To Have and Have Not (film)

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To Have and Have Not
To Have and Have Not (1944 film) poster.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Howard Hawks
Produced by Howard Hawks
Jack L. Warner
Screenplay by Jules Furthman
William Faulkner
Based on To Have and Have Not
by Ernest Hemingway
Starring Humphrey Bogart
Walter Brennan
Lauren Bacall
Dolores Moran
Hoagy Carmichael
Music by William Lava
Franz Waxman
Cinematography Sidney Hickox
Edited by Christian Nyby
Distributed by Warner Bros.
Release date
  • October 11, 1944 (1944-10-11) (United States)
Running time
100 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $1,684,000[1]
Box office $3.65 million (US)[2] or $5,257,000 (worldwide)[1]

To Have and Have Not is a 1944 American romance-war-adventure film directed by Howard Hawks, and produced by Hawks and Jack L. Warner. Written by Jules Furthman and William Faulkner, the screenplay is based on Ernest Hemingway's 1937 novel of the same name. The film represents the only film story on which two winners of the Nobel Prize of Literature worked. However, the story was altered for the film. It stars Humphrey Bogart, Walter Brennan and Lauren Bacall in her film debut. The plot centers on the romance between a freelancing fisherman in Martinique and a beautiful American drifter which is complicated by the growing French resistance in Vichy France. The film was originally set in Cuba, but the location was changed due to concerns with the Office of Coordinator of Inter American Affairs during World War II.

Audience reception of the film was generally good, with most film critics stating that the film was a remake of Casablanca (1942), either stating that it was acceptable or poor. Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall fell in love during the production of the movie, and would marry in 1945 after the film's release. To Have and Have Not was one of the top thirty grossing films in 1944 and it received an award from the National Board of Review.


Bacall, Dalio and Bogart in the scene for the film

In the summer of 1940, world-weary Harry Morgan (Humphrey Bogart) operates a small fishing-boat, the Queen Conch, in Fort-de-France, on the French colony of Martinique. It is not long since the fall of France and the island is controlled by pro-German Vichy France. Harry makes a modest living chartering his fishing boat to tourists, along with his unofficial mate Eddie (Walter Brennan). Eddie is Harry's close friend and one time trusted co-worker, but he has of late succumbed to heavy drinking. The island is a tinder-box of dissent, harboring many people sympathetic to Free France.

At his hotel home, hotel owner Gérard (Marcel Dalio) (known as "Frenchy" to English speakers) urges Harry to help the French Resistance by smuggling some people off the island. Harry steadfastly refuses, choosing to keep aloof from the current political situation. Also at the hotel, he meets Marie ("Slim") Browning (Lauren Bacall), a young American wanderer who has recently arrived in Martinique. An accomplished singer, she sings "How Little We Know" with pianist Cricket (Hoagy Carmichael) in the hotel bar.

Harry's current charter client, Johnson (Walter Sande), owes Harry $825. Johnson insists he hasn't enough ready money, but promises to get the funds when the banks open the next day. In the hotel bar, Harry notices Slim pick Johnson's pocket and he later forces her to hand over the wallet. On inspection the wallet is found to contain $1,400 in traveler's cheques and a plane ticket for early the next morning (before the banks are open). On returning the wallet to Johnson, Harry demands that Johnson sign the traveler's cheques to pay him immediately. But just then, there is a shootout in front of the hotel between police and the Resistance, and Johnson is killed by a stray bullet. The police take Harry and several others for questioning, and seize Harry's passport and money.

Back at the hotel, Gérard offers to hire Harry and his boat for one night to transport Resistance members Paul de Bursac (Walter Surovy) and his wife Hélène (Dolores Moran). Now effectively penniless, Harry reluctantly accepts Gérard's offer. Meanwhile, a romance has been developing between Harry and Slim, the latter of whom feels that Harry changed his mind about the smuggling to help her out. Her suspicions are bolstered by the fact that Harry has used some of the money he earned in transporting the fugitives to buy her a plane ticket back to America.

Harry picks up the de Bursacs, but his boat is seen and fired upon by a navy patrol boat. His passenger Paul de Bursac is wounded, but Harry manages to escape by turning the Queen Conch into a fogbank. On returning to the hotel, he learns that Slim has not used the ticket he purchased for her and instead has stayed in Martinique to be with him. The de Bursacs are hiding in the basement of the hotel and at Frenchy's request, Harry removes the bullet from Paul's shoulder. He learns that the couple have come to Martinique to help a man with the Free French escape from the penal colony at Devil's Island. De Bursac asks for Harry's assistance in this operation, but Harry respectfully turns him down.

The police return to the hotel and reveal that they recognized Harry's boat the previous night. They also reveal they have Eddie in custody. Exploiting his addiction to alcohol, they plan to withhold liquor until he reveals the details of the smuggling plot. His friend in custody and his back against the wall, Harry decides to act. With Slim's help, Harry turns the tables on the police. He holds Vichyite Police Captain Renard (Dan Seymour) at gunpoint and forces him to order Eddie's release and sign harbor passes. When Eddie returns, he Harry, Slim and the de Bursacs and escape on the Queen Conch, Harry having agreed to help the de Bursacs with their mission.


Left to right: Dan Seymour, Aldo Nadi, Humphrey Bogart, Sheldon Leonard, Marcel Dalio and Lauren Bacall in To Have and Have Not


Background and development[edit]

On a ten-day fishing trip, independent director Howard Hawks tried to convince Ernest Hemingway to write him a script, but Hemingway wasn't interested in working in Hollywood. Hawks insisted that he could make a film from his "worst story".[3]:15-16 Although Hawks had a high regard for Hemingway's works in general, he considered To Have and Have Not to be his worst book, a "bunch of junk", and told Hemingway so.[4][5] Hemingway and Hawks worked on the screenplay during the remainder of the fishing trip. Hemingway and Hawks had discussed that the film was not going to resemble the novel, and would rather tell the story of how Morgan met Marie, who he extensively altered for the film.[6]:18 In May 1939, Hemingway sold book rights to Howard Hughes. Hughes sold the book rights to Hawks in October 1943, who sold them to Warner Bros.[3]:16 Due to the way the rights to the novel bounced between sellers, Hawks actually made ten times more money selling the rights of the novel than Hemingway did. Hemingway reported didn't talk to Hawks for "three months" upon finding this out.[7]:51

Relation to source material[edit]

The screenplay for To Have and Have Not bears little resemblance to Hemingway's novel of the same name. The only similarities include the title, the name and a few personality traits of the main character Harry Morgan, the name of Marie, the name of Eddie, and the name and character traits of Johnson. Johnson is the only character that remained consistent in the novel, every revised screenplay, and the film. All of the similarities between the film and the novel are from the first fourth or four chapters of the novel.[8]:245


Humphrey Bogart was cast by Warner Bros. in early 1943. Lauren Bacall was then an 18-year-old model. She appeared on the cover of Harper's Bazaar, and was noticed by Hawks' wife, Nancy "Slim" Keith, who showed the cover photo to her husband. Hawks sought Bacall out in April 1943 and signed her for the role, her first movie appearance. In the movie, Harry calls her by the nickname "Slim", and she calls him "Steve", the nicknames used between Keith and Hawks.[3]:18[6]:18 Hawks shot her screen test in January 1944. Her screen test was the seduction and "whistle" scene.[9]:366 This scene wasn't originally meant to go in the film, but Jack L. Warner told Hawks that he needed to integrate it into the film, and so it was later adapted into the film.[10]:116-117 After the screen test, Hawks signed his first personal contract with an up and coming actress with Bacall.[6]:83 After Bacall turned nineteen, Hawks changed her name to Lauren and she used a variation of her mother's maiden name "Bacal" (Bacall was born Betty Perske).[11] Hawks had to decide whether the love interest in the film would be split between two female actresses or whether it would rest on Bacall. Warner Bros. was uninterested in Hawks using Bacall and required Hawks to screen test some of the studio's actresses such as Dolores Moran and Georgette McKee.[12]:236 After the success of Bacall's screen test, however, Hawks was confident in Bacall and believed he just needed to convince Feldman, Warner, and Bogart.[9]:367 Ann Sheridan was considered for the part of Sylvia/Helen during the period of time during casting when her part was more important in the film. With the part of Sylvia/Helen smaller, Dolores Moran was cast as a more voluptuous contrast to slender Bacall.[9]:367 Walter Brennan was borrowed from Goldwyn to play Eddie. Dan Seymour who played in Casablanca signed up to play as a Cuban revolutionary and was shocked to notice his character wasn't in the script. Instead, he was given the role of a Vichy policeman and Hawks insisted that he be bulked up beyond his 300 pounds as well as sport a slight French accent. French actor Marcel Dalio, who played in Casablanca as well, was given the role of "Frenchy".[9]:368[13]:254


Howard Hawks recruited Jules Furthman to work on the screenplay. The initial screenplay, completed on October 12, 1943, was 207 pages.[9]:362 It resembled the novel more than the final screenplay.[3]:19 By the end of December, Furthman had completed a revised screenplay with sixty fewer pages.[9]:366 Hawks instructed Furthman, to alter Marie's character to be more sultry and masculine, resembling Marlene Dietrich. In the previous version of the script, Bacall's purse was stolen, but after the revision, Bacall's character stole the purse.[10]:116-117 Much of Bacall's character was based on Hawks' wife Slim Keith. Even some of her lines reportedly came directly from Keith. Due to this, Furthman suggested that Keith ask for script credit.[9]:367 Hawks instructed Furthman to work on the final screenplay and stop writing the second version of the screenplay which had Bacall in a minor role in case she proved to be poor for the role.[3]:18-19 Furthman worked on the screenplay throughout January and February 1944 and recruited Cleve F. Adams and Whitman Chambers to help him with the work.[9]:369 He completed it before February 14, 1944.[3]:27


Joseph Breen read the script and cited three dozen instances which violated the Production Code, citing that Morgan was portrayed as an unpunished murderer and the women as suggested prostitutes. He stated that the characters must be softened, the studio must remove all suggestions of inappropriate sexual relations between men and women, and that murder must be made clear to appear as self-defense.[9]:370 As the movie was filmed during World War II, Hawks moved the setting from Cuba to Vichy-controlled Martinique as required by the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs to placate the Roosevelt administration. They objected to the unfavorable portrayal of Cuba's government as against the U.S. government's "Good Neighbor" policy toward Latin American nations.[3]:31 Writer William Faulkner was hired on by Hawks on February 22, 1944, to avoid recounting political conflict between Free France and the Vichy government in the storyline and to satisfy the Production Code. It was reportedly Faulkner's idea to change the setting of the film to Martinique, because he had been working on an unproduced story line involving Charles de Gaulle, so he was familiar with the details.[7]:52 Furthman stopped writing after Faulkner was brought on the project.[3]:28 Faulkner and Hemingway never met, but To Have and Have Not is considered by Charles M. Oliver the best adaptation for film of Hemingway's novels.[14]:95 In order to satisfy the Production Code, Faulkner wrote that every character would sleep in the same hotel, but put Morgan and Marie's bedrooms across from each other to facilitate interactions between them as well as reducing Marie's drinking in the film, and removing scenes in which Morgan appeared to be a murderer. Other additions included Marie becoming Morgan's sole romantic interest and Helen and her husband becoming fighters for the resistance.[9]:370 Finally, Faulkner made the time frame for the film three days instead of the many months depicted in the novel.[9]:371 Hawks intended to have the screenplay be modeled loosely off of Casablanca, which also starred Humphrey Bogart, hoping for the same success that Casablanca had at the box office.[7]:52


Production began on February 29, 1944, with only thirty-six pages of the screenplay written, due to changes required by the Production Code office.[13]:254 Faulkner had very little time in between the rebuilding of sets to continue the screenplay, therefore, each scene was written three days before it was filmed.[7]:52 The final cast reading was done on March 6, 1944 with final script changes finished by April 22. Line by line, Hawks and Bogart changed the script to create a more sexual and comedic film.[3]:32,35 For example, the line "It's even better when you help", was not originally in the script and was added during filming.[9]:366 After 62 days, filming was completed May 10, 1944.[13]:268[3]:32,35 Bogart and Hawks served as their own technical advisers, because of their experience with fishing and sailing.[3]:39 After filming began, a romance developed between Bogart and Bacall, despite Hawks' disapproval. Not only was Bogart married but, at 45, he was more than twice Bacall's age. They kept their relationship a secret from Hawks until The Big Sleep, after which Hawks never worked with either of them.[3]:39 This romance eventually led to Bogart divorcing Mayo Methot, his third wife.[12]:245 He and Bacall married a year after To Have and Have Not and remained married until Bogart's death in 1957.[11] Hawks expanded Bacall's part to take advantage of the Bogart-Bacall chemistry. According to the documentary, "A Love Story: The Story of To Have and Have Not", included on the 2003 DVD release, Hawks recognized the star-making potential of the film for Bacall. He emphasized her role and downplayed that of Dolores Moran, the film's other female lead. (Hawks and Moran had their own affair during production).[15] Two weeks before the end of production, Bacall was called to Hawks' home. Hawks told her that Bogart did not love her and that she was in danger of losing career opportunities. After he threatened to send her to B-list Monogram Pictures, Bacall was very upset. She told Bogart and he became upset with Hawks.[13]:263 This caused an argument between Hawks and Bogart that stunted production for two weeks. Bogart recognized his power and used negotiation to his advantage. After negotiating with Warner, Bogart received an extra $33,000 salary, as long as Bogart promised to no longer stall production.[13]:264


Cricket, the piano player in the hotel bar, was played by real-life songwriter and band leader Hoagy Carmichael. In the course of the movie, Cricket and Slim perform "How Little We Know", by Carmichael and Johnny Mercer, and "Am I Blue?", by Harry Akst and Grant Clarke. Cricket and the band also perform "Hong Kong Blues", by Carmichael and Stanley Adams. "The Rhumba Jumps", by Mercer and Carmichael, is performed by the hotel band. Bacall shimmies out at the end of the movie to a faster "How Little We Know".[16] Background music or nondiegetic music is minimal in the picture.[17] According to professor of film studies Ian Brookes, Howard Hawks uses jazz, particularly through interracial performance scenes to underscore the concerns of anti fascism in the storyline of the film.[18]

A persistent myth is that a teenage Andy Williams, the future singing star, dubbed the singing for Bacall. According to authoritative sources, including Hawks and Bacall, this was not true. Williams and some female singers were tested to dub for Bacall, because of fears that she lacked the necessary vocal skills. But those fears were overshadowed by the desire to have Bacall do her own singing (perhaps championed by Bogart) despite her less than perfect vocal talent.[19] This myth is disputed in Leonard Maltin's Movie Guide entry for this film, but the myth is propagated in a 1986 episode of MacGyver, entitled "Three for the Road", when the character of a veteran movie asks his wife this particular question, whereupon she answers that Andy Williams, when 14, did dub the voice for Lauren Bacall.[20][21] However, several sources on the film set have stated that this myth is false.[22] In fact, Bacall's low singing voice in the film helps her character establish a form of masculine dominance.[23]

Cultural references[edit]

In one scene, Marie says to Morgan, "I'm hard to get, Steve. All you have to do is ask me." This quote came from the earlier 1939 Hawks film Only Angels Have Wings in which Jean Arthur says to Cary Grant, "I'm hard to get, Geoff. All you have to do is ask me."[24]:232,239


Warner Bros. released To Have and Have Not in October 11, 1944.[14]:327[25]


Aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports 97% approval of To Have or Have Not, with the critical consensus stated as, "With Howard Hawks directing and Bogey and Bacall in front of the cameras, To Have and Have Not benefits from several levels of fine-tuned chemistry -- all of which ignite on screen."[26] The critical reception of To Have and Have Not in 1945 was mixed yet often unflattering. Firstly, early publicity and much of the initial reaction to the film centered around Lauren Bacall, either praising her or criticizing her part in the film as merely as a gimmick for attention from the press. Other critics found the film to be betraying Hemingway's novel due to only the first fifteen minutes of the film bearing resemblance to the novel. Finally, Americans were preoccupied with World War II and had little interest in a hero (Bogart) that consistently rejected commitment and whose only interest in France's cause was financial, to help himself and his girl (Bacall).[27]:25 Critics called the film a fast, witty romance with a plot as merely "an excuse for some good scenes."[3]:50 Variety cited the film's inferiority to Casablanca and other Warner Bros. melodramas, but acknowledged the film's success in its characterization.[28] Time called the film a, "tinny romantic melodrama which millions of cinemaddicts have been waiting forever since Casablanca.[3]:50 New York Variety was mixed about the film citing, "nifty productional accoutrements" with "too unsteady" of a storyline.[3]:50 Other reviewers called it, "definitely swell entertainment", while others stated it was an delightful remake of Casablanca.[3]:50 American film critic James Agee liked the film but felt that Going My Way was a better film, because To Have and Have Not focused too much on "character and atmosphere" rather than on plot.[3]:51 Agee was far more interested in Bacall's performance than the anti-Fascist themes in the film.[29]

Box Office[edit]

The film was one of the top thirty grossing pictures of 1944. According to Warner Bros records the film earned $3,652,000 domestically and $1,605,000 foreign, coming close to the high earnings of Casablanca.[1][30]

Industry reception[edit]

To Have and Have Not received an award from the National Board of Review.[3]:51


Screenwriter and film critic Paul Schrader classified the film as noir, made during the first or "wartime" period of film noir.[31] Some other scholars categorize the film as noir, while some don't believe Howard Hawks ever made a true "noir".[32][33] The names of the characters in To Have and Have Not are directly related to the quality of the characters. Characters which are meant to elicit sympathy from the viewer are known by their nicknames: Steve, Slim, Eddie, Frenchy, and Cricket. In this way, Hawks creates the illusion of a character by devoiding it of past and present social roles that may be associated with a surname. Villains or corrupted characters are called by their surnames such as Johnson.[34]:299


According to English film critic Robin Wood, To Have and Have Not presents "one of the most basic anti-fascist statements the cinema has given us."[27]:26 The film portrays anti-fascist themes common to the time period through its emphasis on individual liberty expressed through Bogart's character and through its representation of people progressing and working together well.[3]:53[27]:26 When he decides to join the resistance cause, Morgan reasons, "...maybe because I like you and maybe because I don't like them." The power of this anti-fascist statement comes from the fact that his anti-fascist feelings come instinctually rather than from an expected ideology.[35]:209 More generally, Hawks expresses a protest of authoritarianism and any infringement of individual rights. Hawks, however, claimed that he wasn't interested in politics and the focus of the movie was on the relationship between the characters of Bogart and Bacall. Regardless, the anti-fascist themes come through in the relationship between Bogart and Bacall's characters. They represent the individual standing up to those who abuse their power.[27]:29 According to Ian Brookes, during the scene where Bacall sings "Am I Blue?" with Hoagy Carmichael, her low-voice establishes herself as "one of the boys" and thus a "solider" in the anti-fascist cause.[36]:209 Moreover, during this scene, the patrons at the bar represent different races and are racial integrated throughout the space, challenging the ideas of segregation and race during the time period.[36]:210 The next song that plays, Limehouse Blues is reminiscent of Django Reinhardt's pre-war version. This represents French resistance spirit, as swing music became a symbol of resistance in France, because it was the only available example of American culture in France at the time.[36]:211

Harry Morgan[edit]

A common theme of war films such as To Have and Have Not is the conversion narrative. An individual who originally does not want to involve them self the war effort, eventually becomes converted through a changed attitude and accepts their duty as a citizen to participate in the war efforts. Along with Harry Morgan's transformation, the Humphrey Bogart persona changed along the years, making him an important casting decision for the film.[36]:207 Harry Morgan, the fisherman, represents the center of the storyline of To Have and Have Not. According to Robin Wood, Harry Morgan represents at the same time the personality of Humphrey Bogart and the Hawksian hero.[27]:26 Harry Morgan, as a character, represents a myth that the audience accepts as real such as the heroes of Homer. Morgan represents the heroic ideal.[27]:27 Morgan acts on his own interests, yet is not self-indulgent, minding his "own business". He does good, because of the responsibility he feels that he has for his personal alliances.[27]:27 Morgan controls and establishes the morality of the film through the distinctness of what one does and what one is. Bogart's character establishes the fact that one's personal identity is not determined by one's actions if they do not allow it to happen. In the film, Slim steals Johnson's wallet, because he did not pay Morgan for his services. When they are both approached by Morgan, Slim shows no shame, indicating that her morality was not affected by her actions. Johnson, however, shows shame and doesn't receive sympathy, because he reveals that he is defined by his actions.[27]:28 Bogart's character is direct and blunt, yet makes an effort to not judge a person by their actions.[27]:29 Harry Morgan encompasses the qualities of the "Hawksian" hero due to his personal integrity, and at the same time could be described as a Hemingway code hero because of his courage and loyalty.[7]:54

One of the biggest differences between the film and the novel of the same name is the resolution of the Harry Morgan character. In the novel, Harry Morgan is beaten down through the storyline and perishes in the end. In the film, however, Morgan ends up a winner. This was specifically altered by Hawks because he did not like stories about "losers".[9]:363


With some regarding To Have and Have Not as one of Hawks's best, the film represents the only time that two Nobel Prize winners, Faulkner and Hemingway, worked on the same film story.[37]:154[7]:50 Some of Bacall's lines became renowned as double entendre; for instance, "You know how to whistle, don't you, Steve? You just put your lips together and ... blow ..." (said while looking at him provocatively). This quote is ranked at #34 on AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes list.[38]

Related media[edit]

Associated films[edit]

To Have and Have Not is noted for its similarity to earlier films Casablanca (1942) and Morocco (1930) and Across the Pacific (1942).[34]:298 There are some similarities to the plot of Bogart's earlier, highly successful Casablanca (1942). Other changes tended in the same direction, such as the introduction of a sympathetic piano player as an important supporting character. Carmichael's Cricket was not in the Hemingway book, and parallels Dooley Wilson's Sam in Casablanca. Several cast members from Casablanca also appear in the film; apart from Bogart and Dalio (Emil in Casablanca), Dan Seymour (Abdul in Casablanca) plays Captain Renard, whose name and position parallel Captain Renault in Casablanca. As in Casablanca, Bogart's initially reluctant character assists husband-and-wife Resistance members.


To Have and Have Not was adapted as an hour-long radio play for Lux Radio Theater, with Bogart and Bacall reprising their screen roles. It was broadcast on October 14, 1946.[39]

Warner Brothers adapted the novel a second time, in the 1950 film The Breaking Point by Michael Curtiz, the director of Casablanca. This screenplay stayed closer to the novel; it bore little resemblance to the 1944 film.[40] Screenwriter Ranald MacDougall and Curtiz were interested in creating a film that was better modeled after Hemingway's novel, and didn't remotely resemble Casablanca.[7]:59 Despite the film's faithfulness to the novel, it remains less popular than To Have and Have Not, though Hemingway said the remake, "suited him".[7]:62 The film was remade another time in 1958 by director Don Siegel. Siegel was reluctant to remake the film, but "needed the money".[7]:63 The film was shot quickly and cheaply and according to author Gene D. Phillips, was nothing more than a "crass exploitation of the Hemingway book".[7]:65

From 1951 to 1952, Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall participated in a weekly, half-hour radio adventure series called Bold Venture, intended to be a spin-off of To Have and Have Not.[13]:437[41]

See also[edit]

  • Bacall to Arms, a 1946 Looney Tunes short, spoofing scenes from To Have and Have Not, and featuring "Bogey Gocart" and "Laurie Becool". It is included as a Special Feature on the DVD release of To Have and Have Not.[42]


  1. ^ a b c Warner Bros financial information in The William Shaefer Ledger. See Appendix 1, Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, (1995) 15:sup1, 1-31 p 25 DOI: 10.1080/01439689508604551
  2. ^ Thomas Schatz, Boom and Bust: American Cinema in the 1940s Uni of California Press, 1999 p 220
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Furthman, Jules; Faulkner, William (1980). Kawin, Bruce F., ed. To Have and Have Not. Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0299080943. 
  4. ^ Hawks telling Hemingway he could film his worst book and that this one was "a bunch of junk": interview with Hawks by Joseph McBride for the Directors' Guild of America, October 21–23, 1977, private publication of the Directors' Guild, p. 21; quoted at length in Mast, p. 243.
  5. ^ You Must Remember This (retrospective for Warner Brothers' 85th anniversary), American Masters, PBS, broadcast September 23, 2008.
  6. ^ a b c Bacall, Lauren (1978). Lauren Bacall by myself. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0394413083. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Phillips, Gene D. (1980). Hemingway and Film. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. ISBN 0804426953. 
  8. ^ Mast, Gerald (1982). Howard Hawks, Storyteller. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195030915. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m McCarthy, Todd (1997). Howard Hawks: The Grey House of Hollywood. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0802115985. 
  10. ^ a b Schickel, Richard (1975). The Men Who Made The Movies. New York: Atheneum. ISBN 0689106319. 
  11. ^ a b "Lauren Bacall: A Screen Goddess of the Shadows" (PDF). Kuwait Times. August 14, 2014. Retrieved September 4, 2018. 
  12. ^ a b Behlmer, Rudy (1985). Inside Warner Bros. (1935-1951). New York: Viking Penguin. ISBN 0670804789. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f Sperber, A.M.; Lax, Eric (1997). Bogart. New York: William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0688075398. 
  14. ^ a b Oliver, Charles M. (1999). Ernest Hemingway A to Z: The Essential Reference to the Life and Work. New York: Checkmark Books. ISBN 0816034672. 
  15. ^ Thomson, David (October 16, 2012). "The Big Screen: The Story of the Movies". Macmillan – via Google Books. 
  16. ^ rauloparedes (November 1, 2010). "Lauren Bacall "To Have and Have Not"" – via YouTube. 
  17. ^ Neumeyer, David (Spring 2004). "Merging Genres in the 1940's: The Musical and the Dramatic Feature Film". American Music. 22 (1): 129. Retrieved September 5, 2018. 
  18. ^ Brookes, Ian (2016). "'More Than Just Dance Music':Hawks and Jazz in the 1940s". In Brookes, Ian. Howard Hawks: New Perspectives. Palgrave. p. 177. ISBN 9781844575411. 
  19. ^ McBride, Joseph. Hawks on Hawks. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1982. p. 130.
  20. ^ "To Have and Have Not". Turner Classic Movies. Turner Classic Movies, Inc. Retrieved 2 July 2018. 
  21. ^ Zlotoff, Lee David; Lenhart, Kerry; Sakmar, John J. (December 1986). "'Three for the Road'". MacGyver. ABC. 
  22. ^ Hagen, Ray (January 2, 2000). "'Dubbing' Bacall; It Says It Right Here". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2 July 2018. 
  23. ^ McLean, Adrienne L. (Fall 1993). ""It's Only That I Do What I Love and Love What I Do": "Film Noir" and the Musical Woman". Cinema Journal. 33 (1): 4. doi: Check |doi= value (help). 
  24. ^ Dibbern, Doug (2016). "Irresolvable Circularity: Narrative Closure and Nihilism in Only Angels Have Wings". In Brookes, Ian. Howard Hawks: New Perspectives. Palgrave. ISBN 9781844575411. 
  25. ^ "Adverstisement". The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. October 11, 1944. Retrieved 31 July 2018. 
  26. ^ "To Have or Have Not (1944)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved January 23, 2017. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i Wood, Robin (1981). Howard Hawks. United Kingdom: British Film Institute. ISBN 0851701116. 
  28. ^ "To Have and Have Not". Variety. October 11, 1944. Retrieved 2 July 2018. 
  29. ^ Sinyard, Neil (1986). Filming Literature: The Art of Screen Adaptation. Kent, UK: Croom Helm. p. 88. ISBN 0709933460. Retrieved 26 July 2018. 
  30. ^ Glancy, H. Mark (1995). "Warner Bros Film Grosses, 1921-51: the William Schaefer ledger". Historical Journal of Film, Radio, and Television. 15 (1): 64. doi:10.1080/01439689500260031. Retrieved September 5, 2018. 
  31. ^ Schrader, Paul (Spring 1972). "Notes on Film Noir". Film Comment. 8 (1). Retrieved September 4, 2018. 
  32. ^ Brook, Vincent (2009). Driven to Darkness: Jewish Emigre Directors and the Rise of Film Noir. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. pp. ISBN 9780813546292. 
  33. ^ Wood, Robin (1973). [file:///C:/Users/hbll-scmwiki/Downloads/TO_HAVE_(written)_AND_HAVE_NOT.pdf "To Have (Written) and Have Not (Directed)"] Check |url= value (help) (PDF). Film Comment. 9 (3). Retrieved September 5, 2018. 
  34. ^ a b Wood, Robin (1976). "To Have (Written) and Have Not (Directed)". In Nichols, Bill. Movies and Methods: An Anthology. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520031512. Retrieved 27 July 2018. 
  35. ^ Brookes, Ian (2009). Lock, Graham; Murray, David, eds. Thriving on a Riff: Jazz & Blues Influences in African American Literature and Film. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195337099. 
  36. ^ a b c d Brookes, Ian (2009). ""A Rebus of Democratic Slants and Angles":To Have and Have Not, Racial Representation and Musical Performance in a Democracy at War". In Lock, Graham; Murray, David. Thriving on a Riff: Jazz & Blues Influences in African American Literature and Film. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195337099. 
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