Sport of athletics
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping and walking. The most common types of competitions are track and field, road running, cross country running. The results of racing events are decided by finishing position, while the jumps, the simplicity of the competitions, and the lack of a need for expensive equipment, makes athletics one of the most commonly competed sports in the world. Athletics is mostly an individual sport, with the exception of relay races and competitions which combine athletes performances for a team score, organized athletics are traced back to the Ancient Olympic Games from 776 BCE. The rules and format of the events in athletics were defined in Western Europe and North America in the 19th and early 20th century. Most modern top level meetings are conducted by the International Association of Athletics Federations, the athletics meeting forms the backbone of the Summer Olympics. The foremost international athletics meeting is the IAAF World Championships in Athletics, other top level competitions in athletics include the IAAF World Cross Country Championships and the IAAF World Half Marathon Championships.
Athletes with a disability compete at the Summer Paralympics and the IPC Athletics World Championships. The word athletics is derived from the Ancient Greek ἀθλητής from ἆθλον or ἆθλος, the term was used to describe athletic contests in general – i. e. sporting competition based primarily on human physical feats. In the 19th century, the term acquired a more narrow definition in Europe. This definition continues to be the most prominent one in the United Kingdom, foreign words in many German and Roman languages which are related to the term athletics have a similar meaning. In much of North America, athletics is synonymous with sports in general, the word athletics is rarely used to refer to the sport of athletics in this region. Track and field is preferred, and is used in the United States and Canada to refer to most athletics events, including racewalking, Athletic contests in running, walking and throwing are among the oldest of all sports and their roots are prehistoric. Athletics events were depicted in the Ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara, with illustrations of running at the Heb Sed festival, the Tailteann Games were an ancient Celtic festival in Ireland, founded around 1800 BCE, and the thirty-day meeting included running and stone-throwing among its sporting events.
The original and only event at the first Olympics in 776 BCE was a running event known as the stadion. This expanded to include throwing and jumping events within the ancient pentathlon, Athletics competitions took place at other Panhellenic Games, which were founded around 500 BCE. The Cotswold Olimpick Games, a festival which emerged in 17th century England. Annually, from 1796 to 1798, LOlympiade de la République was held in revolutionary France, the premier event of this competition was a running event, but various ancient Greek disciplines were on display
Fiumicino is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, central Italy, with a population of 77,870. It is famous for the presence of the Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport, the busiest airport in Italy, the name literally means little river. The town of Fiumicino should not be confused with its namesake, Fiumicino became a comune in 1992, previously it was part of the municipality of Rome, being almost totally included in the former Municipio XIV. On 24 August 2013, a mud volcano popped up at the centre of the via Coccia di Morto roundabout. Fiumicino borders with the municipalities of Anguillara Sabazia, Ladispoli and it lies in the northern side of the mouth of Tiber river, next to Ostia. Fiumicino is home to the largest airport in Italy, the Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport, the city houses the head offices of Alitalia and Blue Panorama Airlines. All Nippon Airways has its Rome Sales Office in the Room 447 in the, cathay Pacific has an office in the airports Torre Uffici 2. In addition Small Planet Airlines has an office in Fiumicino, in addition, Fiumicino has a large fishing center on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast and a sea resort.
The Istituto di Instruzione Superiore Leonardo da Vinci is in Fiumicino, the Leonardo Da Vinci International Airport, known as Rome-Fiumicino, lies in the north-eastern suburb of the town. It is served by the A91 motorway from Rome and by the Roman Suburban Railway line FL1, the municipality counts the railway stations of Fiumicino Aeroporto and Parco Leonardo, both on the line FL1. Airport station is served by a non-stop train from/to Roma Termini named Leonardo Express. The other stations within the municipality, Maccarese-Fregene and Torre in Pietra-Palidoro, are part of the Rome-Pisa line, the branch line from Parco Leonardo to the towns centre, counting the stations of Porto and Fiumicino Porto Canale, was closed in 2000. it
Carpi is an Italian town and comune of about 70,000 people in the province of Modena, Emilia-Romagna. It is a centre for industrial and craft activities and for cultural and commercial exchanges. The name Carpi is derived from carpinus betulus, a hornbeam tree particularly widespread in medieval times in the Po valley region, in Prehistoric times it was a settlement of the Villanovan Culture. The foundation by the Lombard king Aistulf of St. Marys church in the castle in 752 was the first step in the current settlement of the city. From 1319 to 1525 it was ruled by the Pio family, after whom it was acquired by the Este, the city received a Silver Medal for Military Valour in recognition of its participation in the resistance against the German occupation during World War II. As a titular Duke of Modena, the current holder of the title of Prince of Carpi would be Prince Lorenz of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este. It counts the hamlets of Budrione, Cantone di Gargallo, Cibeno Pile, Fossoli, Lama di Quartirolo, Osteriola, San Marino, San Martino Secchia and it is flanked by a portico with 52 columns.
Other notable landmarks include, Town hall - formerly the castle of the Pio family and it includes parts from different ages, such as the merloned-tower of Passerino Bonaccolsi, the Renaissance façade and the tower of Galasso Pio, and the 17th century watch tower. It includes a chapel frescoed by Bernardino Loschi and Vincenzo Catena, construction begun 1514, Baroque façade added in 1701 and cupola completed 1774). Church of Santa Maria in Castello or La Sagra - façade designed by Peruzzi, Carpi FC1909 played in Serie B during the 2013-14 season, achieving a 12th-place finish ensuring second tier football remained in the town for another season. On April 28,2015, the club clinched promotion to Serie A for the first time in its history, on 2016 the born in Carpi world champion swimmer Gregorio Paltrinieri won Gold Medal on 500 free style at Brazil Olympics. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi, physician Ermes Effron Borgnino, known as Ernest Borgnine, U. S
Anna Carmela Incerti is an Italian long-distance runner who specializes in the marathon. She has represented Italy in the marathon at European and she won the bronze in the event at the 2010 European Championships, upgraded to silver and to gold. She was the 2003 winner of the Florence Marathon, which made her the Italian marathon champion for that year and she won the bronze medal in 10,000 metres at the 2003 Summer Universiade. Incerti began focusing on longer distances and set a personal best in the marathon at the 2006 European Athletics Championships and she finished 17th over the distance at the 2007 World Championships in Athletics. She represented Italy at the 2008 Beijing Olympics and came fourteenth in the marathon with a personal best run of 2,30,55 hours. Later that year, she won the Milan Marathon in a new personal best time of 2,27,42 hours, Incerti won the Roma-Ostia Half Marathon in March 2009 and secured the half marathon title at the 2009 Mediterranean Games in Pescara. At the 2010 European Athletics Championships she won the medal in the marathon race.
She ran at the 2011 Osaka Ladies Marathon and improved her best time to 2,27,33, coming in fourth place. She improved her marathon best soon after, defeating Jessica Augusto to defend at the Roma-Ostia with a time of 1,09,06 – which was a new course record. After some high altitude training in Ifrane in Morocco she ran at the Stramilano half marathon and she decided to enter the 2011 Berlin Marathon and she ran a significant personal best of 2,25,32 hours. She was runner-up to Valeria Straneo at the Stramilano in 2012 and was fifth in a competitive Roma-Ostia field and she is married to fellow marathon runner Stefano Scaini
The Berlin Marathon is a major running and sporting event held annually in Berlin, Germany. The official marathon distance of 42.195 kilometers is set up as a road race where professional athletes. First initiated in 1974, the event traditionally takes place on the last weekend in September, the Berlin marathon is one of the largest and most popular road races in the world. In 2016, the race had 46,950 entrants from 122 countries, along with seven other races, it forms the World Marathon Majors, a series offering a $1 million prize purse to be split equally between the top male and female marathoners. For a record six consecutive years 2011-2016 Berlin has been the site of the leading mens time for the year. The event is split over 2 days, about 8,000 additional inline skaters compete at the marathon course the Saturday before the running event. Power walkers, wheelchair riders, and a childrens marathon are part of the marathon weekend, the course within the metropolis starts and finishes near the Brandenburg Gate.
Because of the division of city, the events before 1990 were limited to the area of West Berlin. Only on 30 September 1990, were able to run through the Brandenburg Gate. It was reported that a great many of the runners had tears in their eyes as they ran through the gate, after leaving Brandenburg Gate, the course passes Charlottenburg, around Tiergarten, along Moabit and Mitte, and south to Friedrichshain. After that, it winds west between Kreuzberg and Neukölln, through Schöneberg, over to Friedenau and Zehlendorf, before turning back toward the citys center. Looping above Schöneberg, the course comes full circle as it finishes through the Gate and this route differs from the one used at the 1936 Summer Olympics Marathon. World records Men Women Key, Current course record German championship race In terms of finishing athletes the 2008 Berlin marathon was the 5th largest marathon run of all time,35,913 athletes including 130 power walkers reached the finish in under 6 hours. The 2008 skater marathon had numbered 7,685 participants and counted around 200,000 spectators along the course and it is considered the largest inline skater marathon in the world and is the final venue of the World Inline Cup.
Records Men,59,28, Bart Swings,2013 Women,1,08,29, the athletes start at the same day, usually at Sunday, like the runners and power walkers
Vienna City Marathon
The Vienna City Marathon is an annual marathon race over the classic distance of 42.195 km held in Vienna, Austria since 1984. The first edition was held on March 25,1984 with a total of 794 competitors and it is Austrias largest road running event and the 2010 edition had record participation with 32,940 runners from 108 nations taking part in the days races. After crossing the left bank of the Wien river on Wienzeile to the Schönbrunn Palace, the full-marathon runners, are continuing past the Rathaus to the Alsergrund and to Friedensbrücke. The track continues via the side of the Donaukanal and the Praterstern to reach the Prater again. After having passed the Ernst-Happel-Stadion and the Lusthaus, the leads over the Franzensbrücke to the Ringstraße where the runners reach the finish at the Heldenplatz. The race days events include a marathon team relay event, a 4.2 km fun run. In 2011, Haile Gebrselassie ran the fastest ever time on Austrian soil for the distance, the 2012 edition saw Haile and Paula Radcliffe engage in a novel half marathon race, with Radcliffe receiving a head start 7,52 minutes.
Key, Course record Austrian championship race List of winners Vienna Spring Marathon, official website Vienna City Marathon 2008 Every participant in a video
Long-distance running, or endurance running, is a form of continuous running over distances of at least three kilometres. Physiologically, it is largely aerobic in nature and requires stamina as well as mental strength, among mammals, humans are well adapted for running significant distances, and particularly so among primates. The endurance running hypothesis suggests that running endurance in the Homo genus arose because travelling over large areas improved scavenging opportunities, the capacity for endurance running is found in migratory ungulates and a limited number of terrestrial carnivores, such as dogs and hyenas. Long distance running can be used as a means to improve cardiovascular health, Running improves aerobic fitness by increasing the activity of enzymes and hormones that stimulate the muscles and the heart to work more efficiently. Endurance running is often a component of military training and has been so historically. Professional running is most commonly found in the field of sports, long-distance running as a form of tradition or ceremony is known among the Hopi and Tarahumara people, among others.
Distance running can serve as an exercise for family, colleagues. The social element of distance running has been linked with improved performance, in the sport of athletics, long-distance events are defined as races covering three kilometres and above. The three most common types are track running, road running and cross country running, all of which are defined by their terrain – all-weather tracks and natural terrain, respectively. In collegiate cross country races in the United States, men race 8000 or 10000 meters, depending on their division, the Summer Olympics features three long-distance running events, the 5000 metres,10,000 metres and marathon. Since the late 1980s, Kenyans and Ethiopians have dominated in major international long-distance competitions, in this method, the hunter would run at a slow and steady pace between one hour and a few days, in an area where the animal has no place to hide. The Old Testament has a few mentions of messengers running to deliver messages, for example, in 2 Samuel 18, two runners, Ahimaaz son of Zadok and a Cushite run to deliver King David the message of the death of his son Absalom.
Running messengers are reported from early Sumer, were named lasimu as military men as well as the officials who disseminated documents throughout the kingdom by running. Ancient Greece was famous for its running messengers, who were named hemerodromoi and he collapsed and died as he delivered the message “we won”.2 miles /42.195 km is based on this legend. Humans are considered among the best distance runners among all running animals, game animals are faster over short distances, but they have less endurance than humans. Unlike other primates whose bodies are designed to walk on four legs or climb trees and this leads to different bone and muscular demands especially in the legs and pelvis. Dissipation of metabolic heat, humans’ ability to cool the body by sweating through the surface provides many advantages over panting through the mouth or nose. These include a surface of evaporation and independence of the respiratory cycle
The 10,000 metres or 10, 000-meter run is a common long-distance track running event. The event is part of the programme at the Olympic Games. The race consists of 25 laps around an Olympic-sized track and it is less commonly held at track and field meetings, due to its duration. The 10,000 metres track race is usually distinguished from its road running counterpart, the 10,000 metres is the longest standard track event. The international distance is equal to approximately 6.2137 miles, most of those running such races compete in road races and cross country events. Added to the Olympic programme in 1912, athletes from Finland, nicknamed the Flying Finns, in the 1960s, African runners began to come to the fore. In 1988, the womens competition debuted in the Olympic Games, official records are kept for outdoor 10,000 metres track events. The world record for men is held by Kenenisa Bekele of Ethiopia in 26,17.53, posted at Brussels, Belgium on August 26,2005. For women, the world track 10,000 metres record is held by Almaz Ayana of Ethiopia in 29,17.45 to win gold at the 2016 Rio Olympics on August 12,2016.
The 10,000 metres demands exceptional levels of aerobic endurance, european Cup 10, 000m Iberian 10,000 Metres Championships IAAF list of 10000-metres records in XML ARRS, Yearly Rankings -10000 metres Outdoor Track 10K Races in Race-Calendar. com
IAAF World Championships in Athletics
The IAAF World Championships, commonly referred to as the World Championships in Athletics, is a biennial athletics event organized by the International Association of Athletics Federations. Originally held every four years, first in 1983, the current two-year cycle began in 1991, the idea of having an Athletics World Championships was around well before the competitions first event in 1983. In 1913, the IAAF decided that the Olympic Games would serve as the World Championships for athletics and this was considered suitable for over 50 years until in the late 1960s the desire of many IAAF members to have their own World Championships began to grow. In 1976 at the IAAF Council Meeting in Puerto Rico an Athletics World Championships separate from the Olympic Games was approved, two IAAF world championship events preceded the inaugural edition of the World Championships in Athletics in 1983. Four years later, the 1980 World Championships contained only two newly approved womens events, neither of which featured on the programme for the 1980 Summer Olympics, over the years the competition has grown in size.
In 1983 an estimated 1,300 athletes from 154 countries participated, by the 2003 competition, in Paris, it had grown to 1,907 athletes from 203 countries with coverage being transmitted to 179 different countries. There has been a change in composition over the years, with new events, all for women. By 2005, the differences were mens competition in the 50 km walk. The following list shows when new events were added for the first time,1987, womens 10,000 m and 10 km walk were added. 1993, womens triple jump was added,1995, womens 5000 m was added, replacing the 3000 m race. 1999, womens pole vault and hammer were added and the womens 20 km walk replaced the 10 km walk,2005, womens 3000 m steeplechase was added. Updated after 2015 Championships Note, Germany refers both to the former West Germany and the unified Federal Republic of Germany, the opening and closing ceremonies of the 8th IAAF World Championships held in Edmonton in 2001 were broadcast live to over 200 countries. The event included the mens marathon, and featured a thousand voice choir, men There are fifteen athletes who have won at least six medals.
Women There are thirteen athletes who have won at least six medals, There are eighteen athletes that competed in at least eight editions
Assisi is a town and comune of Italy in the Province of Perugia in the Umbria region, on the western flank of Monte Subasio. The 19th-century Saint Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows was born in Assisi, around 1000 BC a wave of immigrants settled in the upper Tiber valley as far as the Adriatic Sea, and in the neighborhood of Assisi. These were the Umbrians, living in fortified settlements on high ground. From 450 BC these settlements were taken over by the Etruscans. The Romans took control of central Italy after the Battle of Sentinum in 295 BC and they built the flourishing municipium Asisium on a series of terraces on Monte Subasio. Roman remains can still be found in Assisi, city walls, the forum, a theatre, an amphitheatre, in 1997, the remains of a Roman villa were discovered containing several well-preserved rooms with frescoes and mosaics in a condition rarely found outside sites such as Pompei. In 238 AD Assisi was converted to Christianity by bishop Rufino, according to tradition, his remains rest in the Cathedral Church of San Rufino in Assisi.
The Ostrogoths of king Totila destroyed most of the town in 545, Assisi came under the rule of the Lombards as part of the Lombard and Frankish Duchy of Spoleto. The thriving commune became an independent Ghibelline commune in the 11th century, the city, which had remained within the confines of the Roman walls, began to expand outside these walls in the 13th century. In this period the city was under papal jurisdiction, the city went into a deep decline through the plague of the Black Death in 1348. The city came again under papal jurisdiction under the rule of Pope Pius II, in 1569 construction was started of the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli. During the Renaissance and in centuries, the city continued to develop peacefully, as the 17th-century palazzi of the Bernabei, now the site of many a pilgrimage, Assisi is linked in legend with its native son, St. Francis. The gentle saint founded the Franciscan order and shares honors with St. Catherine of Siena as the saint of Italy. He is remembered by many, even non-Christians, as a lover of nature, Assisi was hit by two devastating earthquakes, that shook Umbria in September 1997.
But the recovery and restoration have been remarkable, although much remains to be done, massive damage was caused to many historical sites, but the major attraction, the Basilica di San Francesco, reopened less than 2 years later. UNESCO collectively designated the Franciscan structures of Assisi as a World Heritage Site in 2000, the Basilica of San Francesco dAssisi. The Franciscan monastery, il Sacro Convento, and the lower and upper church of St Francis were begun immediately after his canonization in 1228, and completed in 1253. The Basilica was badly damaged by an earthquake on 26 September 1997, during part of the vault collapsed, killing four people inside the church
The marathon is a long-distance running race with an official distance of 42.195 kilometres, usually run as a road race. The event was instituted in commemoration of the run of the Greek soldier Pheidippides, a messenger from the Battle of Marathon to Athens. The marathon was one of the original modern Olympic events in 1896, more than 800 marathons are held throughout the world each year, with the vast majority of competitors being recreational athletes as larger marathons can have tens of thousands of participants. The name Marathon comes from the legend of Philippides or Pheidippides and it is said that he ran the entire distance without stopping and burst into the assembly, exclaiming νενικήκαμεν, before collapsing and dying. Lucian of Samosata gives the story, but names the runner Philippides, there is debate about the historical accuracy of this legend. In some Herodotus manuscripts, the name of the runner between Athens and Sparta is given as Philippides, in 1879, Robert Browning wrote the poem Pheidippides.
Brownings poem, his story, became part of late 19th century popular culture and was accepted as a historic legend. This route, as it existed when the Olympics were revived in 1896, was approximately 40 kilometres long, and this route is considerably shorter, some 35 kilometres, but includes a very steep initial climb of more than 5 kilometres. When the modern Olympics began in 1896, the initiators and organizers were looking for a great popularizing event, the idea of a marathon race came from Michel Bréal, who wanted the event to feature in the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens. This idea was supported by Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympics. The Greeks staged a race for the Olympic marathon on 10 March 1896 that was won by Charilaos Vasilakos in 3 hours and 18 minutes. The winner of the first Olympic marathon, on 10 April 1896, was Spyridon Louis, the marathon of the 2004 Summer Olympics was run on the traditional route from Marathon to Athens, ending at Panathinaiko Stadium, the venue for the 1896 Summer Olympics.
The womens marathon was introduced at the 1984 Summer Olympics and was won by Joan Benoit of the United States with a time of 2 hours 24 minutes and 52 seconds. It has become a tradition for the mens Olympic marathon to be the last event of the athletics calendar, the mens marathon medals are awarded during the closing ceremony. The Olympic mens record is 2,06,32, set at the 2008 Summer Olympics by Samuel Kamau Wanjiru of Kenya, the Olympic womens record is 2,23,07, set at the 2012 Summer Olympics by Tiki Gelana of Ethiopia. The mens London 2012 Summer Olympic marathon winner was Stephen Kiprotich of Uganda, per capita, the Kalenjin ethnic group of Rift Valley Province in Kenya has produced a highly disproportionate share of marathon and track-and-field winners. Johnny Hayes victory at the 1908 Summer Olympics contributed to the growth of long-distance running and marathoning in the United States. Later that year, races around the season including the Empire City Marathon held on New Years Day 1909 in Yonkers, New York