Hephaestion, son of Amyntor, was an ancient Macedonian nobleman and a general in the army of Alexander the Great. He was "by far the dearest of all the king's friends; this relationship lasted throughout their lives, was compared, by others as well as themselves, to that of Achilles and Patroclus. His military career was distinguished. A member of Alexander the Great's personal bodyguard, he went on to command the Companion cavalry and was entrusted with many other tasks throughout Alexander's ten-year campaign in Asia, including diplomatic missions, the bridging of major rivers and the foundation of new settlements. Besides being a soldier and diplomat he corresponded with the philosophers Aristotle and Xenocrates and supported Alexander in his attempts to integrate the Greeks and Persians. Alexander formally made him his second-in-command. Alexander made him part of the royal family when he gave him as his bride Drypetis, sister to his own second wife Stateira, both daughters of Darius III of Persia.
When he died at Ecbatana around age thirty-two, Alexander was overwhelmed with grief. He petitioned the oracle at Siwa to grant Hephaestion divine status and thus Hephaestion was honoured as a Divine Hero. Hephaestion was cremated and his ashes taken to Babylon. At the time of his own death a mere eight months Alexander was still planning lasting monuments to Hephaestion's memory. Hephaestion's exact age is not known. No concise biography has been written about him stemming from the fact that he died before Alexander and none of those among Alexander's companions who survived him would have had a need to promote someone other than themselves. Many scholars cite Hephaestion's age as being similar to Alexander's so it is fair to assume that he was born about 356 BC, he is said to have become a page in 343 BC, a role common to adolescent boys of the aristocratic class in Macedon. As a member of the court, he may have met Alexander around this time; the only surviving anecdote from Hephaestion's youth comes courtesy of the Alexander Romance.
According to this tale, "one day when Alexander was 15 years old... sailing with Hephaestion, his friend, he reached Pisa... and he went off to stroll with Hephaestion." That Alexander's exact age is given provides another clue to Hephaestion's upbringing because at fifteen Alexander and his companions were at Mieza studying under Aristotle. Hephaestion has never been named among those who attended the lectures at Mieza, but his close friendship with Alexander at that age suggests that he was numbered among them. More telling is Hephaestion's name being found in a catalogue of Aristotle's correspondences; the letters themselves no longer exist, but for them to have found their way into an official catalogue, their content must have been of some significance. It implies that Hephaestion received a good education and shows that Aristotle was impressed enough by his pupil to send letters throughout Alexander's expanding empire to converse with him. A few years after the lectures at Mieza, Hephaestion's presence was notably absent when several of Alexander's close friends were exiled as a result of the Pixodarus affair.
Among those exiled by Philip II after Alexander's failed attempt to offer himself as groom to the Carian princess were Ptolemy, Harpalus and Laomedon. The reason for Hephaestion's absence from this list could be the fact that all of the exiled men were older friends of Alexander, Erigyius himself 24 years older than the prince. Hephaestion was a contemporary of Alexander and it is that his influence might have been seen as less of a threat than these more mature companions. Whatever Hephaestion's opinion had been on the whole affair, like many of Alexander's other childhood companions he was not exiled in its aftermath. While it is true that little detail of Hephaestion's childhood and education can be found, that which remains gives credence to what is known about his life, his friendship with Alexander was long-lasting. With such a promising start and experience would have helped mould Hephaestion Amyntoros into the man who would one day be the second most powerful man in Alexander's empire, second only to the king himself.
Sharing Alexander's upbringing, Hephaestion would have learned to fight and to ride well from an early age. His first taste of military action was the campaign against the Thracians while Alexander was regent, followed by Philip II's Danube campaign and the battle of Chaeronea while he was still in his teens, his name is not mentioned in lists of high-ranking officers during the early battles of Alexander's Danube campaign or the invasion of Persia. Nor are the names of Alexander's other close friends and contemporaries listed, suggesting that their promotions, when they achieved them, were earned by merit. Hephaestion's career was never a military one. Right from the start he was engaged in special missions, sometimes diplomatic, sometimes technical; the first mention of his career in the sources is a diplomatic mission of some importance. After the battle of Issus when Alexander was proceeding south down the Phoenician coast and had received the capitulation of Sidon, Hephaestion was "authorised to appoint to the throne the Sidonian he considered most deserving of that high office".
Hephaestion took local advice and chose a man distantly related to the royal family, but whose honesty had reduced him to working as a gardener. The man, Abdalonymus
Gorgan is the capital city of Golestan Province, Iran. It lies 400 km to the north east of Tehran, some 30 km away from the Caspian Sea. In the 2006 census. There are several archaeological sites near Gorgan, including Tureng Tepe and Shah Tepe, in which there are remains dating from the Neolithic and Chalcolithic eras; some other important Neolithic sites in the area are Yarim Tepe and Sange Chaxmaq. The nearby Shahroud Plain has many such sites; the number of conﬁrmed Neolithic sites on the Gorgan Plain now totals more than fifty. According to the Greek historian Arrian, Zadracarta was the largest city of Hyrcania and site of the "royal palace"; the term means "the yellow city", it was given to it from the great number of oranges and other fruit trees which grew in the outskirts of that city. Hyrcania became part of the Achaemenid Empire during the reign of Cyrus the Great, its founder, or his successor Cambyses; the Great Wall of Gorgan, the second biggest defensive wall in the world, was built in the Parthian and Sassanian periods.
At the time of the Sassanids, "Gurgan" appeared as the name of a city, province capital, province. Gorgan maintained its independence as a Zoroastrian state after Persia was conquered by the invading Arab Muslims in 8th century. In 1210, the city was invaded and sacked by the army of Kingdom of Georgia under command of the brothers Mkhargrdzeli."Old Gorgan" was destroyed during the Mongol invasion in the 13th century, the center of the region was moved to what was called "Astarabad", called "Gorgan". Gorgan with its surrounding regions was sometimes considered as part of the Parthia or the Tabaristan regions. Astarabad was an important religious city during the Qajar dynasty; the wide Dasht-e Gorgan are located north of the city and geographically bounded by 37°00' - 37°30' north latitude and 54°00' - 54°30' east longitude, covering an area of about 170 square kilometres. Some 150 km east of Gorgan is the Golestan National Park, home to a large portion of the fauna of Iran. Gorgan has a mediterranean climate.
In general, Golestan has a moderate and humid climate known as "the moderate Caspian climate." The effective factors behind such a climate are: Alborz mountain range, direction of the mountains, height of the area, neighborhood to the sea, vegetation surface, local winds and weather fronts. As a result of the above factors, three different climates exist in the region: plain moderate and semi-arid. Gorgan valley has a semi-arid climate; the average annual temperature is 17.7 °C and the annual rainfall is 601 millimetres. House of Karen, an aristocratic feudal family first attested in the Arsacid era, belonged to the region of Hyrcania. Fakhroddin Asaad Gorgani, Persian poet and the composer of Vis and Ramin. Abu Sa'id al-Darir al-Jurjani, 9th century astronomer and mathematician Al-Masihi, 10th century physician and teacher of Avicenna Abd al-Qāhir al-Jurjānī, 11th century grammarian and literary theorist Zayn al-Din al-Jurjani, 12th century royal physician Fazlallah Astarabadi, 14th century mystic and founder of Hurufism Rustam Gorgani, 16th century physician Mir Fendereski, philosopher and mysti Mir Damad, 17th century Islamic scholar and Neoplatonic philosopher Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi, 18th century chief minister to Nader Shah Bibi Khatoon Astarabadi, a notable writer and one of the pioneering figures of the women's movement of Iran Firishta, historian Sardar Rafie Yanehsari, Governor of Astarabad Mohammad Reza Lotfi, Traditional Persian musician Nader Ebrahimi, poet and researcher Maryam Zandi, photographer Gorgan has a world-famous carpet and rug industry, the Turkmen rug, made by Turkmen people.
The patterns of these carpets are derived from the ancient Persian city of Bukhara, now in modern-day Uzbekistan. Islamic Azad University of Gorgan Golestan University of Medical Sciences Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources Mirdamad Institute of Higher Education Lamei Gorgani Institute of Higher Education Hakeem Jorjani Institute of Higher Education There is an international airport near the city; the main sport in Gorgan is basketball. Shahrdari Gorgan competes in the Iranian Basketball Super League; the main football team of Gorgan is Etka Gorgan F. C. which competes in the Azadegan League. Aktau, Kazakhstan Samsun, Turkey Gorgan International Airport al-Jurjani Gorgan-rud River Gurganj
Lycia was a geopolitical region in Anatolia in what are now the provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, Burdur Province inland. Known to history since the records of ancient Egypt and the Hittite Empire in the Late Bronze Age, it was populated by speakers of the Luwian language group. Written records began to be inscribed in stone in the Lycian language after Lycia's involuntary incorporation into the Achaemenid Empire in the Iron Age. At that time the Luwian speakers were decimated, Lycia received an influx of Persian speakers. Ancient sources seem to indicate. Lycia fought for the Persians in the Persian Wars, but on the defeat of the Achaemenid Empire by the Greeks, it became intermittently a free agent. After a brief membership in the Athenian Empire, it seceded and became independent, was under the Persians again, revolted again, was conquered by Mausolus of Caria, returned to the Persians, fell under Macedonian hegemony upon the defeat of the Persians by Alexander the Great.
Due to the influx of Greek speakers and the sparsity of the remaining Lycian speakers, Lycia was Hellenized under the Macedonians, the Lycian language disappeared from inscriptions and coinage. On defeating Antiochus III in 188 BC the Romans gave Lycia to Rhodes for 20 years, taking it back in 168 BC. In these latter stages of the Roman republic Lycia came to enjoy freedom as a Roman protectorate; the Romans validated home rule under the Lycian League in 168 BC. This native government was an early federation with republican principles. Despite home rule, Lycia had not been since its defeat by the Carians. In 43 AD the Roman emperor Claudius dissolved the league, Lycia was incorporated into the Roman Empire with provincial status, it became an eparchy of the Eastern, or Byzantine Empire, continuing to speak Greek after being joined by communities of Turkish language speakers in the early 2nd millennium. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century, Lycia was under the Ottoman Empire, was inherited by the Turkish Republic on the fall of that empire.
The Greek and Turkish population was exchanged when the border between Greece and Turkey was negotiated in 1923. The borders of Lycia varied over time, but at its centre was the Teke peninsula of southwestern Turkey, which juts southward into the Mediterranean Sea, bounded on the west by the Gulf of Fethiye, on the east by the Gulf of Antalya. Lycia comprised what is now the westernmost portion of Antalya Province, the easternmost portion of Muğla Province, the southernmost portion of Burdur Province. In ancient times the surrounding districts were, from west to east, Caria and Pamphylia, all as ancient, each speaking its own Anatolian language; the name of the Teke Peninsula comes from the former name of Antalya Province, Teke Province, named from the Turkish tribe that settled in the region. Four ridges extend from northeast to southwest forming the western extremity of the Taurus Mountains. Furthest west of the four are Boncuk Dağlari, or "the Boncuk Mountains," extending from about Altinyayla, southwest to about Oren north of Fethiye.
This is a low range peaking at about 2,340 m. To the west of it the steep gorges of Dalaman Çayi, the ancient Indus, formed the traditional border between Caria and Lycia; the stream, 229 km long, enters the Mediterranean to the west of modern-day Dalaman. Upstream it is dammed in four places, after an origin in the vicinity of Sarikavak in Denizli Province; the next ridge to the east is Akdağlari, "the White Mountains," about 150 km long, with a high point at Uyluktepe, "Uyluk Peak," of 3,024 m. This massif may have been ancient Mount Cragus. Along its western side flows Eşen Çayi, "the Esen River," anciently the Xanthus, Lycian Arñna, originating in the Boncuk Mountains, flowing south, transecting the several-mile-long beach at Patara; the Xanthus Valley was the country called Tŗmmis in dynastic Lycia, from which the people were the Termilae or Tremilae, or Kragos in the coin inscriptions of Greek Lycia: Kr or Ksan Kr. The name of western Lycia was given by points of Lycia west of it; the next ridge to the east, Beydağlari, "the Bey Mountains," peaks at Kizlarsevrisi, 3,086 m, the highest point of the Teke Peninsula.
It is most the ancient Masicytus range. Between Beydağlari and Akdağlari is an upland plateau, where ancient Milyas was located; the elevation of the town of Elmali, which means "Apple Town," from the density of fruit-bearing groves in the region, is 1,100 m, the highest part of the valley below it. Fellows considered the valley to be central Lycia; the Akçay, or "White River," the ancient Aedesa, brought water from the slopes to the plain, where it pooled in two lakes below the town, Karagöl and Avlangöl. The two lakes are dry, the waters being captured on an ongoing basis by irrigation systems for the trees; the Aedesa once drained the plain through a chasm to the east, but now flows through pipelines covering the same route, but emptying into the water supplies of Arycanda and Arif. An effort has been made to restore some of the cedar forests cleared in antiquity; the easternmost ridge extends along the east coast of the Teke Peninsula, is called Tahtali Dağlari, "The Tahtali Mo
Thrace is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria and Turkey, bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east. It comprises northeastern Greece and the European part of Turkey; the word Thrace was established by the Greeks for referring to the Thracian tribes, from ancient Greek Thrake, descending from Thrāix. It referred to the Thracians, an ancient Indo-European people inhabiting Southeast Europe; the name Europe first referred to Thrace proper, prior to the term vastly extending to refer to its modern concept. The region could have been named after the principal river there, Hebros from the Indo-European arg "white river", According to an alternative theory, Hebros means "goat" in Thracian. In Turkey, it is referred to as Rumeli, Land of the Romans, owing to this region being the last part of the Eastern Roman Empire, conquered by the Ottoman Empire. In terms of ancient Greek mythology the name appears to derive from the heroine and sorceress Thrace, the daughter of Oceanus and Parthenope, sister of Europa.
The historical boundaries of Thrace have varied. The ancient Greeks employed the term "Thrace" to refer to all of the territory which lay north of Thessaly inhabited by the Thracians, a region which "had no definite boundaries" and to which other regions were added. In one ancient Greek source, the Earth is divided into "Asia, Libya and Thracia"; as the Greeks gained knowledge of world geography, "Thrace" came to designate the area bordered by the Danube on the north, by the Euxine Sea on the east, by northern Macedonia in the south and by Illyria to the west. This coincided with the Thracian Odrysian kingdom, whose borders varied over time. After the Macedonian conquest, this region's former border with Macedonia was shifted from the Struma River to the Mesta River; this usage lasted until the Roman conquest. Henceforth, Thrace referred only to the tract of land covering the same extent of space as the modern geographical region. In its early period, the Roman province of Thrace was of this extent, but after the administrative reforms of the late 3rd century, Thracia's much reduced territory became the six small provinces which constituted the Diocese of Thrace.
The medieval Byzantine theme of Thrace contained only. The largest cities of Thrace are: Plovdiv, Stara Zagora, Haskovo, Komotini, Xanthi, Istanbul, Çorlu, Kırklareli and Tekirdağ. Most of the Bulgarian and Greek population are Orthodox Christians, while most of the Turkish inhabitants of Thrace are Sunni Muslims. Ancient Greek mythology provides the Thracians with a mythical ancestor Thrax, the son of the war-god Ares, said to reside in Thrace; the Thracians appear in Homer's Iliad as Trojan allies, led by Peiros. In the Iliad, another Thracian king, makes an appearance. Cisseus, father-in-law to the Trojan elder Antenor, is given as a Thracian king. Homeric Thrace was vaguely defined, stretched from the River Axios in the west to the Hellespont and Black Sea in the east; the Catalogue of Ships mentions three separate contingents from Thrace: Thracians led by Acamas and Peiros, from Aenus. Ancient Thrace was home to numerous other tribes, such as the Edones, Bisaltae and Bistones in addition to the tribe that Homer calls the “Thracians”.
Greek mythology is replete with Thracian kings, including Diomedes, Lycurgus, Tegyrius, Polymnestor and Oeagrus. Thrace is mentioned in Ovid's Metamorphoses, in the episode of Philomela and Tereus: Tereus, the King of Thrace, lusts after his sister-in-law, Philomela, he kidnaps her, holds her captive, rapes her, cuts out her tongue. Philomela manages to get free, however, she and her sister, plot to get revenge, by killing her son Itys and serving him to his father for dinner. At the end of the myth, all three turn into birds – Procne into a swallow, Philomela into a nightingale, Tereus into a hoopoe; the indigenous population of Thrace was a people called the Thracians, divided into numerous tribal groups. The region was controlled by the Persian Empire at its greatest extent, Thracian soldiers were known to be used in the Persian armies. On, Thracian troops were known to accompany neighboring ruler Alexander the Great when he crossed the Hellespont which abuts Thrace, during the invasion of the Persian Empire itself.
The Thracians did not describe themselves by name. Divided into separate tribes, the Thracians did not form any lasting political organizations until the founding of the Odrysian state in the 4th century BC. Like Illyrians, the locally ruled Thracian tribes of the mountainous regions maintained a warrior tradition, while the tribes based in the plains were purportedly more peaceable. Discovered funeral mounds in Bulgaria suggest that Thracian kings did rule regions of Thrace with distinct Thracian national identity. During this period, a subculture of celibate ascetics called the Ctistae lived in Thrace, where they served as philosophers and prophets. Sections of Thrace in the south star
Antipater was a Macedonian general and statesman under kings Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great, father of King Cassander. In 320 BC, he became regent of all of Alexander the Great's Empire. Nothing is known of his early career until 342 BC, when he was appointed by Philip to govern Macedon as his regent while the former left for three years of hard and successful campaigning against Thracian and Scythian tribes, which extended Macedonian rule as far as the Hellespont. In 342 BC, when the Athenians tried to assume control of the Euboean towns and expel the pro-Macedonian rulers, he sent Macedonian troops to stop them. In the autumn of the same year, Antipater went to Delphi, as Philip's representative in the Amphictyonic League, a religious organization to which Macedon had been admitted in 346 BC. After the triumphal Macedonian victory at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, Antipater was sent as ambassador to Athens to negotiate a peace treaty and return the bones of the Athenians who had fallen in the battle.
He started as a great friend to both the young Alexander and the boy's mother and aided Alexander in the struggle to secure his succession after Philip's death, in 336 BC. He joined Parmenion in advising Alexander the Great not to set out on his Asiatic expedition until he had provided by marriage for the succession to the throne. On the king's departure in 334 BC, he was left regent in Macedonia and made "general of Europe", positions he held until 323 BC; the European front was to prove quite agitated, Antipater had to send reinforcements to the king, as he did while the king was at Gordium in the winter of 334–333 BC. The Persian fleet under Memnon of Rhodes and Pharnabazus was a considerable danger for Antipater, bringing war in the Aegean sea and threatening war in Europe. Luckily for the regent, Memnon died during the siege of Mytilene on the isle of Lesbos and the remaining fleet dispersed in 333 BC, after Alexander's victory at the Battle of Issus. More dangerous enemies were nearer home.
The Spartans, who were not members of the League of Corinth and had not participated in Alexander's expedition, saw in the Asian campaign the long-awaited chance to take back control over the Peloponnese after the disastrous defeats at the Battle of Leuctra and Battle of Mantinea. The Persians generously funded Sparta's ambitions, making possible the formation of an army 20,000 strong. After assuming virtual control of Crete, Agis tried to build an anti-Macedonian front. While Athens remained neutral, the Achaeans and Elis became his allies, with the important exception of Megalopolis, the staunchly anti-Spartan capital of Arcadia. In 331 BC Agis started to besiege the city with his entire army. Antipater had to act now. So to not have two enemies Antipater pardoned Memnon and let him keep his office in Thrace, while great sums of money were sent him by Alexander; this helped to create, with Thessalian help and many mercenaries, a force double that of Agis, which Antipater in person led south in 330 BC to confront the Spartans.
In the spring of that year, the two armies clashed near Megalopolis. Agis fell with many of his best soldiers, but not without inflicting heavy losses on the Macedonians. Utterly defeated, the Spartans sued for peace. Alexander appears to have been quite jealous of Antipater's victory. Antipater was disliked for supporting oligarchs and tyrants in Greece, but he worked with the League of Corinth, built by Philip. In addition, his close relationship with the ambitious Olympias deteriorated. Whether from jealousy or from the necessity of guarding against the evil consequences of the dissension between Olympias and Antipater, in 324 BC, Alexander ordered the latter to lead fresh troops into Asia, while Craterus, in charge of discharged veterans returning home, was appointed to take over the regency in Macedon; when Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC however, Antipater was able to forestall the transfer of power. Some historians, such as Justin in his Historia Philippicae et Totius Mundi Origines et Terrae Situs blamed Antipater for the death of Alexander, accusing him of murdering him through poison.
However, this view is disputed by most historians and Alexander is believed to have died of natural causes. The new regent, left Antipater in control of Greece. Antipater faced wars with Athens and Thessaly that made up the Lamian War, in which southern Greeks attempted to re-assert their political autonomy, he defeated them at the Battle of Crannon in 322 BC, with Craterus' help, broke up the coalition. As part of this he imposed oligarchy upon Athens and demanded the surrender of Demosthenes, who committed suicide to escape capture. In the same year Antipater and Craterus were engaged in a war against the Aetolians when he received the news from Antigonus in Asia Minor that Perdiccas contemplated making himself outright ruler of the empire. Antipater and Craterus accordingly concluded peace with the Aetolians and went to war against Perdiccas, allying themselves with Ptolemy, the satrap of Egypt. Antipater crossed over to Asia in
The Diadochi were the rival generals and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC. The Wars of the Diadochi mark the beginning of the Hellenistic period from the Mediterranean to the Indus River Valley. An army on campaign changes its leadership at any level for replacement of casualties and distribution of talent to the current operations; the institution of the Hetairoi gave the Macedonian army a flexible capability in this regard. There were no fixed ranks of Hetairoi; the Hetairoi were a fixed pool of de facto general officers, without any or with changing de jure rank, whom Alexander could assign where needed. They were from the nobility, many related to Alexander. A parallel flexible structure in the Persian army facilitated combined units. Staff meetings to adjust command structure were nearly a daily event in Alexander's army, they created an ongoing expectation among the Hetairoi of receiving an important and powerful command, if only for a short term.
At the moment of Alexander's death, all possibilities were suspended. The Hetairoi vanished with Alexander, to be replaced instantaneously by the Diadochi, men who knew where they had stood, but not where they would stand now; as there had been no definite ranks or positions of Hetairoi, there were no ranks of Diadochi. They expected appointments. For purposes of this presentation, the Diadochi are grouped by their rank and social standing at the time of Alexander's death; these were their initial positions as Diadochi. They are not significant or determinative of what happened next. In Hellenistic times the title Diadoch was the lowest in a system of official rank titles, it was first used in the 19th century to denote the immediate successors of Alexander. Craterus was an infantry and naval commander under Alexander during his conquest of Persia. After the revolt of his army at Opis on the Tigris River in 324, Alexander ordered Craterus to command the veterans as they returned home to Macedonia.
Antipater, commander of Alexander's forces in Greece and regent of the Macedonian throne in Alexander's absence, would lead a force of fresh troops back to Persia to join Alexander while Craterus would become regent in his place. When Craterus arrived at Cilicia in 323 BC, news reached him of Alexander's death. Though his distance from Babylon prevented him from participating in the distribution of power, Craterus hastened to Macedonia to assume the protection of Alexander's family; the news of Alexander's death caused the Greeks to rebel in the Lamian War. Craterus and Antipater defeated the rebellion in 322 BC. Despite his absence, the generals gathered at Babylon confirmed Craterus as Guardian of the Royal Family. However, with the royal family in Babylon, the Regent Perdiccas assumed this responsibility until the royal household could return to Macedonia. Antipater was Alexander's father, a role he continued under Alexander; when Alexander left Macedon to conquer Persia in 334 BC, Antipater was named Regent of Macedon and General of Greece in Alexander's absence.
In 323 BC, Craterus was ordered by Alexander to march his veterans back to Macedon and assume Antipater's position while Antipater was to march to Persia with fresh troops. Alexander's death that year, prevented the order from being carried out; when Alexander's generals gathered in Babylon to divide the empire between themselves, Antipater was confirmed as General of Greece while the roles of Regent of the Empire and Guardian of the Royal Family were given to Perdiccas and Craterus, respectively. Together, the three men formed the top ruling group of the empire; the Somatophylakes were the seven bodyguards of Alexander. Satraps were the governors of the provinces in the Hellenistic empires; the Epigoni were the sons of the Argive heroes who had fought in the first Theban war. In the 19th century the term was used to refer to the second generation of Diadochi rulers. Without a chosen successor, there was immediately a dispute among Alexander's generals as to whom his successor should be. Meleager and the infantry supported the candidacy of Alexander's half-brother, while Perdiccas, the leading cavalry commander, supported waiting until the birth of Alexander's unborn child by Roxana.
A compromise was arranged – Arrhidaeus should become King, should rule jointly with Roxana's child, assuming that it was a boy. Perdiccas himself would become Regent of the entire Empire, Meleager his lieutenant. Soon, Perdiccas had Meleager and the other infantry leaders murdered, assumed full control; the other cavalry generals who had supported Perdiccas were rewarded in the partition of Babylon by becoming satraps of the various parts of the Empire. Ptolemy received Egypt. Macedon and the rest of Greece were to be under the joint rule of Antipater, who had governed them for Alexander, Craterus, Alexander's most able lieutenant, while Alexander's old secretary, Eumenes of Cardia, was to receive Cappadocia and Paphlagonia. In the east, Perdiccas left Alexander's arrangements intact – Taxiles and Porus governed over their kingdoms in India.
Macedonia (ancient kingdom)
Macedonia called Macedon, was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. The kingdom was founded and ruled by the royal Argead dynasty, followed by the Antipatrid and Antigonid dynasties. Home to the ancient Macedonians, the earliest kingdom was centered on the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula, bordered by Epirus to the west, Paeonia to the north, Thrace to the east and Thessaly to the south. Before the 4th century BC, Macedonia was a small kingdom outside of the area dominated by the great city-states of Athens and Thebes, subordinate to Achaemenid Persia. During the reign of the Argead king Philip II, Macedonia subdued mainland Greece and Thrace through conquest and diplomacy. With a reformed army containing phalanxes wielding the sarissa pike, Philip II defeated the old powers of Athens and Thebes in the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC. Philip II's son Alexander the Great, leading a federation of Greek states, accomplished his father's objective of commanding the whole of Greece when he destroyed Thebes after the city revolted.
During Alexander's subsequent campaign of conquest, he overthrew the Achaemenid Empire and conquered territory that stretched as far as the Indus River. For a brief period, his empire was the most powerful in the world – the definitive Hellenistic state, inaugurating the transition to a new period of Ancient Greek civilization. Greek arts and literature flourished in the new conquered lands and advances in philosophy and science spread throughout much of the ancient world. Of particular importance were the contributions of Aristotle, tutor to Alexander, whose writings became a keystone of Western philosophy. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, the ensuing wars of the Diadochi, the partitioning of Alexander's short-lived empire, Macedonia remained a Greek cultural and political center in the Mediterranean region along with Ptolemaic Egypt, the Seleucid Empire, the Kingdom of Pergamon. Important cities such as Pella and Amphipolis were involved in power struggles for control of the territory. New cities were founded, such as Thessalonica by the usurper Cassander.
Macedonia's decline began with the Macedonian Wars and the rise of Rome as the leading Mediterranean power. At the end of the Third Macedonian War in 168 BC, the Macedonian monarchy was abolished and replaced by Roman client states. A short-lived revival of the monarchy during the Fourth Macedonian War in 150–148 BC ended with the establishment of the Roman province of Macedonia; the Macedonian kings, who wielded absolute power and commanded state resources such as gold and silver, facilitated mining operations to mint currency, finance their armies and, by the reign of Philip II, a Macedonian navy. Unlike the other diadochi successor states, the imperial cult fostered by Alexander was never adopted in Macedonia, yet Macedonian rulers assumed roles as high priests of the kingdom and leading patrons of domestic and international cults of the Hellenistic religion; the authority of Macedonian kings was theoretically limited by the institution of the army, while a few municipalities within the Macedonian commonwealth enjoyed a high degree of autonomy and had democratic governments with popular assemblies.
The name Macedonia comes from the ethnonym Μακεδόνες, which itself is derived from the ancient Greek adjective μακεδνός, meaning "tall" descriptive of the people. It has the same root as the adjective μακρός, meaning "long" or "tall" in Ancient Greek; the name is believed to have meant either "highlanders", "the tall ones", or "high grown men". Linguist Robert S. P. Beekes claims that both terms are of Pre-Greek substrate origin and cannot be explained in terms of Indo-European morphology; the Classical Greek historians Herodotus and Thucydides reported the legend that the Macedonian kings of the Argead dynasty were descendants of Temenus, king of Argos, could therefore claim the mythical Heracles as one of their ancestors as well as a direct lineage from Zeus, chief god of the Greek pantheon. Contradictory legends state that either Perdiccas I of Macedon or Caranus of Macedon were the founders of the Argead dynasty, with either five or eight kings before Amyntas I; the assertion that the Argeads descended from Temenus was accepted by the Hellanodikai authorities of the Ancient Olympic Games, permitting Alexander I of Macedon to enter the competitions owing to his perceived Greek heritage.
Little is known about the kingdom before the reign of Alexander I's father Amyntas I of Macedon during the Archaic period. The kingdom of Macedonia was situated along the Haliacmon and Axius rivers in Lower Macedonia, north of Mount Olympus. Historian Robert Malcolm Errington suggests that one of the earliest Argead kings established Aigai as their capital in the mid-7th century BC. Before the 4th century BC, the kingdom covered a region corresponding to the western and central parts of the region of Macedonia in modern Greece, it expanded into the region of Upper Macedonia, inhabited by the Greek Lyncestae and Elimiotae tribes, into regions of Emathia, Bottiaea, Mygdonia and Almopia, which were inhabited by various peoples such as Thracians and Phrygians. Macedonia's non-Greek neighbors included Thracians, inhabiting territories to the northeast, Illyrians to the northwest, Paeonians to the north, while the lands of Thessaly to the south and Epirus to the west were inhabited by Greeks with similar cultures to that of the Macedonians.
A year after Darius I of