For this reason the alternative terms of Precontact Americas, Pre-Colonial Americas or Prehistoric Americas are in use. In areas of Latin America the term used is Pre-Hispanic. Other civilizations were contemporary with the period and were described in European historical accounts of the time. A few, such as the Maya civilization, had their own written records, because many Christian Europeans of the time viewed such texts as heretical, men like Diego de Landa destroyed many texts in pyres, even while seeking to preserve native histories. Only a few documents have survived in their original languages, while others were transcribed or dictated into Spanish, giving modern historians glimpses of ancient culture. Indigenous American cultures continue to evolve after the pre-Columbian era, many of these peoples and their descendants continue traditional practices, while evolving and adapting new cultural practices and technologies into their lives. Now, the study of pre-Columbian cultures is most often based on scientific.
Asian nomads are thought to have entered the Americas via the Bering Land Bridge, now the Bering Strait, genetic evidence found in Amerindians maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA supports the theory of multiple genetic populations migrating from Asia. Over the course of millennia, Paleo-Indians spread throughout North and South America, exactly when the first group of people migrated into the Americas is the subject of much debate. One of the earliest identifiable cultures was the Clovis culture, with sites dating from some 13,000 years ago, older sites dating back to 20,000 years ago have been claimed. Some genetic studies estimate the colonization of the Americas dates from between 40,000 and 13,000 years ago, the chronology of migration models is currently divided into two general approaches. The first is the short chronology theory with the first movement beyond Alaska into the New World occurring no earlier than 14, 000–17,000 years ago, followed by successive waves of immigrants. The second belief is the long chronology theory, which proposes that the first group of people entered the hemisphere at an earlier date, possibly 50.
In that case, the Eskimo peoples would have arrived separately and at a date, probably no more than 2,000 years ago. The North American climate was unstable as the ice age receded and it finally stabilized by about 10,000 years ago, climatic conditions were very similar to todays. Within this timeframe, roughly pertaining to the Archaic Period, numerous archaeological cultures have been identified, the unstable climate led to widespread migration, with early Paleo-Indians soon spreading throughout the Americas, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct tribes. The paleo-indians were hunter-gatherers, likely characterized by small, mobile bands consisting of approximately 20 to 50 members of an extended family and these groups moved from place to place as preferred resources were depleted and new supplies were sought. During much of the Paleo-Indian period, bands are thought to have subsisted primarily through hunting now-extinct giant land animals such as mastodon, Paleo-Indian groups carried a variety of tools
Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco
It was inaugurated on January 6,1536, however, it had been a functioning school since August 8,1533. While Bishop of Santo Domingo, Ramírez de Fuenleal had encouraged the Franciscans to teach the sons of Indians grammar in their language of Nahuatl. Franciscan Arnaldo de Basccio began the task with success, which gave support to the project of establishing an institute of higher learning. Ramírez de Fuenleal urged the crown to provide funds to establish, still others were founded by Franciscans in this early period. These schools for Indian and mestizo boys taught basic literacy, but singing, instruction in how to help with the mass, and sometimes manual labor. The primary education of Indian girls was a concern and schools were established in Mexico City, but not until the establishment of the Colegio de Santa Cruz were sons of Indian men given higher education. Bishop Juan de Zumárraga was a supporter of the establishment of the colegio, but credited Fuenleal, the colegio was inaugurated on January 6,1536, the feast of the Epiphany, deliberately chosen for its symbolism of calling the gentiles to the true faith.
He went on to refute concerns about the possibility of the Indians spreading heresy, betanzos in his opposition to the colegio said that Native Americans who knew Latin could expose the ignorance of the existing European priests, an argument that perhaps unwittingly did the same. The original purpose of the colegio was to educate a male indigenous priesthood and these young men were taught to be literate in Nahuatl and Latin, and received instruction in Latin in music, rhetoric and philosophy, and indigenous medicine. One student educated at the colegio was Nahua botanist Martín de la Cruz, who wrote the Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, actual instruction at the colegio was by two Franciscans at a time, aided by Indian assistants. Other Franciscans who taught there were Fray Juan de Goana, Fray Francisco de Bustamante, Fray García de Cisneros, Fray Arnaldo de Basaccio, Fray Juan de Torquemada served as a teacher and administrator at the Colegio. Fray Alonso de Herrera preached the sermon at the opening Mass, following the religious ceremony, there was a banquet hosted by Zumárraga for guests and the first pupils, chosen from the convent of San Francisco de México.
Although there was support from many sectors, the physical structure was at first quite modest for lack of funds. The pupils lived in the colegio in very modest circumstances, a common eating area and sleeping quarters with beds being only a mat and a blanket placed on individual wooden platforms to keep pupils from the damp floor. Some important pupils trained at the school were Antonio de Valeriano, the Franciscans continued to teach at the colegio, but could not afford to keep up the building or other expenses, so they turned it over to the crown shortly after the colegio opened in 1536. In 1546 the Franciscans gave up any management of the property and it was turned over to the pupils, by 1550 due to poor management, the buildings were falling down and pupils had to become day students. In 1555, Indians were forbidden from ordination to the priesthood, in the seventeenth century when Franciscan Augustín de Vetancurt was writing, the colegio was a complete ruin. In modern Mexico city the Plaza de las Tres Culturas, close to the location of the Colegio, the accompanying illustration shows the church of Santiago which still exists, together with part of the conventual buildings, visible to the right of the church
Azcapotzalco was a pre-Columbian Nahua altepetl, capital of the Tepanec empire, in the Valley of Mexico, on the western shore of Lake Texcoco. The name Azcapotzalco means at the anthill in Nahuatl, according to the 17th century annalist Chimalpahin, Azcapotzalco was founded by Chichimecs in the year 995 AD. The most famous ruler of Azcapotzalco was Tezozomoctli, according to chronicler Fernando Alva Ixtlilxóchitl the Tepanecs were a Chichimec group and settled in 1012 in the region west of Lake Texcoco. Its lineage begins when their Acolhua leader marries Xolotls daughter Cuetlaxochitzin, but this information is rather in a mythical context, Acolnahuacatls life is registered much later. Chimalpahin places their settlement before, in 995, continuing with data provided by Chimalpahin, he mentions that Tepanec entered the Triple Alliance from 1047. The documents indicate that last line starts with Matlacohuatl, Azcapotzalco was founded in the 13th century in the west of Lake Texcoco. Azcapotzalco maintained a dominant hegemony with the Aztecs, who arrived in 1299, settling on the Chapultepec Hill, in 1318 for the first time they attacked the Aztecs, which resulted in an increased tribute and greater participation in military campaigns.
Around of 1315, the Tepanec and Chichimec drove the Aztecs definitively from Chapultepec, Cópil was captured and killed by the Aztecs. His heart was ripped out and thrown into the River, according to a legend, Huitzilopochtli had to kill his nephew, Cópil and threw his heart in the Lake. However, since Cópil was his relative, Huitzilopochtli decided to honor him and made a cactus grow over Cópil heart, the Aztecs attempted to ally with the Colhua to confront the Tepanec, they were allowed to settle in Tizapán, near Colhuacan. In 1323, the Aztecs slaughtered a Colhua Princess in front of her father, the Colhua had been expelled from Tizapán and immediately declared war. The Aztecs called for immediate Azcapotzalco protection, and from this point forward they were subject to military, at Acolnahuacatls death, his son Tezozomoc, only 23 years old, took his place, Tezozomoc may be the most important and crucial post-classical period figure. During his reign, Azcapotzalco reached its greatest splendor, at the time of his death in 1426, Azcapotzalco was an authentic Hueyi Tlahtohcayotl, it controlled trade routes at least 40 altépetl.
His political decisions both destroyed villages and favored the emergence of others and he installed his sons on the thrones of many nearby altépetl, such as his son Cuacuapitzahuac who ruled Tlatelolco until 1407. The supremacy of Tenochtitlan was a result of Tezozómocs policies, Tezozómoc forced the Aztecs to fight with him and together conquered the city of Colhuacan in 1385. Between 1414-1418, Azcapotzalco controlled the entire Valley of Mexico, thanks to the contribution of Aztec and mercenary forces. Azcapotzalco became a center of enormous power. In 1426, When Tezozómoc died, his son Maxtla took power, maxta failed to maintain alliances and lost the crucial support of the Aztecs by arranging for the assassination of their tlatoani Chimalpopoca
Tlacateotl was the second Tlatoani of the Aztec city of Tlatelolco from 1417 until his death. Under his rule the Tlatelolcas continued to expand their wealth and influence within the valley of Mexico, through trade and tribute, the citys market grew to include trade in wool and quetzal feathers. Tlacateotl ordered the removal of sculptures from the ruins of Tula to decorate the growing city and his reign ended in 1427/8 during the succession struggle in Azcapotzalco between Tayatzin and Maxtla. He is recorded as having been stoned to death while traveling by canoe, Maxtla is commonly assumed to have ordered the murder, possibly due to a suspected affair between Tlacateotl and Maxtlas wife. He was succeeded by his grandson, Quauhtlatoa and he succeeded his father, upon his death in 1417. He was a brother of the queens Matlalatzin and Huacaltzintli and grandson of the famous king Tezozomoc and he was a cousin of Emperor Chimalpopoca and uncle of the prince Tezozomoc. He was a father of the kings Tezozomoctli and Itzquauhtzin and grandfather of Quauhtlatoa and his wives were called Xiuhtomiyauhtzin and Xiuhcanahualtzin.
Chimalpahin Cuauhtlehuanitzin, Domingo Francisco de San Antón Muñón, the Civilization of the American Indian Series. Edited and translated by Arthur J. O. Anderson and Susan Schroeder
Axayacatl was the sixth tlatoani of the altepetl of Tenochtitlan and ruler of the Aztec Triple Alliance. Axayacatl was a son of the princess Atotoztli II and her cousin and he was a grandson of the Emperors Moctezuma I and Itzcoatl. He was a descendant of the king Cuauhtototzin and he was a successor of Moctezuma and his brothers were Emperors Tixoc and Ahuitzotl and his sister was the Queen Chalchiuhnenetzin. He was an uncle of the Emperor Cuauhtémoc and father of Emperors Moctezuma II and it is important that the Great Sun Stone, known as the Aztec Calendar, was carved under his leadership. In the year 1475 there was an earthquake that destroyed many homes in Temochtitlán. Using as a pretext the insulting behavior of a few Tlatelolcan citizens, Axayacatl invaded his neighbor, killed its ruler, the Tlatelolcans lost any voice they had in forming Aztec policy. In spite of his age, he fell gravely ill in 1480, passing away a mere year later, in 1481. List of Tenochtitlan rulers Davies, the Aztec Empire, The Toltec Resurgence.
Aztec Warfare, Imperial Expansion and Political Control, the Aztecs and Their Predecessors, Archaeology of Mesoamerica
The Broken Spears
The Broken Spears, The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico is a book by Miguel León-Portilla, translating selections of Nahuatl-language accounts of the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire. It was first published in Spanish in 1959, and in English in 1962, the most recent English edition was published in 2007. The English-language title, The Broken Spears, comes from a phrase in one version of the Annals of Tlatelolco, xaxamatoc omitl. According to James Lockhart, this is a resulting from confusion between the Nahuatl words mitl arrow, dart or spear, and omitl bone, an alternative translation is thus broken bones. León-Portilla prefaces the sources he chose for the book not only background on the events. The following sections break down the role of the war, the effect of disease. These relations are marked by letters written to the Spanish Crown, notably Philip II of Spain, the accounts vary from pleading to King Philip II for audiences, to fears manifesting in centuries for Nahua identity clashing with colonial Spain.
And no book has contributed more to this effort than this one, the present English edition, which first came out in 1962, has gone through numerous printings, with tens of thousands of copies sold since 1974. Ángel María Garibay’s translation is described as “subtle” and “unique and powerful, he should ideally be read in Spanish, not English. ”Miguel León-Portilla’s summarization of the Aztec Empire is described as “masterful” and the compilation between the translator and historian was given credit for working well together. Due to the popularity and influence of The Broken Spears, several translations were made, full Spanish text of The Broken Spears. Full English translation of introduction for The Broken Spears
The Tepanecs or Tepaneca are a Mesoamerican people who arrived in the Valley of Mexico in the late 12th or early 13th centuries. The Tepanec were a culture of the Aztecs as well as the Acolhua and others—these tribes spoke the Nahuatl language and shared the same general pantheon. Reputedly welcomed to the Valley of Mexico by the semi-legendary Chichimeca ruler Xolotl, under their tlatoani, the Tepanec took over Azcapotzalco from the indigenous inhabitants. In the early 14th century, Tezozomoc brought the Tepanec to their height of power, at that point they controlled all of the Valley of Mexico as well as parts of the Toluca. Native sources say that Tezozomoc lived to the age of over 100 and was legendary for his generalship and statesmanship, the death of Tezozomoc in 1426 brought his sons Tayatzin and Maxtla to the throne, with Maxtla most likely poisoning Tayatzin. In 1428, Maxtla was overthrown by the nascent Aztec Triple Alliance, which included the Mexicas of Tenochtitlan, with the rise of the Aztec empire, Tlacopan became the predominant Tepanec city, although both Tenochtitlan and Texcoco eclipsed Tlacopan in size and prestige
New Spain was a colonial territory of the Spanish Empire, in the New World north of the Isthmus of Panama. It was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521, after 1535 the colony was governed by the Viceroy of New Spain, an appointed minister of the King of Spain, who ruled as monarch over the colony. The capital of New Spain was Mexico City and it developed highly regional divisions, which reflect the impact of climate, the presence or absence of dense indigenous populations, and the presence or absence of mineral resources. The areas of central and southern Mexico had dense indigenous populations with complex social, silver mining not only became the engine of the economy of New Spain, but vastly enriched Spain, and transformed the global economy. New Spain was the New World terminus of the Philippine trade, although New Spain was a dependency of Spain, it was a kingdom not a colony, subject to the presiding monarch on the Iberian Peninsula. Every privilege and position, economic political, or religious came from him and it was on this basis that the conquest and government of the New World was achieved.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain was established in 1535 in the Kingdom of New Spain and it was the first New World viceroyalty and one of only two in the Spanish empire until the 18th century Bourbon Reforms. The Spanish Empire comprised the territories in the north overseas Septentrion, from North America, to the west of the continent, New Spain included the Spanish East Indies. To the east of the continent, it included the Spanish West Indies and this was not occupied by many Spanish settlers and were considered more marginal to Spanish interests than the most densely populated and lucrative areas of central Mexico. To shore up its claims in North America starting in the late 18th century, Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest explored and claimed the coast of what is now British Columbia and Alaska. The indigenous societies of Mesoamerica brought under Spanish control were of unprecedented complexity, the societies could provide the conquistadors, especially Hernán Cortés, a base from which the conquerors could become autonomous, or even independent, of the Crown.
As a result, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, since the time of the Catholic Monarchs, central Iberia was governed through councils appointed by the monarch with particular jurisdictions. Thus, the creation of the Council of the Indies became another, the crown had set up the Casa de Contratación in 1503 to regulate contacts between Spain and its overseas possessions. A key function was to gather information about navigation to make trips less risky and they were accompanied by maps of the area discussed, many of which were drawn by indigenous artists. The Francisco Hernández Expedition, the first scientific expedition to the New World, was sent to gather information medicinal plants, an earlier Audiencia had been established in Santo Domingo in 1526 to deal with the Caribbean settlements. That Audiencia, housed in the Casa Reales in Santo Domingo, was charged with encouraging further exploration, management by the Audiencia, which was expected to make executive decisions as a body, proved unwieldy.
Therefore, in 1535, King Charles V named Don Antonio de Mendoza as the first Viceroy of New Spain. After the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire in 1532 opened up the vast territories of South America to further conquests, the Crown established an independent Viceroyalty of Peru there in 1540
A mass grave is a grave containing multiple human corpses, which may or may not be identified prior to burial. Although mass graves can be used during major conflicts, in modern times they are usually seen after events such as a major famine, epidemic. Mass graves are a variation on common burial, still practiced today under normal circumstances. Mass or communal burial was a practice before the development of a dependable crematory chamber by Ludovico Brunetti in 1873. In Paris, the practice of burial, and in particular. The remains were removed and placed in the Paris underground forming the early Catacombs, la Cimetière des Innocents alone had 6,000,000 dead to remove. Burial commenced outside the city limits in what is now Père Lachaise Cemetery, mass graves are usually created after a large number of people die or are killed, and there is a desire to bury the corpses quickly for sanitation concerns. In disasters, mass graves are used for infection and disease control, in such cases, there is often a breakdown of the social infrastructure that would enable proper identification and disposal of individual bodies.
The debate surrounding mass graves amongst epidemiologists includes whether or not, in a disaster, to leave corpses for traditional individual burials. Recent research indicates that the risks from dead bodies after natural disasters are relatively limited. The United Nations has defined a criminal mass grave as a site containing three or more victims of execution. Mass grave mapping teams have located 125 Khmer Rouge prison facilities, many mass graves were discovered after the Massacre at Huế during the Vietnam War