Amazon.com, Inc. is an American multinational technology company based in Seattle, Washington that focuses in e-commerce, cloud computing, artificial intelligence. Amazon is the largest e-commerce marketplace and cloud computing platform in the world as measured by revenue and market capitalization. Amazon.com was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994, started as an online bookstore but diversified to sell video downloads/streaming, MP3 downloads/streaming, audiobook downloads/streaming, video games, apparel, food and jewelry. The company owns a publishing arm, Amazon Publishing, a film and television studio, Amazon Studios, produces consumer electronics lines including Kindle e-readers, Fire tablets, Fire TV, Echo devices, is the world's largest provider of cloud infrastructure services through its AWS subsidiary. Amazon has separate retail websites for some countries and offers international shipping of some of its products to certain other countries. 100 million people subscribe to Amazon Prime.
Amazon is the largest Internet company by revenue in the world and the second largest employer in the United States. In 2015, Amazon surpassed Walmart as the most valuable retailer in the United States by market capitalization. In 2017, Amazon acquired Whole Foods Market for $13.4 billion, which vastly increased Amazon's presence as a brick-and-mortar retailer. The acquisition was interpreted by some as a direct attempt to challenge Walmart's traditional retail stores. In 1994, Jeff Bezos incorporated Amazon. In May 1997, the organization went public; the company began selling music and videos in 1998, at which time it began operations internationally by acquiring online sellers of books in United Kingdom and Germany. The following year, the organization sold video games, consumer electronics, home-improvement items, software and toys in addition to other items. In 2002, the corporation started Amazon Web Services, which provided data on Web site popularity, Internet traffic patterns and other statistics for marketers and developers.
In 2006, the organization grew its AWS portfolio when Elastic Compute Cloud, which rents computer processing power as well as Simple Storage Service, that rents data storage via the Internet, were made available. That same year, the company started Fulfillment by Amazon which managed the inventory of individuals and small companies selling their belongings through the company internet site. In 2012, Amazon bought Kiva Systems to automate its inventory-management business, purchasing Whole Foods Market supermarket chain five years in 2017; as of March 2019, the board of directors is: Jeff Bezos, President, CEO, Chairman Tom Alberg, Managing partner, Madrona Venture Group Rosalind Brewer, Group President, COO, Starbucks Jamie Gorelick, Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale, Dorr Daniel P. Huttenlocher and Vice Provost, Cornell University Judy McGrath, former CEO, MTV Networks Indra Nooyi, former CEO, PepsiCo Jon Rubinstein, former Chairman, CEO, Inc. Thomas O. Ryder, former Chairman, CEO, Reader's Digest Association Patty Stonesifer, CEO, Martha's Table Wendell P. Weeks, President, CEO, Corning Inc.
In 2000, U. S. toy retailer Toys "R" Us entered into a 10-year agreement with Amazon, valued at $50 million per year plus a cut of sales, under which Toys "R" Us would be the exclusive supplier of toys and baby products on the service, the chain's website would redirect to Amazon's Toys & Games category. In 2004, Toys "R" Us sued Amazon, claiming that because of a perceived lack of variety in Toys "R" Us stock, Amazon had knowingly allowed third-party sellers to offer items on the service in categories that Toys "R" Us had been granted exclusivity. In 2006, a court ruled in favor of Toys "R" Us, giving it the right to unwind its agreement with Amazon and establish its own independent e-commerce website; the company was awarded $51 million in damages. In 2001, Amazon entered into a similar agreement with Borders Group, under which Amazon would co-manage Borders.com as a co-branded service, Borders pulled out of the arrangement in 2007, with plans to launch its own online store. On October 18, 2011, Amazon.com announced a partnership with DC Comics for the exclusive digital rights to many popular comics, including Superman, Green Lantern, The Sandman, Watchmen.
The partnership has caused well-known bookstores like Barnes & Noble to remove these titles from their shelves. In November 2013, Amazon announced a partnership with the United States Postal Service to begin delivering orders on Sundays; the service, included in Amazon's standard shipping rates, initiated in metropolitan areas of Los Angeles and New York because of the high-volume and inability to deliver in a timely way, with plans to expand into Dallas, New Orleans and Phoenix by 2014. In June 2017, Nike confirmed a "pilot" partnership with Amazon to sell goods directly on the platform; as of October 11, 2017, AmazonFresh sells a range of Booths branded products for home delivery in selected areas. In September 2017, Amazon ventured with one of its sellers JV Appario Retail owned by Patni Group which has recorded a total income of US$ 104.44 million in financial year 2017–18. In November 2018, Amazon reached an agreement with Apple Inc. to sell selected products through the service, via the company and selected Apple Authorized Resellers.
As a result of this partnership, only Apple Authorized Resellers may sell Apple products on Amazon effective January 4, 2019. Amazon.com's product lines available at its website include several media, baby products, consumer electronics, beauty products, gourmet food, groceries and perso
Harley Cross is an American entrepreneur, film/television actor and producer. He was co-founder, CEO, artistic director of Hint Mint Inc. a designer breath mint/candy company, master licensed to Giftcraft LLC in 2016. In early 2017, Cross co-founded Land Core USA; the organisation is focused on passing US federal legislation that gives market-based solutions for American farmers to adopt existing USDA soil health management practices that address food security and weather resilience. In 2015 he co-created the after-school music education program Play with Music, which focuses on bringing relevant music education to at-risk youth; the program is running at Allen Leroy Locke High School in South Los Angeles. Cross was the co-founder of Interconnected, a Los Angeles-based creative agency and production company, that he started in 2011 with his friend and business partner Nirvan Mullick. Through Interconnected and Mullick produced the viral video Caine's Arcade and the follow-up Caine's Arcade 2.
After the viral success of Caine's Arcade and Mullick co-founded the Imagination Foundation, a non-profit organization whose mission is to "find and fund creativity and entrepreneurship in kids". As an actor Cross appeared in over a dozen films as well as many TV shows in the 1980s and 1990s including cult films The Believers, Someone To Watch Over Me, The Fly II, Cohen and Tate, the TV series Sister Kate and Dudley, his most recent roles were in the 2000 film Shriek If You Know What I Did Last Friday the Thirteenth and the 2004 film Kinsey. Cross was the frontman of The Harley Cross Band in the early 2000s and has started a new music project with Lauren Turk called The New History. Cross was spent much of his childhood in Paris, France, he is the older brother of actor Eli Marienthal. Mrs. Soffel – Clarence Soffel Alex: The live from a child – Chris Where are the Children? – Michael Eldridge The Believers – Chris Jamison Someone to Watch Over Me – Tommy Keegan A Hobo's Christmas – Bobby Grovner Once Again Cohen and Tate – Travis Knight The Fly II – Martin Sister Kate – Eugene Colodner Stanley & Iris – Richard King The Boy Who Cried Bitch – Dan Love Law & Order – episode "Trust" – Jamie Maser Dudley – Fred Bristol To Dance with the White Dog – Bobby Crazy for a Kiss – Ray Striker Touched by an Angel – episode "The Quality of Mercy" – Marshall Redding Perdita Durango – Duane A Soldier's Daughter Never Cries – Keith Carter Interstate 84 – Freddie Shriek If You Know What I Did Last Friday the Thirteenth – Dawson Deary Robbie's Brother – Robbie Kinsey – Young Man in Gay Bar Holmstrom, John.
The Moving Picture Boy: An International Encyclopaedia from 1895 to 1995, Michael Russell, 1996, p. 398. Harley Cross on IMDb
Stereophonic sound or, more stereo, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multi-directional audible perspective. This is achieved by using two or more independent audio channels through a configuration of two or more loudspeakers in such a way as to create the impression of sound heard from various directions, as in natural hearing, thus the term "stereophonic" applies to so-called "quadraphonic" and "surround-sound" systems as well as the more common two-channel, two-speaker systems. It is contrasted with monophonic, or "mono" sound, where audio is heard as coming from one position ahead in the sound field. Stereo sound has been in common use since the 1970s in entertainment systems such as broadcast radio, TV, recorded music, computer audio, cinema; the word stereophonic derives from the Greek στερεός + φωνή and it was coined in 1927 by Western Electric, by analogy with the word "stereoscopic". Stereo sound systems can be divided into two forms: the first is "true" or "natural" stereo in which a live sound is captured, with any natural reverberation or ambience present, by an array of microphones.
The signal is reproduced over multiple loudspeakers to recreate, as as possible, the live sound. Secondly "artificial" or "pan-pot" stereo, in which a single-channel sound is reproduced over multiple loudspeakers. By varying the relative amplitude of the signal sent to each speaker an artificial direction can be suggested; the control, used to vary this relative amplitude of the signal is known as a "pan-pot". By combining multiple "pan-potted" mono signals together, a complete, yet artificial, sound field can be created. In technical usage, true stereo means sound recording and sound reproduction that uses stereographic projection to encode the relative positions of objects and events recorded. During two-channel stereo recording, two microphones are placed in strategically chosen locations relative to the sound source, with both recording simultaneously; the two recorded channels will be similar, but each will have distinct time-of-arrival and sound-pressure-level information. During playback, the listener's brain uses those subtle differences in timing and sound level to triangulate the positions of the recorded objects.
Stereo recordings cannot be played on monaural systems without a significant loss of fidelity. Since each microphone records each wavefront at a different time, the wavefronts are out of phase; this phenomenon is known as phase cancellation. Clément Ader demonstrated the first two-channel audio system in Paris in 1881, with a series of telephone transmitters connected from the stage of the Paris Opera to a suite of rooms at the Paris Electrical Exhibition, where listeners could hear a live transmission of performances through receivers for each ear. Scientific American reported: "Every one, fortunate enough to hear the telephones at the Palais de l'Industrie has remarked that, in listening with both ears at the two telephones, the sound takes a special character of relief and localization which a single receiver cannot produce.... This phenomenon is curious, it approximates to the theory of binauricular audition, has never been applied, we believe, before to produce this remarkable illusion to which may be given the name of auditive perspective."This two-channel telephonic process was commercialized in France from 1890 to 1932 as the Théâtrophone, in England from 1895 to 1925 as the Electrophone.
Both were services available by coin-operated receivers at hotels and cafés, or by subscription to private homes. Modern stereophonic technology was invented in the 1930s by British engineer Alan Blumlein at EMI, who patented stereo records, stereo films, surround sound. In early 1931, Blumlein and his wife were at a local cinema; the sound reproduction systems of the early "talkies" invariably only had a single set of speakers - which could lead to the somewhat disconcerting effect of the actor being on one side of the screen whilst his voice appeared to come from the other. Blumlein declared to his wife that he had found a way to make the sound follow the actor across the screen; the genesis of these ideas is uncertain, but he explained them to Isaac Shoenberg in the late summer of 1931. His earliest notes on the subject are dated 25 September 1931, his patent had the title "Improvements in and relating to Sound-transmission, Sound-recording and Sound-reproducing Systems"; the application was dated 14 December 1931, was accepted on 14 June 1933 as UK patent number 394,325.
The patent covered many ideas in some not. Some 70 claims include: A "shuffling" circuit, which aimed to preserve the directional effect when sound from a spaced pair of microphones was reproduced via stereo headphones instead of a pair of loudspeakers; these discs used the two walls of the groove at right angles in order to carry th
Americus is a city in Sumter County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 17,041. Americus is the home of Habitat for Humanity's international headquarters, the famous Windsor Hotel, The Fuller Center for Housing international headquarters, The Rosalynn Carter Institute for Caregiving, Glover Foods and many more well-known organizations; the city is the county seat of Sumter County. Americus is the principal city of the Americus Micropolitan Statistical Area, a micropolitan area that covers Schley and Sumter counties and had a combined population of 36,966 at the 2000 census. Americus is located at 32°4′31″N 84°13′36″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.7 square miles, of which, 10.5 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. Americus was founded by General John Americus Smith. While out on a scouting mission with his men, he noticed that there was a great deal of distance between two cities, he decided that he would come back and purchase land to build on in 1825.
As he built on his land, his plantation grew large in cotton production. Soon and more people started moving to the location until in 1832 the town of Americus was founded. Gen John's plantation was a huge part in providing income for the town. Gen John would pass of the flu in 1868 at the age of 62 years. After his death his plantation was divided up into sections and auctioned off to different farmers that had now moved into the area. A post office has been in operation at Americus since 1833. For its first two decades, Americus was a small courthouse town; the arrival of the railroad in 1854 and, three decades local attorney Samuel H. Hawkins' construction of the only financed railroad in state history, made Americus the eighth largest city in Georgia into the 20th century, it was known as the "Metropolis of Southwest Georgia," a reflection of its status as a cotton distribution center. In 1890, Georgia's first chartered. One of its restored cars is on permanent display at the Lake Blackshear Regional Library, a gift from the Robert T. Crabb family who acquired the street car in the 1940s.
The town was graced with an abundance of antebellum and Victorian architecture when local capitalists opened the Windsor Hotel in 1892. A five-story Queen Anne edifice, it was designed by a Swedish architect, Gottfried L. Norrman, in Atlanta. Vice-President Thomas R. Marshall gave a speech from the balcony in 1917 and soon to be New York Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt spoke in the dining room in 1928. On January 1, 1976, the city center was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Americus Historic District; the district boundaries were extended in 1979. For the local minority community, Rev. Dr. Major W. Reddick established the Americus Institute. Booker T. Washington was a guest speaker there in May 1908. Rev. Alfred S. Staley was responsible for locating the state Masonic Orphanage in Americus, which served its function from 1898 to 1940. Both men engineered the unification of the General Missionary Baptist Convention of Georgia in 1915, the former as president and the latter as recording secretary.
The public school named in honor of A. S. Staley was designated a National School of Excellence in 1990. Two other institutions of higher learning were established in Americus, the Third District Agricultural and Mechanical School in 1906, the South Georgia Trade and Vocational School in 1948. South Georgia Technical College is located on the original site of Souther Field. In World War I, an Army Air Service training facility, Souther Field, was commissioned northeast of the city limits. Charles A. Lindbergh, the "Lone Eagle," bought his first airplane and made his first solo flight there during a two-week stay in May 1923. Recommissioned for World War II, Souther Field was used for RAF pilot training as well as US pilot training before ending the war as a German prisoner-of-war camp; the town was incorporated in 1832, the name Americus was picked out of a hat. Shoeless Joe Jackson served as the field manager for the local baseball team after his banishment from professional baseball. A plaque at Thomas Bell Stadium commemorates his contribution to the local baseball program.
Koinonia Farm, an interracial Christian community, was organized near Americus in 1942. Founder Clarence Jordan was a mentor to Millard and Linda Fuller, who founded Habitat for Humanity International at Koinonia in 1976 before moving into Americus the following year. In 2005, they founded The Fuller Center for Housing in Americus. Koinonia Farm is located southwest of Americus on Hwy. 49. The Civil Rights Era in Americus was a time of great turmoil. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. spent a weekend in the courthouse jail in 1961, after an arrest in Albany. The "Sumter Movement" to end racial segregation was organized and led by Rev. Joseph R. Campbell in 1963; as a direct result, two Georgia laws were subsequently declared unconstitutional by a federal tribunal meeting in Americus. Color barriers were first removed in 1965 when J. W. Jones and Henry L. Williams joined the Americus police force. Lewis M. Lowe was elected as the first black city councilman ten years later. With their election in 1995, Eloise R. Paschal and Eddie Rhea Walker broke the gender barrier on the city's governing body.
In 1971, the city was featured in a Marshall Frady article, "Discovering One Another in a Georgia Town", i
Jimmy Carter National Historic Site
The Jimmy Carter National Historic Site, located in Plains, preserves sites associated with James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr. 39th President of the United States. These include his residence, boyhood farm and the town railroad depot, which served as his campaign headquarters during the 1976 election; the building which used to be Plains High School serves as the park's visitor center. As President Carter lives in Plains, the area surrounding the residence is under the protection of the United States Secret Service and is not open to the public; the Carters returned to Plains in 1981. The former President and First Lady Rosalynn Carter pursue many of the goals of his administration through the Carter Center in Atlanta, which has programs to alleviate human suffering and to promote human rights and world peace; when they are in Plains, Carter teaches Sunday school at Maranatha Baptist Church, open to the public. The former Plains High School, which both Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter attended, now serves as the park's visitor center and museum.
It features a classroom, principal's office, auditorium which have been restored to look as they would have when Jimmy Carter attended. An exact replica of the Resolute desk, which Jimmy Carter brought back to the Oval Office to use as his presidential desk, is exhibited, as is his 2002 Nobel Peace Prize. Other rooms feature exhibits that explain the lives of Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter, a short video focuses on the life of Jimmy Carter according to his friends and family; the farm in rural Archery where Jimmy lived from age four in 1928 until he left for college in 1941 has been restored to its appearance before electricity was installed in 1938. The former Plains Train Depot, where Carter headquartered his presidential campaign, now serves as a museum focusing on the 1976 Presidential Campaign and Election, it features exhibits. The train depot operated from 1888 until 1951, when all public transportation to and from the area ceased; the current home of the Carters, while not open to the public, is technically a part of the National Historic Site.
The Carters have lived in the home since 1961. During his presidency, it was used as his Summer White House. Official Park Service site "Life Portrait of Jimmy Carter", from C-SPAN's American Presidents: Life Portraits, broadcast from the Jimmy Carter National Historic Site, December 3, 1999 Jimmy Carter's Boyhood Home Media related to Jimmy Carter National Historic Site at Wikimedia Commons
Christine Jane Baranski is an American actress and producer. She is a 15-time Emmy Award nominee, winning once in 1995 for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series for her role as Maryanne Thorpe in the sitcom Cybill. Baranski has received further critical acclaim for her performance as Diane Lockhart in the legal drama series The Good Wife and its spinoff series The Good Fight, as well as her recurring role as Dr. Beverly Hofstadter in the sitcom The Big Bang Theory for which she has received two Emmy nominations, she is known for her roles in numerous successful TV Films, most notably her portrayal of Kate in To Dance with the White Dog, Prunella Stickler in Eloise at the Plaza, Eloise at Christmastime, Amanda in Who Is Simon Miller?. Baranski won two Tony Awards for Best Featured Actress in a Play for the original Broadway productions of The Real Thing in 1984 and Rumors in 1989, her other major Broadway credits include Hide and Seek, The House of Blue Leaves, Nick & Nora, Boeing Boeing.
Baranski has starred in numerous films, including 9½ Weeks, Legal Eagles, Reversal of Fortune, Addams Family Values, The Birdcage, Cruel Intentions, Bowfinger, Dr. Seuss's How the Grinch Stole Christmas, Mamma Mia!, The Bounty Hunter, Into the Woods, A Bad Moms Christmas, Mamma Mia! Here We Go Again. Baranski was born in Buffalo, New York, the daughter of Virginia and Lucien Baranski, who edited a Polish-language newspaper, she is of Polish descent, her grandparents were actors in the Polish theater. Baranski was raised in a Polish-Catholic neighborhood in Cheektowaga, where she attended high school at the Villa Maria Academy, she studied at New York City's Juilliard School where she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1974. Baranski made her Off-Broadway debut in Coming Attractions at Playwrights Horizons in 1980, has appeared in several Off Broadway productions at the Manhattan Theatre Club, starting with Sally and Marsha in 1982. Baranski made her Broadway debut in Hide & Seek in 1980.
For her next Broadway performance, in Tom Stoppard's The Real Thing, she won the 1984 Tony Award Best Featured Actress in a Play. Other Broadway credits include: Hurlyburly, The House of Blue Leaves, Regrets Only, Nick & Nora, the Encores! Concert staging of Follies. At the Kennedy Center in Washington, D. C. Baranski starred as Mrs. Lovett in Sweeney Todd in 2002 and as the title character in Mame in 2006. In her first Broadway production since 1991, she was featured as the maid Berthe in the 2008 revival of Boeing Boeing; the show garnered one for Best Revival of a Play and the other for Best Actor. The original cast was Bradley Whitford, Kathryn Hahn, Christine Baranski, Gina Gershon, Mary McCormack; the show closed on January 4, 2009. She appeared in a one night only concert benefit performance of Stephen Sondheim's A Little Night Music for Roundabout Theatre Company as Countess Charlotte Malcolm on January 12, 2009; the cast included Vanessa Redgrave, Natasha Richardson, Victor Garber, Marc Kudisch, among others.
She has won both the Drama Desk Awards twice. In 2018, Baranski was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame. Baranski has starred in various roles in films; some of her better known roles are as Katherine Archer in The Birdcage, Martha May Whovier in How the Grinch Stole Christmas, Mary Sunshine in Chicago, Connie Chasseur in The Ref. She received further recognition for her role as Tanya Chesham-Leigh in the hit musical film Mamma Mia!, its sequel, Mamma Mia! Here We Go Again, she played Cinderella's stepmother in the 2014 film adaptation of the musical, Into the Woods. Baranski starred in the films 9½ Weeks, Legal Eagles, Reversal of Fortune, Addams Family Values, Bulworth, Cruel Intentions, Chicago, A Bad Moms Christmas. An urban legend claimed she appeared as a child actress under the name "Chris Charney" on "The Brady Bunch". Baranski denied this, stated that "the first real TV show" that she worked on was the comedy series Cybill, when she was in her 40's. Earlier, she had appeared in short-term roles on various daytime soap operas, including All My Children and Another World.
Baranski was featured as Cybill Shepherd's sarcastic, hard-drinking friend Maryanne Thorpe in the CBS sitcom Cybill, which ran from 1995 until 1998, during which time she hosted Saturday Night Live and won an Emmy Award as Best Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series along with three other nominations. During this, Baranski portrayed a librarian named Sonja Umdahl in the "Dick and the Single Girl" episode of 3rd Rock from the Sun. A few years Baranski received an Emmy nomination for a guest starring role in the NBC series Frasier as a controversial tough love radio psychiatrist named Dr. Nora; the episode, named for the character, parodied Dr. Laura Schlessinger; the episode was pulled from syndication by Paramount. Baranski had an uncredited role in the series Now and Again as the voice of Roger's overbearing wife Ruth, never seen by viewers. Baranski appeared in the 2000–2001 sitcom Welcome to New York and, with John Laroquette, in the 2003–2004 NBC sitcom Happy