Lucius Appuleius Saturninus
As quaestor he superintended the imports of grain at Ostia, but was removed by the Roman Senate, and replaced by Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, one of the chief members of the Optimates. He does not appear to have charged with incapacity or mismanagement. In 103 BC he was elected tribune and he was chiefly instrumental in securing the election of Marius to his fourth consulship. He was brought to trial for violating the law of nations, sister of the dead Gracchi, refused to acknowledge her alleged nephew. By the aid of bribery and assassination Marius was elected consul for the time, Glaucia praetor. Saturninus now brought forward a law, an extension of the African law already alluded to. This was problematic, since the land was already the property of the provincials who had been dispossessed by the Cimbri. Colonies were to be founded in Sicilia and Macedonia, on the purchase of which the Tolosan gold, the temple treasures embezzled by Quintus Servilius Caepio, was to be employed. Further, Italians were to be admitted to these colonies, and as they were to be burgess colonies and this part of the bill was resented by many citizens, who were unwilling to allow others to share their privileges.
A clause provided that, within 5 days after the passing of the law, every senator should take an oath to observe it, under penalty of being expelled from the senate, all the senators subsequently took the oath except Metellus Numidicus, who went into exile. Saturninus brought in a bill, the object of which was to gain the support of the people by supplying grain at a nominal price, the quaestor Quintus Servilius Caepio declared that the treasury could not stand the strain, and Saturninus own colleagues interposed their veto. Saturninus ordered the voting to continue, and Caepio dispersed the meeting by violence, the Senate declared the proceedings null and void, because thunder had been heard, Saturninus replied that the Senate had better remain quiet, otherwise the thunder might be followed by hail. The bills were passed by the aid of the Marian veterans. This produced a complete revulsion of public feeling, the Senate met on the following day, declared Saturninus and Glaucia public enemies, and called upon Marius to defend the State.
Marius had no alternative but to obey, defeated in a pitched battle in the Roman Forum, took refuge with his followers in the Capitol, the water supply having been cut off, they were forced to capitulate. Marius, having assured them that their lives would be spared, removed them to the Curia Hostilia, but the more impetuous members of the aristocratic party climbed onto the roof, stripped off the tiles, and stoned Saturninus and many others to death. Glaucia, who had escaped into a house, was dragged out and his daughter Appuleia married well despite the family disgrace, and was mother of two consuls, including the triumvir Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Another descendant Sextus Appuleius was consul in 29 BC, and his son Sextus Appuleius married Claudia Marcella Major and their daughter was Appuleia Varilla living in 17 AD
The Atrebates were a Belgic tribe of Gaul and Britain before the Roman conquests. However it is possible that the Atrebates were a family of rulers, cognate with Old Irish aittrebaid meaning inhabitant, Atrebates comes from proto-Celtic *ad-treb-a-t-es, inhabitants. The Celtic root is treb- building, which has linked to the root of English thorpe. Edith Wightman suggested that their name may be intended to mean the people of the earth to contrast with that of the neighbouring coastal Morini, the Gaulish Atrebates lived in or around modern Artois in northern France. Their capital, Nemetocenna, is now the city of Arras, the place-name Arras is the result of a phonetic evolution from Atrebates and replaced the original name in the Late Empire, according to a well-known tradition in Gaul. The name Artois is the result of a different phonetic evolution from Atrebates, in 57 BC, they were part of a Belgic military alliance in response to Julius Caesars conquests elsewhere in Gaul, contributing 15,000 men.
Caesar took this build-up as a threat and marched against it, but the Belgae had the advantage of position, when no battle was forthcoming, the Belgic alliance broke up, determining to gather to defend whichever tribe Caesar attacked. Caesar subsequently marched against several tribes and achieved their submission, the Atrebates joined with the Nervii and Viromandui and attacked Caesar at the battle of the Sabis, but were there defeated. After thus conquering the Atrebates, Caesar appointed one of their countrymen, Commius was involved in Caesars two expeditions to Britain in 55 and 54 BC and negotiated the surrender of Cassivellaunus. In return for his loyalty, he was given authority over the Morini. However, he turned against the Romans and joined in the revolt led by Vercingetorix in 52 BC. After Vercingetorixs defeat at the Siege of Alesia, Commius had further confrontations with the Romans, negotiated a truce with Mark Antony, and ended up fleeing to Britain with a group of followers. Ptolemys 2nd century Geography refers to the Atribati living on the coast of Belgic Gaul, near the river Sequana, Commius soon established himself as king of the British Atrebates, a kingdom he may have founded.
Their territory comprised modern Hampshire, West Sussex and Berkshire, centred on the capital Calleva Atrebatum and they were bordered to the north by the Dobunni and Catuvellauni, to the east by the Regnenses, and to the south by the Belgae. The settlement of the Atrebates in Britain was not a population movement. Archaeologist Barry Cunliffe argues that they seem to have comprised a series of tribes, possibly with some intrusive Belgic element. After this time, the Atrebates were recognized as a client kingdom of Rome, coins stamped with Commiuss name were issued from Calleva from ca.30 BC to 20 BC. Three kings of the British Atrebates name themselves on their coins as sons of Commius, Eppillus, Tincomarus seems to have ruled jointly with his father from about 25 BC until Commiuss death in about 20 BC
The Roman Assemblies were institutions in ancient Rome. They functioned as the machinery of the Roman legislative branch, since the assemblies operated on the basis of direct democracy, ordinary citizens, and not elected representatives, would cast all ballots. The assemblies were subject to checks on their power by the executive branch. Laws were passed by Curia and Centuries, when the city of Rome was founded, a senate and an assembly, the Curiate Assembly, were both created. The Curiate Assembly was the legislative assembly during the era of the Roman Kingdom. While its primary purpose was to new kings, it possessed rudimentary legislative powers. Shortly after the founding of the Roman Republic, the legislative authority shifted to two new assemblies, the Tribal Assembly and the Centuriate Assembly. Eventually, most legislative powers were transferred to another assembly, the Plebeian Council, ultimately, it was the Plebeian Council that disrupted the balance between the senate, the legislative branch, and the executive branch.
This led to the collapse of the republic, and the founding of the Roman Empire in 27 BC, under the empire, the powers that had been held by the assemblies were transferred to the senate. While the assemblies eventually lost their last semblance of political power, however, the assemblies were ultimately abandoned. The Legislative Assemblies of the Roman Kingdom were political institutions in the ancient Roman Kingdom, while one assembly, the Curiate Assembly, had some legislative powers, these powers involved nothing more than a right to symbolically ratify decrees issued by the Roman King. The functions of the assembly, the Calate Assembly, were purely religious. During the years of the kingdom, the People of Rome were organized on the basis of units called Curia, all of the People of Rome were divided amongst a total of thirty Curiae. These Curiae were the units of division in the two popular assemblies. The members in each Curia would vote, and the majority in each Curia would determine how that Curia voted before the assembly, thus, a majority of the Curiae were needed during any vote before either the Curiate Assembly or the Calculate Assembly.
The Curiate Assembly was an assembly with political significance during the period of the Roman Kingdom. The king presided over the assembly, and submitted decrees to it for ratification, after a king died, the Interrex selected a candidate to replace the king. After the nominee received the approval of the Roman Senate, the Interrex held the election before the Curiate Assembly
The Nervii were one of the most powerful Belgic tribes, living in northern Gaul at the time of its conquest by Rome. Their territory corresponds to the part of modern Belgium, including Brussels. During their 1st century BC Roman military campaign, Caesars contacts among the Remi stated that the Nervii were the most warlike of the Belgae, in times of war, they were known to trek long distances to take part in battles. Being one of the distant northern Belgic tribes, with the Menapii to the west, the territory of the Nervii had its western and northwestern border on the Scheldt river and stretched in the south through Hainaut to the forests of Arrouaise and Thiérache. To the east, the boundaries are unclear but it is possible that they stretched as far as the Dyle river valley in the north, near Louvain, and the Meuse in the south in modern Wallonia, near Namur. An oppidum found near Asse may have belonged to them but it was isolated, a large population occupied the southern territories, near the river Sambre with the biggest being at Avesnelles, near Avesnes-sur-Helpe.
Caesar mentions smaller tribes who were expected to contribute troops to Nervian forces, Pleumoxii, Ceutrones, the Nervii are counted as one of the northern Belgae, who are often proposed to have been in a transitional zone between Celtic languages and Germanic languages. Others included the Menapii and Morini, to the west of the Nervii on the English channel, Caesar reported hearing from the Remi that the Belgae generally had received immigration from Germanic people from east of the Rhine. The Romanized Greek Strabo wrote that the Nervii were of Germanic origin, the Romans were not precise in their ethnography of northern barbarians, by Germanic Caesar may simply have meant originating east of the Rhine with no distinction of language intended. During Caesars lifetime, Germanic languages east of the Rhine may have been no closer than the river Elbe. Julius Caesar considered the Nervii to be the most warlike of the Belgic tribes, and that the Belgic tribes were the bravest in Gaul. He says that their culture was a Spartan one, they would not partake of alcoholic beverages or any such luxury.
He says they disliked foreign trade and had no merchant class, archaeologists have sought to define the territories of the northern Belgic tribes by looking at the coins they used. The Nervii are associated with a type that uses a Greek epsilon. Remarkably, given the evidence of a Celtic La Tène culture having been present in the pre-Roman past. In fact they established hedges throughout their lands in order to them difficult for cavalry. The Nervii were part of the Belgic alliance that resisted Julius Caesar in 57 BC, after the alliance broke up and some tribes surrendered, the Nervii, under the command of Boduognatus and aided by the Atrebates and Viromandui, came very close to defeating Caesar. In 57 BC at the battle of the Sabis, they concealed themselves in the forests and their attack was so quick and unexpected that some of the Romans didnt have time to take the covers off their shields or even put on their helmets. The element of surprise briefly left the Romans exposed, however Caesar grabbed a shield, made his way to the front line, and quickly organised his forces, at the same time, the commander of the tenth legion, Titus Labienus, attacked the Nervian camp
The Iberian Peninsula /aɪˈbɪəriən pəˈnɪnsjᵿlə/, known as Iberia /aɪˈbɪəriə/, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is divided between Portugal and Spain, comprising most of their territory. With an area of approximately 582,000 km2, it is the second largest European peninsula, at that time, the name did not describe a single political entity or a distinct population of people. Strabos Iberia was delineated from Keltikē by the Pyrenees and included the land mass southwest of there. The ancient Greeks reached the Iberian Peninsula, of which they had heard from the Phoenicians, hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term Iberia, which he wrote about circa 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with. According to Strabo, prior historians used Iberia to mean the country side of the Ἶβηρος as far north as the river Rhône in France. Polybius respects that limit, but identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, elsewhere he says that Saguntum is on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia.
Strabo refers to the Carretanians as people of the Iberian stock living in the Pyrenees, according to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Latin and Greek use Hispania and Hiberia as synonyms. The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in political, the Latin word Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia, literally translates to land of the Hiberians. This word was derived from the river Ebro, which the Romans called Hiberus, hiber was thus used as a term for peoples living near the river Ebro. The first mention in Roman literature was by the annalist poet Ennius in 200 BC. Virgil refers to the Ipacatos Hiberos in his Georgics, the Roman geographers and other prose writers from the time of the late Roman Republic called the entire peninsula Hispania. As they became interested in the former Carthaginian territories, the Romans began to use the names Hispania Citerior. At the time Hispania was made up of three Roman provinces, Hispania Baetica, Hispania Tarraconensis, and Lusitania, Strabo says that the Romans use Hispania and Iberia synonymously, distinguishing between the near northern and the far southern provinces.
Whatever language may generally have been spoken on the peninsula soon gave way to Latin, except for that of the Vascones, the Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the Ebro, Ibēros in ancient Greek and Ibērus or Hibērus in Latin. The association was so known it was hardly necessary to state, for example. Pliny goes so far as to assert that the Greeks had called the whole of Spain Hiberia because of the Hiberus River, the river appears in the Ebro Treaty of 226 BC between Rome and Carthage, setting the limit of Carthaginian interest at the Ebro. The fullest description of the treaty, stated in Appian, uses Ibērus, with reference to this border, Polybius states that the native name is Ibēr, apparently the original word, stripped of its Greek or Latin -os or -us termination
A referendum is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to vote on a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new law, in some countries it is synonymous with a plebiscite or a vote on a ballot question. Some definitions of plebiscite suggest that it is a type of vote to change the constitution or government of a country, some other countries define it differently. For example, Australia defines referendum as a vote to change the constitution, the addition of the verb sum to a gerundive, denotes the idea of necessity or compulsion, that which must be done, rather than that which is fit for doing). This determines the form of the plural in English, which according to English grammar should be referendums, the use of referenda as a plural form in English is thus insupportable according to the rules of both Latin and English grammar alike. The Latin plural gerundive referenda, meaning things to be referred, compare also, Agenda those matters which must be driven forward, from ago, to drive, that matter which must be remembered, from memoro, to call to mind, etc.
The name and use of the referendum is thought to have originated in the Swiss canton of Graubünden as early as the 16th century. Today, a referendum can often be referred to as a plebiscite, for example, Australia defines referendum as a vote to change the constitution, and plebiscite as a vote that does not affect the constitution. In contrast, Ireland has only held one plebiscite, which was the vote to adopt its constitution. Of that which has most definitely already occurred and this is in line with Eamon De Valeras oft stated belief that the people do not have the right to do wrong which in this context means to reject his new Eire constitution. The term referendum covers a variety of different meanings, a referendum can be binding or advisory. In some countries, different names are used for two types of referendum. From a political-philosophical perspective, referendums are an expression of direct democracy, however, in the modern world, most referendums need to be understood within the context of representative democracy.
Australia ranked second with dozens of referendums, a referendum usually offers the electorate a choice of accepting or rejecting a proposal, but this is not necessarily the case. In Switzerland, for example, multiple choice referendums are common and this question can be resolved by applying voting systems designed for single winner elections to a multiple-choice referendum. Swiss referendums get around this problem by offering a separate vote on each of the options as well as an additional decision about which of the multiple options should be preferred. In the Swedish case, in both referendums the winning option was chosen by the Single Member Plurality system, in other words, the winning option was deemed to be that supported by a plurality, rather than an absolute majority, of voters. In the 1977, Australian referendum, the winner was chosen by the system of preferential instant-runoff voting, the 1992 New Zealand poll, was counted under the two-round system, as were polls in Newfoundland and Guam, for example
The Janiculum is a hill in western Rome, Italy. The Janiculum is one of the best locations in Rome for a view of central Rome with its domes. The Villa Lante al Gianicolo by Giulio Romano is an important early building by the Mannerist master, the Janiculum was a center for the cult of the god Janus, its position overlooking the city made it a good place for augurs to observe the auspices. In Roman mythology, Janiculum is the name of an ancient town founded by the god Janus, in Book VIII of the Aeneid by Virgil, King Evander shows Aeneas the ruins of Saturnia and Janiculum on the Capitoline Hill near the Arcadian city of Pallanteum. Virgil uses these ruins to stress the significance of the Capitoline Hill as the center of Rome. According to Livy, the Janiculum was incorporated into ancient Rome during the time of king Ancus Marcius to prevent an enemy from occupying it and it was fortified by a wall, and a bridge was built across the Tiber to join it to the rest of the city. During the war between Rome and Clusium in 508 BC, it is said that the forces of Lars Porsena occupied the Janiculum and laid siege to Rome.
The Aurelian Walls were continued up the hill by the emperor Aurelian to include the mills used to grind grain to provide bread flour for the city. The mills were supplied from an aqueduct, where it plunged down a steep hill, thus the site resembles Barbegal, although excavations in the late 1990s suggest that they may have been undershot rather than overshot in design. The mills were in use in AD537, when the Goths besieging the city cut off their water supply, but they were restored and may have remained in operation until at least the time of Pope Gregory IV. Several monuments to Garibaldi and to the fallen in the wars of Italian independence are on the Janiculum, daily at noon, a cannon fires once from the Janiculum in the direction of the Tiber as a time signal. This tradition goes back to December 1847, when the cannon of the Castel SantAngelo gave the sign to the surrounding belltowers to start ringing at midday, in 1904, the ritual was transferred to the Janiculum and continued until 1939.
On 21 April 1959, popular appeal convinced the Commune of Rome to resume the tradition after a twenty-year interruption, the hill is featured in the third section of Ottorino Respighis famous orchestral piece The Pines of Rome. The crest of the Janiculum is dominated by the 1895 equestrian Monument to Garibaldi and this site was chosen for its proximity to the Villa Doria Pamphili, where Garibaldi mounted a military defense of the short-lived Roman Republic in late April 1849. The hill features a number of statues and monuments of prominent Italians, a 2011 guide published by the local Associazione Amilcare Cipriani group, after an extensive restoration of these monuments, lists a total of 84 busts on the hill
Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and notable author of Latin prose. He played a role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic. In 60 BC, Caesar and Pompey formed an alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate. Caesars victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Romes territory to the English Channel, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the Channel and the Rhine, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, with the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province, Civil war resulted, and Caesars victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence.
After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms and he centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed dictator in perpetuity, giving him additional authority. But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March 44 BC, a new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesars adopted heir Octavian, known as Augustus, rose to power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire began, much of Caesars life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are major sources, Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. Caesar was born into a family, the gens Julia.
The cognomen Caesar originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by Caesarean section. The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations, that the first Caesar had a head of hair, that he had bright grey eyes. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name, despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesars father, called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesars childhood, in 85 BC, Caesars father died suddenly, so Caesar was the head of the family at 16
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, usually known in English as Pompey /ˈpɒmpiː/ or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. He came from a wealthy Italian provincial background, and his father had been the first to establish the family among the Roman nobility, Pompeys immense success as a general while still very young enabled him to advance directly to his first consulship without meeting the normal requirements for office. His success as a commander in Sullas Second Civil War resulted in Sulla bestowing the nickname Magnus. He was consul three times and celebrated three triumphs, after the deaths of Julia and Crassus, Pompey sided with the optimates, the conservative faction of the Roman Senate. Pompey and Caesar contended for the leadership of the Roman state, when Pompey was defeated at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, he sought refuge in Egypt, where he was assassinated. His career and defeat are significant in Romes subsequent transformation from Republic to Empire, Pompeys family first gained the position of Consul in 141 BC.
Pompeys father, Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, was an equestrian from Picenum. He fought the Social War against Romes Italian allies and he supported Sulla, who belonged to the optimates, the pro-aristocracy faction, against Marius, who belonged to the populares, in Sullas first civil war. He died during the siege of Rome by the Marians in 87 BC, either as a casualty of an epidemic and his twenty-year-old son Pompey inherited his estates, and the loyalty of his legions. Pompey had served two years under his fathers command, and had participated in the part of the Social War. When his father died, Pompey was put on due to accusations that his father stole public property. As his father’s heir Pompey could be held to account and he discovered that this was committed by one of his fathers freedmen. Following his preliminary bouts with his accuser, the took a liking to Pompey and offered his daughter. Another civil war broke out between the Marians and Sulla, Cassius Dio added that Pompey had sent a detachment to pursue him, but he outstripped them by crossing the River Phasis.
He reached the Maeotis and stayed in the Cimmerian Bosporus and he had his son Machares, who ruled it and gone over to the Romans and recovered that country. Meanwhile, Pompey set up a colony for his soldiers at Nicopolitans in Cappadocia, in Plutarchs account Pompey was invited to invade Armenia by Tigranes’ son, who rebelled against his father. The two men received the submission of several towns, when they got close Artaxata Tigranes, knowing Pompey’s leniency and allowed a Roman garrison in his palace. Pompey offered the restitution of the Armenian territories in Syria, Cilicia, Galatia and he demanded an indemnity and ruled that the son should be king of Sophene
Cohort (military unit)
A cohort was the standard tactical unit of a Roman legion and was composed of 360 soldiers. A Cohort is considered to be the equivalent of a military battalion. The Cohort unit replaced the system following the reforms traditionally attributed to Gaius Marius in 107 BC. Until the middle of the first century AD,10 cohorts made up a Roman Legion, during the 1st century AD, the command structure and make-up of the legions was formally laid down, in a form that would endure for centuries. The first cohort was now made up of five double-strength centuries totalling 800 men and this century was known as the primus pilii, and its centurion was known as the primus pilus. The Primus Pilus could be promoted to Praefectus Castrorum, or Camp Prefect, the Praefectus Castrorum would be in charge of the daily running of a legion. The other cohort consisted of approximately 480 men in six centuriae of 80 men, at various times prior to the reforms, a century might have meant a unit of 60 to 80. The cohort had no permanent commander, it is assumed that in combat, in order of seniority, the six centurions were titled hastatus posterior, hastatus prior, princeps posterior, princeps prior, pilus posterior and pilus prior.
The legion at this time numbered about 5,400 men, including officers, auxiliary cohorts could be quinquagenaria or milliaria. The term was first used to refer to the bodyguard of a general during the Republic, cohors togata was a unit of the Praetorian guard in civilian dress tasked with duties within the pomerium. Cohortes urbanae, urban cohort, military police unit patrolling in the capital, cohortes vigilum, unit of the police force which was the fire brigade in the capital. Cohors Germanorum, the unit of Germani custodes corporis, the Latin word cohors was used in a looser way to describe a rather large company of people. Auxiliaries List of Roman auxiliary regiments