was born Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica. His grandfather was the Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica Serapio, consul in 111 BCE. Metellus Scipio's father died not long after his praetorship, was survived by two sons and two daughters; the brother left little mark on history. Publius Scipio, as he was referred to in contemporary sources early in his life, was adopted in adulthood through the testament of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, consul in 80 BCE and pontifex maximus, he retained his patrician status: "Scipio's ancestry," notes Syme, "was unmatched for splendour."
As Jerzy Linderski has shown at length, this legal process constitutes adoption only in a loose sense. He was called "Metellus Scipio" but sometimes just "Scipio" after his adoption; the official form of his name as evidenced in a decree of the senate was "Q. Caecilius Q. f. Fab. Metellus Scipio."Scipio married Aemilia Lepida, daughter of Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus Livianus, but was not without rival in seeking to marry Aemilia Lepida. The virginal Cato had wanted to marry Aemilia but lost out: When thought that he was old enough to marry, up to that time he had consorted with no woman, he engaged himself to Lepida, betrothed to Metellus Scipio, but was now free, since Scipio had rejected her and the betrothal had been broken. However, before the marriage Scipio changed his mind again, by dint of every effort got the maid. Cato was exasperated and inflamed by this, attempted to go to law about it; the couple had one son, a Metellus Scipio who seems to have died when he was only 18. Another son may have been born around 70.
The couple's much more famous daughter was born around that time as well. Scipio first married off the celebrated Cornelia Metella to Publius Crassus, the son of Marcus Licinius Crassus. After Publius's premature death at Carrhae, Scipio decided to succeed Caesar as the father-in-law of Pompeius, at least thirty years older than Cornelia; the marriage is one of the acts by which Pompeius severed his alliance to Caesar and declared himself the champion of the optimates. He and Scipio were consuls together in 52. Cicero names "P. Scipio" among the young nobiles on his defence team when Sextus Roscius was prosecuted in 80 BCE, he is placed in Metellus Celer, both future consuls. Metellus Scipio has been listed as tribune of the plebs in 59 BCE, but his patrician status argues against his holding the office, it is possible that Scipio's'adoption' into a plebeian gens may have qualified him for a tribunate on a technicality. He was curule aedile in 57 BCE, when he presented funeral games in honour of his adopted father's death six years earlier.
He was praetor, most in 55 BCE, during the second joint consulship of Pompeius and Marcus Crassus. In 53 BCE, he was interrex with Marcus Valerius Messalla, he became consul with Pompeius in 52 BCE, the year he arranged the marriage of his newly widowed daughter to him. Indisputably aristocratic and conservative, Metellus Scipio had been at least symbolically a counterweight to the power of the so-called triumvirate before the death of Crassus in 53 BCE. "Opportune deaths," notes Syme, "had enhanced his value, none remaining now of the Metellan consuls."He is known to have been a member of the College of Pontiffs by 57 BCE, was nominated upon the death of his adoptive father in 63 BCE and subsequently elected. In January 49 BCE, Metellus Scipio persuaded the senate to issue the ultimatum to Caesar that made war inevitable; that same year, he became proconsul of the province of Syria. In Syria and in the province of Asia, where he took up winter quarters, he used oppressive means to gather ships and money: He put a per capita tax on slaves and children.
Scipio put to death Alexander of Judaea, was acclaimed Imperator for "alleged" victories in the Amanus Mountains — as noted disparagingly by Caesar. In 48 BCE, he brought his forces from Asia to Greece, where he manoeuvred against Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus and Lucius Cassius until the arrival of Pompeius. At the Battle of Pharsalus, he commanded the centre. After the optimates' defeat by Caesar, Metellus fled to Africa. With the support of his former rival-in-romance Cato, he wrested the chief command of Pompeius's forces from the loyal Attius Varus in early 47 BCE. In 46 BCE, he held command at the Battle of Thapsus "without skill or success," and was defeated along with Cato. After the defeat, he tried to escape to the Iberian Peninsula to continue the fight, bu
The Pro Tito Annio Milone ad iudicem oratio is a speech made by Marcus Tullius Cicero on behalf of his friend Titus Annius Milo. Milo was accused of murdering his political enemy Publius Clodius Pulcher on the Via Appia. Cicero wrote the speech after the hearing and so the authenticity of the speech is debated among scholars. Milo was a praetor at the time, attempting to gain the much-wanted post of consul. Clodius was a former tribune standing for the office of praetor; the charge was brought against Milo for the death of Clodius following a violent altercation on the Via Appia, outside Clodius' estate in Bovillae. After the initial brawl, it seems that Clodius was wounded during the fight, started by both men's slaves; the sequence of events described by the prosecution and the commentary of Asconius Pedianus, an ancient commentator who analyzed several of Cicero's speeches and had access to various documents that no longer exist, was this: the absence of a summary of the chain of events in Cicero's speech may be attributed to their incriminating evidence against Milo.
Cicero realised that to be the primary weakness. It can be assumed, from the fact that the jury indeed convicted Milo, that it felt that although Milo may not have been aware of Clodius's initial injury, his ordering of Clodius' butchering warranted punishment; when questioned about the circumstances of Clodius' death, Milo responded with the excuse of self-defense and that it was Clodius who laid a trap for Milo to kill him. Cicero had to fashion his speech to be congruent with Milo's initial excuse, a restraint that affected the overall presentation of his case. To convince the jury of Milo's innocence, Cicero used the fact that following Clodius death, a mob of Clodius' own supporters, led by the scribe Sextus Cloelius, carried his corpse into the Senate house and cremated it using the benches, platforms and scribes' notebooks, as a pyre. In doing so, it burnt down much of the curia. Pompey thus ordered a special inquest to investigate that as well as the murder of Clodius. Cicero refers to this incident throughout the Pro Milone by implying that there was greater general indignation and uproar at the burning of the curia than there was at the murder of Clodius.
The violent nature of the crime as well as its revolutionary repercussions made Pompey set up a handpicked panel of judges. Thus, he avoided the corruption, rife in the political scene of the late Roman Republic. In addition, armed guards were stationed around the law courts to placate the violent mobs of both sides' supporters; the first four days of the trial were dedicated to opposition argument and the testimony of witnesses. On the first day, Gaius Causinius Schola appeared as a witness against Milo and described the deed in such a way as to portray Milo as a coldblooded murderer; that worked up Clodius' supporters, who terrified the advocate on Marcus Marcellus. As he began his questioning of the witnesses, the crowd surrounded him; the action taken by Pompey prevented much furore from the vehemently anti-Milo crowds for the rest of the case. On the second day of the trial, the armed cohorts were introduced by Pompey. On the fifth and final day, Cicero delivered Pro Milone in the hope of reversing the damning evidence, accrued over the previous days.
Throughout the duration of his speech, Cicero does not attempt to convince the judges that Milo did not kill Clodius. However there is a point in the speech where Cicero claims that Milo neither knew about nor saw Clodius's murder. Cicero claims. Cicero goes as far as to suggest that the death of Clodius was in the best interests of the republic, as the tribune was a popularis leader of the restless plebeian mobs, which had plagued the political scene of the late Roman Republic. Cicero's strongest argument was that of the circumstances of the assault: its convenient proximity to Clodius' villa and the fact that Milo was leaving Rome on official business: nominating a priest for election in Lanuvium. Clodius, on the other hand, had been distinctly absent from his usual rantings in the popular assemblies. Milo was encumbered in a coach, with his wife, a heavy riding cloak and a retinue of harmless slaves. Clodius, was on horseback not with a carriage, his wife or his usual retinue but with a band of armed brigands and slaves.
If Cicero could convince the judges that Clodius had laid a trap for Milo, he could postulate that Clodius had been killed in self-defense. Cicero never mentions the possibility that the two met by chance, the conclusion of both Asconius and Appian. Clodius is made out in the Pro Milone to be a malevolent, effeminate character who craves power and organises the ambush on Milo. Cicero gives Clodius a motive for setting a trap: the realisation that Milo would secure the consulship and so stand in the way of Clodius' scheme to attain greater power and influence as a praetor. There was plentiful material for Cicero to build that profile, such as the Bona Dea incident in 62 BC, it is said that he dressed up as a woman to gain access and pursue an illicit affair with Pompeia, the wife of Caesar
Steven Saylor is an American author of historical novels. He is a graduate of the University of Texas at Austin, where he studied history and classics. Saylor's best-known work is his Roma Sub Rosa historical mystery series, set in ancient Rome; the novels' hero is a detective named Gordianus the Finder, active during the time of Sulla, Julius Caesar, Cleopatra. Outside this crime novel series, Saylor has written two epic-length historical novels about the city of Rome and Empire, his work has been published in 21 languages. Saylor has written two novels set in Texas. A Twist at the End, featuring O. Henry, is set in Austin in the 1880s and based on real-life serial murders and trials. Have You Seen Dawn? is a contemporary thriller set in a fictional Texas town, based on Saylor's hometown, Texas. Saylor contributed autobiographical essays to three anthologies of gay writing edited by John Preston, Hometowns, A Member of the Family, Friends and Lovers, prior to his novel-writing career he published gay erotic fiction under the pen name Aaron Travis.
Saylor has lived with Richard Solomon since 1976. The couple split their time between properties in Berkeley and Austin, Texas; the Seven Wonders, a fix-up novel, is a prequel recounting the journey of the young Gordianus to see the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World beginning in 92 BC. Raiders of the Nile is a direct sequel to The Seven Wonders, about the further adventures of young Gordianus in Egypt and a plot to steal the golden sarcophagus of Alexander the Great. Wrath of the Furies is a direct sequel to Raiders of the Nile, where young Gordianus must travel incognito into the lands ruled by Mithridates the Great. Roman Blood, in which Gordianus is hired by the great orator and advocate Cicero in 80 BC. Like several novels in the series, this one is based on a trial oration by Cicero, in this case In Defence of Sextus Roscius of Ameria; the House of the Vestals, a collection of nine short stories which take place between the first novel and the second, during the period 80-72 BC. A Gladiator Dies Only Once, another collection of short stories which take place between the first novel and the second.
Arms of Nemesis, featuring Crassus, is set during the slave revolt of Spartacus in 72 BC. Catilina's Riddle, featuring Cicero and the title character, Catilina, is set during his rebellion in 63 BC; the Venus Throw, featuring the poet Catullus, is set during the trial of Marcus Caelius in 56 BC for the murder of Dio of Alexandria. A Murder on the Appian Way, set just before the civil war between Caesar and Pompey, focused on the murder of the rabble-rouser Publius Clodius Pulcher on the Appian Way outside Rome. Rubicon, in which Caesar crosses the Rubicon and the members of the Senate flee Rome, plunging the Roman world into civil war. Last Seen in Massilia takes place in Massilia during the siege of the city by Caesar's troops. A Mist of Prophecies is set in the city of Rome during the Roman civil war; the Judgment of Caesar takes place in Egypt, when Caesar met queen Cleopatra in 48 BC. The Triumph of Caesar is set in Rome during Caesar's triumphal celebrations in 46 BC; the Throne of Caesar is set in Rome during Caesar's murder in March 44 BC.
Roma: The Novel of Ancient Rome, a 1000-year novel of the rise of ancient Rome from its first settlement to the assassination of Julius Caesar. Empire: The Novel of Imperial Rome spans several generations with the end of the reign of Augustus in 14 AD through the reign of Hadrian in 141 AD. Published under his own name: A Twist at the End, based on the Servant Girl Annihilator killings in the 1880s in Austin, Texas reconstructs the murders and the ensuing trials, with young William Sydney Porter playing a fictional role. Have You Seen Dawn? is a modern-day thriller set in a small town in Texas. Future, Past is a collection of three short stories set in different time periods. My Mother's Ghost is a collection of three autobiographical essays and a short story. A Bookish Bent is a collection of various essay and articles; the complete works published under the Aaron Travis pen name were reissued in Amazon Kindle and Barnes & Noble Nook editions in 2012. "Ill Seen in Tyre", in the cross-genre anthology Rogues, edited by George R. R. Martin and Gardner Dozois Novels Slaves of the Empire Beast of Burden Big Shots The Flesh Fables In the Blood Novellas Beirut Blue Light Crown of Thorns Eden Kip Military Discipline Short, Brainy, & Hot Slave Wild West Collections Exposed Tag Team Studs Kudzu and Other Stories Raw Wrestling Tales No Shades of Gray Anthologies edited QSF x 2 Official website
Robert Harris (novelist)
Robert Dennis Harris is an English novelist. He is a former journalist and BBC television reporter. Although he began his career in non-fiction, his fame rests upon his works of historical fiction. Beginning with the best-seller Fatherland, Harris focused on events surrounding the Second World War, followed by works set in ancient Rome, his most recent works centre on contemporary history. Harris was educated at Selwyn College, where he was president of the Union and editor of the student newspaper Varsity. Born in Nottingham, Harris spent his childhood in a small rented house on a Nottingham council estate, his ambition to become a writer arose at an early age, from visits to the local printing plant where his father worked. Harris went to Belvoir High School in Bottesford, King Edward VII School, Melton Mowbray, where a hall was named after him. There he wrote edited the school magazine. Harris read English literature at Cambridge. While at Cambridge, Harris was elected president of the Cambridge Union and editor of the oldest student newspaper at the university, Varsity.
After leaving Cambridge, Harris joined the BBC and worked on news and current affairs programmes such as Panorama and Newsnight. In 1987, at the age of thirty, he became political editor of The Observer, he wrote regular columns for the Sunday Times and the Daily Telegraph. Harris's first book appeared in 1982. A Higher Form of Killing, a study of chemical and biological warfare, was written with fellow BBC journalist Jeremy Paxman. Other non-fiction works followed: Gotcha! The Government, the Media and the Falklands Crisis, The Making of Neil Kinnock, Selling Hitler, an investigation of the Hitler Diaries scandal, Good and Faithful Servant, a study of Bernard Ingham, Margaret Thatcher's press secretary. Fatherland Harris's million-selling alternative-history first novel Fatherland has as its setting a world where Germany has won the Second World War. Publication enabled Harris to become a full-time novelist. HBO made a film based on the novel in 1994. Harris stated that the proceeds from the book enabled him to buy a house in the country, where he still lives.
Enigma His second novel Enigma portrayed the breaking of the German Enigma code during the Second World War at Cambridge University and Bletchley Park. It went on to become a major film film, with Dougray Scott and Kate Winslet starring and with a screenplay by Tom Stoppard. Archangel Archangel was another international best seller, it follows a British historian in contemporary Russia as he hunts for a secret notebook, believed to be Stalin's diary. In 2005 the BBC made it into a mini-series starring Daniel Craig. Pompeii In 2003 Harris turned his attention to ancient Rome with his acclaimed Pompeii; the novel is about a Roman aqueduct engineer, working near the city of Pompeii just before the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD. As the aqueducts begin to malfunction, he investigates and realises the volcano is shifting the ground and damaging the system and is near eruption. Meanwhile, he falls in love with the young daughter of a powerful local businessman, illicitly dealing with his predecessor to divert municipal water for his own uses, will do anything to keep that deal going.
Imperium He followed this in 2006 with Imperium, the first novel in a trilogy centered on the life of the great Roman orator Cicero. The Ghost Harris was an early and enthusiastic backer of British Prime Minister Tony Blair and a donor to New Labour, but the war in Iraq blunted his enthusiasm. "We had our ups and downs, but we didn't fall out until the invasion of Iraq, which made no sense to me," Harris has said. In 2007, after Blair resigned, Harris dropped his other work to write The Ghost; the title refers both to a professional ghostwriter, whose lengthy memorandum forms the novel, to his immediate predecessor who, as the action opens, has just drowned in gruesome and mysterious circumstances. The dead man has been ghosting the autobiography of a unseated British prime minister called Adam Lang, a thinly veiled version of Blair; the fictional counterpart of Cherie Blair is depicted as a sinister manipulator of her husband. Harris told The Guardian before publication: "The day this appears a writ might come through the door.
But I would doubt it, knowing him."Harris said in a U. S. National Public Radio interview that politicians like Lang and Blair when they have been in office for a long time, become divorced from everyday reality, read little and end up with a pretty limited overall outlook; when it comes to writing their memoirs, they therefore tend to have all the more need of a ghostwriter. Harris hinted at a third, far less obvious, allusion hidden in the novel's title, more at a possible motive for having written the book in the first place. Blair, he said, had himself been ghostwriter, in effect, to President Bush when giving public reasons for invading Iraq: he had argued the case better than had the President himself; the New York Observer, headlining its otherwise hostile review The Blair Snitch Project, commented that the book's "shock-horror revelation" was "so shocking it can't be true, though if it were it would explain pretty much everything about the recent history of Great Britain." Lustrum The second novel in the Cicero trilogy, was published in October 2009.
It was released in February 2010 in the US under the alternative title of Conspirata. The Fear Index His novel The Fear Index, focusing on the 2010 Flash Crash, was published by Hutchinson in September 2011, it follows an American expat hedge fund operator living in Geneva who activates a new system of computer algorithms that he names VIXAL-4
Lucania was an ancient area of Southern Italy. It was the land of an Oscan people, it extended from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Gulf of Taranto. It bordered with Samnium and Campania in the north, Apulia in the east, Bruttium in the south-west, at the tip of the peninsula, now called Calabria, it thus comprised all the modern region of Basilicata, the southern part of the Province of Salerno and a northern portion of the Province of Cosenza. The precise limits were the river Silarus in the north-west, which separated it from Campania, the Bradanus, which flows into the Gulf of Taranto, in the east; the lower tract of the river Laus, which flows from a ridge of the Apennine Mountains to the Tyrrhenian Sea in an east-west direction, marked part of the border with Bruttium. The whole area is occupied by the Apennine Mountains, which here are an irregular group of lofty masses; the main ridge approaches the western sea, continues from the lofty knot of mountains on the frontiers of Samnium, in a southerly direction, to within a few miles of the Gulf of Policastro.
From on it is separated from the sea by only a narrow interval until it enters Bruttium. Just within the frontier of Lucania rises Monte Pollino, 7,325 ft, the highest peak in the southern Apennines; the mountains descend in a much more gradual slope to the coastal plain of the Gulf of Taranto. Thus the rivers which flow to the Tyrrhenian Sea are of little importance compared with those that descend towards the Gulf of Tarentum. Of these the most important are the Bradanus, the Casuentus, the Aciris, the Siris; the Crathis, which forms at its mouth the southern limit of the province, belongs wholly to the territory of the Bruttii, but it receives a tributary, the Sybaris, from the mountains of Lucania. The only considerable stream on the western side is the Silarus, which constitutes the northern boundary, has two important tributaries in the Calor and the Tanager which joins it from the south. There are several hypotheses on the origin of the name Lucania, inhabited by Lucani, an Osco-Samnite population from central Italy.
Lucania might be derived from Greek λευκός, leukos meaning "white", cognate of Latin lux. According to another hypothesis, Lucania might be derived from Latin word lucus meaning "sacred wood", or from Greek λύκος, lykos meaning "wolf"; the district of Lucania was so called from the people bearing the name Lucani by whom it was conquered about the middle of the 5th century BC. Before that period it was included under the general name of Oenotria, applied by the Greeks to the southernmost portion of Italy; the mountainous interior was occupied by the tribes known as Oenotrians and Choni, while the coasts on both sides were occupied by powerful Greek colonies which doubtless exercised a protectorate over the interior. The Lucanians were a southern branch of the Sabellic race, who spoke the Oscan language, they had a democratic constitution save in time of war, when a dictator was chosen from among the regular magistrates. A few Oscan inscriptions survive in Greek characters, from the 4th or 3rd century BC, some coins with Oscan legends of the 3rd century.
The Lucanians conquered the whole country from the borders of Samnium and Campania to the southern extremity of Italy. Subsequently the inhabitants of the peninsula, now known as Calabria, broke into insurrection, under the name of Bruttians established their independence, after which the Lucanians became confined within the limits described. After this we find them engaged in hostilities with the Tarentines, with Alexander, king of Epirus, called in by that people to their assistance, 334 BC. In 298 BC they made alliance with Rome, Roman influence was extended by the colonies of Venusia and above all Tarentum. Subsequently they were sometimes in alliance, but more engaged in hostilities, during the Samnite wars. On the landing of Pyrrhus in Italy they were among the first to declare in his favor, found themselves exposed to the resentment of Rome when the departure of Pyrrhus left his allies at the mercy of the Romans. After several campaigns they were reduced to subjection. Notwithstanding this they espoused the cause of Hannibal during the Second Punic War, their territory during several campaigns was ravaged by both armies.
The country never recovered from these disasters, under the Roman government fell into decay, to which the Social War, in which the Lucanians took part with the Samnites against Rome gave the finishing stroke. In the time of Strabo the Greek cities on the coast had fallen into insignificance, owing to the decrease of population and cultivation the malaria began to obtain the upper hand; the few towns of the interior were of no importance. A large part of the province was given up to pasture, the mountains were covered with forests, which abounded in wild boars and wolves. There were some none of great importance. For administrative purposes under the Roman empire, Lucania was always united with the district of the Bruttii, a practice continued by Theodoric; the two together constituted the third region of Augustus. The towns on the east coast were Metapontum, a few miles south of the Bradanus. Close to its southern frontier stood Sybaris, which was