Tivoli known as Tivoli Gardens, is an amusement park and pleasure garden in Copenhagen, Denmark. The park opened on 15 August 1843 and is the second-oldest operating amusement park in the world, after Dyrehavsbakken in nearby Klampenborg in Denmark. With 4.6 million visitors in 2017, Tivoli is the second-most popular seasonal amusement park in the world after Europa-Park. Tivoli is the most-visited theme park in Scandinavia, the fifth-most visited theme park in Europe, behind Disneyland Park, Europa-Park, Walt Disney Studios Park and Efteling, it is located directly in downtown Copenhagen, next to the Central rail station for the city. The amusement park was first called "Tivoli & Vauxhall", it is mentioned in various books, such as Number the Stars by Lois Lowry, was used prominently in the 1961 science fiction film Reptilicus. Tivoli's founder, Georg Carstensen, obtained a five-year charter to create Tivoli by telling King Christian VIII that "when the people are amusing themselves, they do not think about politics".
The monarch granted Carstensen use of 15 acres of the fortified glacis outside Vesterport for an annual rent. Until the 1850s Tivoli was outside the city, accessible from the city only through the Vesterport. From its beginning Tivoli included a variety of attractions: buildings in the exotic style of an imaginary Orient: a theatre, band stands and cafés, flower gardens, mechanical amusement rides such as a merry-go-round and a primitive scenic railway. After dark, colored lamps illuminated the gardens. On certain evenings, specially designed fireworks could be seen reflected in Tivoli's lake, a remnant of the moat surrounding the city fortifications. Composer Hans Christian Lumbye was Tivoli's musical director from 1843 to 1872. Lumbye was inspired by Viennese waltz composers such as the Strauss family, became known as the "Strauss of the North". Many of his compositions are inspired by the gardens, including "Salute to the Ticket Holders of Tivoli", "Carnival Joys" and "A Festive Night at Tivoli".
The Tivoli Symphony Orchestra still performs many of his works. In 1874, a Chinese-style Pantomimeteatret took the place of an older smaller theatre; the audience stands in the stage being inside the building. The theatre's "curtain" is a mechanical peacock's tail. From the beginning, the theatre was the home of Italian pantomimes, introduced in Denmark by the Italian Giuseppe Casorti; this tradition, dependent on the Italian Commedia dell'Arte, has been kept alive. The absence of spoken dialogue is an advantage, for Tivoli is now an international tourist attraction. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Tivoli hosted human exhibitions. In 1943, Nazi sympathisers burnt many of Tivoli's buildings, including the concert hall, to the ground. Temporary buildings were constructed in their place and the park was back in operation after a few weeks. Tivoli is always evolving without abandoning its original charm or traditions. Georg Carstensen said in 1844: "Tivoli will never, so to speak, be finished", a sentiment echoed just over a century when Walt Disney said of his own Tivoli-inspired theme park, "Disneyland will never be completed.
It will continue to grow as long as there is imagination left in the world." In Icelandic, Danish and Swedish, the word tivoli has become synonymous with any amusement park. The park is best known for its wooden roller coaster, Rutschebanen, or as some people call it, built in 1914, it is one of the world's oldest wooden roller coasters, still operating today. An operator controls the ride by braking so that it does not gain too much speed during descent of the hills, it is an ACE Coaster Classic. Another roller coaster, The Demon, features an Immelmann loop, a vertical loop, a zero-G roll all during the ride time of just one minute and forty six seconds. An old roller coaster, The Snake, was removed to have enough space for The Demon. In 2017, Tivoli Gardens added an optional virtual reality experience to the ride, simulating a flight through ancient China, along with encounters with dragons and demons; the Demon is situated next to the concert hall. A well-known swing ride, The Star Flyer, opened in Tivoli in 2006.
80 metres high and built by the Austria based Australian company Funtime, it offers panoramic views of the city. On 1 May 2009, Tivoli Gardens opened the new ride Vertigo, a looping plane ride where the rider pilots the ride, able to control the plane. A Zamperla Air Race ride, opened on 11 April 2013, it is a giant swing and spinner with centrifugal powers up to 4 g, named after the constellation of the Eagle. The newest attraction is Fatamorgana, which opened in 2016; this is the world's first Condor 2GH, which offers two separate seating arrangements, one milder version with two-seater gondolas, a thrilling version in which riders are slung around at high speed while seated in a ring and facing away from the center. Aquila - giant swing and spinner ride that opened in 2013; the Bumper Cars - classic bumper cars that date from 1926. Fatamorgana - a 43 m tall hybrid Condor ride that opened in 2016. Huss; the Ferris Wheel - Ferris wheel which opened during WWII in 1943. The Flying Trunk (Den Fl
Wilson's syndrome called Wilson's thyroid syndrome or WTS, is an alternative medicine concept which attributes various common and non-specific symptoms to low body temperature and impaired conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine, despite normal thyroid function tests. E. Denis Wilson, a physician who named the syndrome after himself, advocates treating these symptoms with sustained-release triiodothyronine. Wilson's syndrome is not an actual medical condition, there is no scientific evidence supporting Wilson's claims; the American Thyroid Association describes Wilson's syndrome as at odds with established knowledge of thyroid function. The ATA described the diagnostic criteria for Wilson's syndrome as imprecise and non-specific, raised concern that the proposed treatments were harmful. Florida State Medical Board members described Wilson's syndrome as a "phony syndrome" and a scam during disciplinary action against Wilson; the term "Wilson’s syndrome" was coined in 1990 by E. Denis Wilson, a physician practicing in Longwood, Florida.
Wilson said that the syndrome's manifestations included fatigue, headaches, PMS, hair loss, fluid retention, decreased memory, low sex drive, unhealthy nails, easy weight gain, about 60 other symptoms. Wilson wrote that the syndrome can manifest itself as "virtually every symptom known to man." He says that it is "the most common of all chronic ailments and takes a greater toll on society than any other medical condition."Wilson says that low thyroid symptoms and low temperatures in the presence of normal thyroid function tests are not due to hypothyroidism, might be reversed with a few months of treatment. To distinguish this condition from hypothyroidism, he named it Wilson's syndrome, he states that it can persist after the stress has passed. He says that the main diagnostic sign is a body temperature that averages below 98.6 °F, that the diagnosis is confirmed if the patient responds to treatment with a "special thyroid hormone treatment". He says that certain herbs can help support normal body temperatures.
In 1988 a 50-year-old woman died of an arrhythmia and heart attack while taking excessive amounts of thyroid hormone prescribed by Wilson. Four years in 1992, the Florida Board of Medicine took disciplinary action against Wilson, accusing him of "fleecing" patients with a "phony diagnosis"; the Board of Medicine and Wilson settled the disciplinary action, agreeing to a 6-month suspension of Wilson's medical license, after which Wilson would need to attend 100 hours of continuing medical education, submit to psychological testing, pay a $10,000 fine before resuming practice. Wilson agreed not to prescribe thyroid medication to anyone unless the Board of Medicine determined that the medical community had accepted "Wilson's Temperature Syndrome" and Wilson’s methods and modalities of treatment. During disciplinary action against Wilson, members of the Florida Board of Medicine stated that there was no evidence theory is valid, they described Wilson's treatments as dangerous and a scam, stating that Wilson was fleecing insurance companies and patients with treatments for "a phony syndrome".
The American Thyroid Association, a professional association dedicated to promoting thyroid health, disavows Wilson's Temperature Syndrome. The ATA stated in 2005 that a "thorough review of the biomedical literature has found no scientific evidence supporting the existence of'Wilson's Temperature Syndrome'." The statement added that the mean temperature of normal persons in the AM on waking is 97.5 °F, not 98.5 °F, that many of the symptoms described by Wilson are nonspecific and typical of depression and psychological and social stress. It notes that a similar set of symptoms occurs in the alternative diagnoses of neurasthenia, chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, chronic Epstein-Barr virus syndrome, chronic candidiasis; the Association notes that chronic supplementation with triiodothyronine is difficult and problematic, since various tissues set their own cellular levels of this hormone by making it individually from thyroxine, supplementation of T3 may overwhelm this normal regulatory mechanism in some of these tissues.
The Mayo Clinic website warns that Wilson's syndrome is not an accepted medical diagnosis, advises patients against the unproven therapies associated with the "syndrome". Broda Otto Barnes, another physician who made similar claims List of topics characterized as pseudoscience American Thyroid Association statement on Wilson's syndrome Thomas, Mike. "The Wilson Syndrome". Orlando Sentinel. Ricks, Delthia. "Longwood Doctor Is Censured". Orlando Sentinel
The Kortenbach & Rauh Kora 1 was an unusual twin boom, pusher configuration motor glider and built in Germany in the 1970s and intended as a training aircraft. The Kora was a two-seat side by side motorglider, intended as a trainer, its long span, high aspect ratio wing gave it a respectable gliding performance. The overall layout was unusual, with a central pod fuselage in front of a pusher configuration engine and with its empennage on twin tail booms, it had a powered aircraft style tricycle undercarriage. The Kora was an all-wood aircraft and its constructors, Kortenbach & Rauh, were best known as furniture makers, it had a cantilever high wing with tapered outer panels. Schempp-Hirth airbrakes opened over the inner wing surfaces from mid-chord; the central pod was broad, housing a cockpit 1,200 mm wide under a starboard-side opening, two piece canopy which reached from the wing leading edge to the nose. Instructor and pupil sat side-by-side, with the 48 kW Limbach SL 1700EC1 air cooled flat four piston engine behind them, where the wing became broader to allow propeller clearance.
Two slender, tapering booms ran rearwards from the wing, each ending at a straight edged fin which tapered both above and below it. A tapered, straight edged tailplane was carried on top of the fins; the rudders and one piece elevator were rectangular. Two prototypes were built, the first flying ion 13 September 1973; this had a retracting tricycle undercarriage with mainwheels retracting rearwards into the tail booms and the nosewheel rearwards into the fuselage pod. The second prototype, which flew in 1976, retained the retractable nosewheel but had fixed, spatted mainwheels on thin, spring steel legs mounted on the lower fuselage to save weight and reduce complexity; the extra drag reduced the glide angle from 31.4 to 30 and increased the minimum sink rate from 0.76 m/s to 0.85 m/s. The second prototype was still undergoing flight tests early in 1978, when no decision on production had been reached despite orders for some twelve aircraft, it remained on the German civil aircraft register in 2010.
Data from Jane's World Sailplanes and Motor Gliders, p.69General characteristics Crew: Two Length: 7.40 m Wingspan: 18.0 m Height: 1.85 m Wing area: 19.44 m2 Aspect ratio: 16.65 Airfoil: Wortmann FX-66-S-196/161 Empty weight: 510 kg Max takeoff weight: 750 kg Powerplant: 1 × Limbach SL 1700EC1 air cooled flat four piston engine, 48 kW Propellers: 2-bladed Hoffmann propellers two blade, variable pitch, pusher, 1.60 m diameter Performance Maximum speed: 205 km/h at sea level Stall speed: 65 km/h Maximum glide ratio: best, 30:1 at 100 km/h Rate of climb: 3.0 m/s maximum Rate of sink: 0.85 m/s at 85 km/h Wing loading: 38.58 kg/m2 maximum