Ernst Lubitsch was a German American film director, producer and actor. His urbane comedies of manners gave him the reputation of being Hollywood's most elegant and sophisticated director. Among his best known works are Trouble in Paradise, The Shop Around the Corner and To Be or Not to Be. In 1946, he received an Honorary Academy Award for his distinguished contributions to the art of the motion picture. Ernst Lubitsch was born on January 29, 1892 in Berlin, the son of Anna and Simon Lubitsch, a tailor, his family was Ashkenazi Jewish, his father born in Grodno in the Russian Empire and his mother from Wriezen, outside Berlin. He turned his back on his father's tailoring business to enter the theater, by 1911, he was a member of Max Reinhardt's Deutsches Theater. In 1913, Lubitsch made his film debut as an actor in The Ideal Wife, he abandoned acting to concentrate on directing. He appeared in thirty films as an actor between 1912 and 1920, his last film appearance as an actor was in the 1920 drama Sumurun, opposite Pola Negri and Paul Wegener, which he directed.
In 1918, he made his mark as a serious director with Die Augen der Mumie Ma. Lubitsch alternated between escapist comedies and large-scale historical dramas, enjoying great international success with both, his reputation as a grand master of world cinema reached a new peak after the release of his spectacles Madame Du Barry and Anna Boleyn. Both of these films found American distributorship by early 1921. They, along with Lubitsch's Carmen were selected by The New York Times on its list of the 15 most important movies of 1921. With glowing reviews under his belt, American money flowing his way, Lubitsch formed his own production company and set to work on the high-budget spectacular The Loves of Pharaoh. Lubitsch sailed to the United States for the first time in December 1921 for what was intended as a lengthy publicity and professional factfinding tour, scheduled to culminate in the February premiere of Pharaoh. However, with World War I still fresh, with a slew of German "New Wave" releases encroaching on American movie workers' livelihoods, Lubitsch was not gladly received.
He cut his trip short after little more than three weeks and returned to Germany. But he had seen enough of the American film industry to know that its resources far outstripped the spartan German companies. Lubitsch left Germany for Hollywood in 1922, contracted as a director by Mary Pickford, he directed Pickford in the film Rosita. A free agent after just one American film, Lubitsch was signed to a remarkable three-year, six-picture contract by Warner Brothers that guaranteed the director his choice of both cast and crew, full editing control over the final cut. Settling in America, Lubitsch established his reputation for sophisticated comedy with such stylish films as The Marriage Circle, Lady Windermere's Fan, So This Is Paris, but his films were only marginally profitable for Warner Brothers, Lubitsch's contract was dissolved by mutual consent, with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Paramount buying out the remainder. His first film for MGM, The Student Prince in Old Heidelberg, lost money; the Patriot, produced by Paramount, earned him his first Academy Award nomination for Best Directing.
Lubitsch seized upon the advent of talkies to direct musicals. With his first sound film, The Love Parade, starring Maurice Chevalier and Jeanette MacDonald, Lubitsch hit his stride as a maker of worldly musical comedies; the Love Parade, Monte Carlo, The Smiling Lieutenant were hailed by critics as masterpieces of the newly emerging musical genre. Lubitsch served on the faculty of the University of Southern California for a time, his next film was a romantic comedy, written with Trouble in Paradise. Described as "truly amoral" by critic David Thomson, the cynical comedy was popular both with critics and with audiences, but it was a project that could only have been made before the enforcement of the Production Code, after 1935, Trouble in Paradise was withdrawn from circulation. It was not seen again until 1968; the film was never available on videocassette and only became available on DVD in 2003. Writing about Lubitsch's work, critic Michael Wilmington observed: At once elegant and ribald and earthy, urbane and bemused, frivolous yet profound.
They were directed by a man, amused by sex rather than frightened of it – and who taught a whole culture to be amused by it as well. Whether with music, as in MGM's opulent The Merry Widow and Paramount's One Hour with You, or without, as in Design for Living, Lubitsch continued to specialize in comedy, he made only the antiwar Broken Lullaby. In 1935, he was appointed Paramount's production manager, thus becoming the only major Hollywood director to run a large studio. Lubitsch subsequently produced his own films and supervised the production of films of other directors, but Lubitsch had trouble delegating authority, a problem when he was overseeing sixty different films. He was fired after a year on the job, returned to full-time moviemaking. In 1936, he became a na
The Klingons are a fictional species in the science fiction franchise Star Trek. Developed by screenwriter Gene L. Coon in 1967 for the original Star Trek series, Klingons were swarthy humanoids characterized by prideful ruthlessness and brutality. Klingons practiced authoritarianism, with a warrior caste relying on slave labor, they had characteristics of the Soviet Union. With a expanded budget for makeup and effects, the Klingons were redesigned for Star Trek: The Motion Picture, acquiring ridged foreheads. In subsequent television series and in films, the militaristic traits of the Klingons were bolstered by an increased sense of honor and strict warrior code similar to those of bushido. Klingons are recurring antagonists in the 1960s television series Star Trek, have appeared in all subsequent series, along with ten of the Star Trek feature films. Intended to be antagonists for the crew of the USS Enterprise, the Klingons became a close ally of humanity in Star Trek: The Next Generation.
In the 1990s series Star Trek: Deep Space Nine and Klingons join with the Romulans to fight the Dominion. Among the elements created for the revised Klingons was a complete Klingon language, developed by Marc Okrand from gibberish suggested by actor James Doohan. Spoken Klingon has entered popular culture to the extent that the works of William Shakespeare and parts of the Bible have been translated into it. A dictionary, a book of sayings, a cultural guide to the language have been published. According to the Guinness World Records, Klingon is the world's most popular fictional language as measured by number of speakers; the Klingons were created by screenwriter Gene L. Coon, first appeared in the Star Trek episode "Errand of Mercy", they were named after Lieutenant Wilbur Clingan, who served with Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry in the Los Angeles Police Department. In the original television series, Klingons were portrayed with bronze skin and facial hair suggestive of Asian people, possessed physical abilities similar to humans.
The swarthy look of Klingon males was created with the application of shoe polish and long, thin moustaches. The overall look of the aliens, played by white actors, suggested orientalism, at a time when memories of Japanese actions during World War II were still fresh; the production crew never came to an agreement on the name "Klingon". The Klingons took on the role of the Soviet Union with the fictional government, the United Federation of Planets playing the role of the United States; as such, they were portrayed as inferior to the crew of the Enterprise. While capable of honour, this depiction treated the Klingons as close to wild animals. Overall, they were shown without redeeming qualities—brutish and murderous. Klingons became the primary antagonists of the Enterprise crew, in part because the makeup necessary to make another alien race, the Romulans, was too time-consuming and costly. For the first two seasons, no Klingon ships were seen despite being mentioned; this was because of budget constraints.
When the episodes were remastered beginning in 2006, Klingon ships were digitally inserted into shots earlier than their original appearances. For Star Trek: The Motion Picture, the Klingons' appearance was radically changed. To give the aliens a more sophisticated and threatening demeanor, the Klingons were depicted with ridged foreheads and prominent teeth, a defined language and alphabet. Lee Cole, a production designer, used red gels and primitive shapes in the design of Klingon consoles and ship interiors, which took on a dark and moody atmosphere; the alphabet was designed with sharp edges harking to the Klingons' militaristic focus. Costume designer Robert Fletcher created new uniforms for the Klingons, reminiscent of feudal Japanese armor. Certain elements of Klingon culture, resembling Japanese culture with honor at the forefront, were first explored with the script for the planned two-part "Kitumba" episode for the unproduced 1978 Star Trek: Phase II series. Writer John Meredyth Lucas said, "I wanted something that we had never seen before on the series, that's a penetration deep into enemy space.
I started to think of. For the Romulans we had Romans, we've had different cultures modeled on those of ancient Earth, but I tried to think of what the Klingon society would be like; the Japanese came to mind, so that's what it was, with the Sacred Emperor, the Warlord and so on."While no Klingon characters were seen in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, their appearance as the central enemy in Star Trek III: The Search for Spock led to minor alterations. For the third generation of Klingons, the heavy, cragged head ridges of The Motion Picture were redesigned and made less pronounced. While Fletcher was happy with the original film uniforms, more had to be created as the old costumes had been lost, destroyed, or loaned out and altered irreparably. New costumes were fabricated. New Klingon weaponry was designed, including an energy weapon and a special knife known as a d'k tahg; the release of a new television series, Star Trek: The Next Generation, prompted a further rev
Prince Hamlet is the title role and protagonist of William Shakespeare's c. 1600 tragedy Hamlet. He is the Prince of Denmark, nephew to the usurping Claudius, son of King Hamlet, the previous King of Denmark. At the beginning of the play, he struggles with whether, how, to avenge the murder of his father, struggles with his own sanity along the way. By the end of the tragedy, Hamlet has caused the deaths of Polonius, Laertes and two acquaintances of his from the University of Wittenberg Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, he is indirectly involved in the deaths of his love Ophelia and of his mother Gertrude. The play opens with Hamlet depressed over the recent death of his father, King Hamlet, his uncle Claudius' ascension to the throne and hasty marriage to Hamlet's mother Gertrude. One night, his father's ghost appears to him and tells him that Claudius murdered him in order to usurp the throne, commands his son to avenge his death. Claudius sends for two of Hamlet's friends from Wittenberg, to find out what is causing Hamlet so much pain.
Claudius and his advisor Polonius persuade Ophelia—Polonius' daughter and Hamlet's love interest—to speak with Hamlet while they secretly listen. Hamlet enters. Ophelia greets him, offers to return his remembrances, upon which Hamlet questions her honesty and tells her to "get thee to a nunnery." Hamlet devises a test to see whether Claudius is guilty: he hires a group of actors to perform a play about the murder of a king in front of the royal court, has Horatio gauge Claudius' reaction. Claudius demands the play be stopped half through; when Claudius leaves the audience upset, Hamlet knows that the ghost was telling the truth. He follows Claudius into his chambers in order to kill him, but stops when he sees his uncle praying. A second attempt on Claudius' life ends in Polonius' accidental death. Claudius, now fearing for his life, sends Hamlet to England, accompanied by Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Alone, Claudius discloses that he is sending Hamlet to his death. Prior to embarking for England, Hamlet hides Polonius' body revealing its location to the King.
Meanwhile, her father's death has driven Ophelia insane with grief, Claudius convinces her brother Laertes that Hamlet is to blame. He proposes a fencing match between the two. Laertes informs the king that he will further poison the tip of his sword so that a mere scratch would mean certain death. Claudius plans to offer Hamlet poisoned wine. Gertrude enters to report. In the Elsinore churchyard, two "clowns" represented as "gravediggers", enter to prepare Ophelia's grave. Hamlet arrives with Horatio and banters with one of them, who unearths the skull of a jester whom Hamlet once knew, Yorick. Ophelia's funeral procession approaches. Hamlet interrupts, grief for Ophelia, he and Laertes grapple. That day, Hamlet tells Horatio how he escaped death on his journey, disclosing that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern have been sent to their deaths instead. A courtier, interrupts to invite Hamlet to fence with Laertes. Despite Horatio's warnings, Hamlet accepts and the match begins. After several rounds, Gertrude toasts Hamlet, accidentally drinking the wine Claudius poisoned.
Between bouts, Laertes pierces Hamlet with his poisoned blade. Gertrude, in her dying breath, announces that she has been poisoned. In his dying moments, Laertes reveals Claudius' plot. Hamlet stabs Claudius with the poisoned sword, forces him to drink from his own poisoned cup to make sure he dies. In his final moments, Hamlet names Prince Fortinbras of Norway as the probable heir to the throne. Horatio attempts to kill himself with the same poisoned wine, but it was stopped by Hamlet, so he will be the only one left alive to give a full account of the story, he wills the throne of Denmark to Fortinbras before dying. The most straightforward view sees Hamlet as seeking truth in order to be certain that he is justified in carrying out the revenge called for by a ghost that claims to be the spirit of his father; the 1948 movie with Laurence Olivier in the title role is introduced by a voiceover: "This is the tragedy of a man who could not make up his mind." T. S. Eliot offers a similar view of Hamlet's character in his critical essay, "Hamlet and His Problems".
He states, "We find Shakespeare's'Hamlet' not in the action, not in any quotations that we might select, so much as in an unmistakable tone...". Others see Hamlet as a person charged with a duty that he both knows and feels is right, yet is unwilling to carry out. In this view, his efforts to satisfy himself on Claudius' guilt and his failure to act when he can are evidence of this unwillingness, Hamlet berates himself for his inability to carry out his task. After observing a play-actor performing a scene, he notes that the actor was moved to tears in the passion of the story and compares this passion for an ancient Greek character, Hecuba, in light of his own situation: O, what a rogue and peasant slave am I! Is it not monstrous that this player here, But in a fiction, in a dream of passion, Could force his soul so to his own conceit That from her working all his visage wan'd.
Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin was an English comic actor and composer who rose to fame in the era of silent film. He became a worldwide icon through his screen persona, "The Tramp", is considered one of the most important figures in the history of the film industry, his career spanned more than 75 years, from childhood in the Victorian era until a year before his death in 1977, encompassed both adulation and controversy. Chaplin's childhood in London was one of poverty and hardship, as his father was absent and his mother struggled financially, he was sent to a workhouse twice before the age of nine; when he was 14, his mother was committed to a mental asylum. Chaplin began performing at an early age, touring music halls and working as a stage actor and comedian. At 19, he was signed to the prestigious Fred Karno company, he began appearing in 1914 for Keystone Studios. He soon formed a large fan base, he directed his own films and continued to hone his craft as he moved to the Essanay and First National corporations.
By 1918, he was one of the best-known figures in the world. In 1919, Chaplin co-founded the distribution company United Artists which gave him complete control over his films, his first feature-length film was The Kid, followed by A Woman of Paris, The Gold Rush, The Circus. He refused to move to sound films in the 1930s, instead producing City Lights and Modern Times without dialogue, he became political, his next film The Great Dictator satirized Adolf Hitler. The 1940s were a decade marked with controversy for Chaplin, his popularity declined rapidly, he was accused of communist sympathies, while he created scandal through his involvement in a paternity suit and his marriages to much younger women. An FBI investigation was opened, Chaplin was forced to leave the United States and settle in Switzerland, he abandoned the Tramp in his films, which include Monsieur Verdoux, Limelight, A King in New York, A Countess from Hong Kong. Chaplin wrote, produced, starred in, composed the music for most of his films.
He was a perfectionist, his financial independence enabled him to spend years on the development and production of a picture. His films are characterized by slapstick combined with pathos, typified in the Tramp's struggles against adversity. Many contain political themes, as well as autobiographical elements, he received an Honorary Academy Award for "the incalculable effect he has had in making motion pictures the art form of this century" in 1972, as part of a renewed appreciation for his work. He continues to be held in high regard, with The Gold Rush, City Lights, Modern Times, The Great Dictator ranked on lists of the greatest films of all time. Charles Spencer Chaplin was born on 16 April 1889 to Charles Chaplin Sr.. There is no official record of his birth, although Chaplin believed he was born at East Street, Walworth, in South London, his mother and father had married four years at which time Charles Sr. became the legal guardian of Hannah's illegitimate son, Sydney John Hill. At the time of his birth, Chaplin's parents were both music hall entertainers.
Hannah, the daughter of a shoemaker, had a brief and unsuccessful career under the stage name Lily Harley, while Charles Sr. a butcher's son, was a popular singer. Although they never divorced, Chaplin's parents were estranged by around 1891; the following year, Hannah gave birth to a third son – George Wheeler Dryden – fathered by the music hall entertainer Leo Dryden. The child was taken by Dryden at six months old, did not re-enter Chaplin's life for 30 years. Chaplin's childhood was fraught with poverty and hardship, making his eventual trajectory "the most dramatic of all the rags to riches stories told" according to his authorised biographer David Robinson. Chaplin's early years were spent with his mother and brother Sydney in the London district of Kennington; as the situation deteriorated, Chaplin was sent to Lambeth Workhouse. The council housed him at the Central London District School for paupers, which Chaplin remembered as "a forlorn existence", he was reunited with his mother 18 months before Hannah was forced to readmit her family to the workhouse in July 1898.
The boys were promptly sent to another institution for destitute children. In September 1898, Hannah was committed to Cane Hill mental asylum – she had developed a psychosis brought on by an infection of syphilis and malnutrition. For the two months she was there and his brother Sydney were sent to live with their father, whom the young boys scarcely knew. Charles Sr. was by a severe alcoholic, life there was bad enough to provoke a visit from the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. Chaplin's father died two years at 38 years old, from cirrhosis of the liver. Hannah entered a period of remission but, in May 1903, became ill again. Chaplin 14, had the task of taking his mother to the infirmary, from where she was sent back to Cane Hill, he lived alone for several days, searching for food and sleeping rough, until Sydney – who had enrolled in the Navy two years earlier – returned. Hannah was released from the asylum eight months but in March 1905, her illness returned, this time permanently.
"There was nothing we could do but accept poor mother's fate", Chaplin wrote, a
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark shortened to Hamlet, is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare sometime between 1599 and 1602. Set in Denmark, the play depicts Prince Hamlet and his revenge against his uncle, who has murdered Hamlet's father in order to seize his throne and marry Hamlet's mother. Hamlet is Shakespeare's longest play and is considered among the most powerful and influential works of world literature, with a story capable of "seemingly endless retelling and adaptation by others", it was one of Shakespeare's most popular works during his lifetime and still ranks among his most performed, topping the performance list of the Royal Shakespeare Company and its predecessors in Stratford-upon-Avon since 1879. It has inspired many other writers—from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Charles Dickens to James Joyce and Iris Murdoch—and has been described as "the world's most filmed story after Cinderella"; the story of Shakespeare's Hamlet was derived from the legend of Amleth, preserved by 13th-century chronicler Saxo Grammaticus in his Gesta Danorum, as subsequently retold by the 16th-century scholar François de Belleforest.
Shakespeare may have drawn on an earlier Elizabethan play known today as the Ur-Hamlet, though some scholars believe Shakespeare wrote the Ur-Hamlet revising it to create the version of Hamlet we now have. He certainly wrote his version of the title role for his fellow actor, Richard Burbage, the leading tragedian of Shakespeare's time. In the 400 years since its inception, the role has been performed by numerous acclaimed actors in each successive century. Three different early versions of the play are extant: the First Quarto; each version includes entire scenes missing from the others. The play's structure and depth of characterisation have inspired much critical scrutiny. One such example is the centuries-old debate about Hamlet's hesitation to kill his uncle, which some see as a plot device to prolong the action but which others argue is a dramatisation of the complex philosophical and ethical issues that surround cold-blooded murder, calculated revenge, thwarted desire. More psychoanalytic critics have examined Hamlet's unconscious desires, while feminist critics have re-evaluated and attempted to rehabilitate the maligned characters of Ophelia and Gertrude.
The protagonist of Hamlet is Prince Hamlet of Denmark, son of the deceased King Hamlet, nephew of King Claudius, his father's brother and successor. Claudius hastily married King Hamlet's widow, Hamlet's mother, took the throne for himself. Denmark has a long-standing feud with neighbouring Norway, in which King Hamlet slew King Fortinbras of Norway in a battle some years ago. Although Denmark defeated Norway and the Norwegian throne fell to King Fortinbras's infirm brother, Denmark fears that an invasion led by the dead Norwegian king's son, Prince Fortinbras, is imminent. On a cold night on the ramparts of Elsinore, the Danish royal castle, the sentries Bernardo and Marcellus discuss a ghost resembling the late King Hamlet which they have seen, bring Prince Hamlet's friend Horatio as a witness. After the ghost appears again, the three vow to tell Prince Hamlet; as the court gathers the next day, while King Claudius and Queen Gertrude discuss affairs of state with their elderly adviser Polonius, Hamlet looks on glumly.
During the court, Claudius grants permission for Polonius's son Laertes to return to school in France and sends envoys to inform the King of Norway about Fortinbras. Claudius scolds Hamlet for continuing to grieve over his father and forbids him to return to his schooling in Wittenberg. After the court exits, Hamlet despairs of his mother's hasty remarriage. Learning of the ghost from Horatio, Hamlet resolves to see it himself; as Polonius's son Laertes prepares to depart for a visit to France, Polonius gives him contradictory advice that culminates in the ironic maxim "to thine own self be true." Polonius's daughter, admits her interest in Hamlet, but Laertes warns her against seeking the prince's attention, Polonius orders her to reject his advances. That night on the rampart, the ghost appears to Hamlet, telling the prince that he was murdered by Claudius and demanding that Hamlet avenge him. Hamlet agrees, the ghost vanishes; the prince confides to Horatio and the sentries that from now on he plans to "put an antic disposition on", or act as though he has gone mad, forces them to swear to keep his plans for revenge secret.
However, he remains uncertain of the ghost's reliability. Soon thereafter, Ophelia rushes to her father, telling him that Hamlet arrived at her door the prior night half-undressed and behaving erratically. Polonius resolves to inform Claudius and Gertrude; as he enters to do so, the king and queen finish welcoming Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, two student acquaintances of Hamlet, to Elsinore. The royal couple has requested that the students investigate the cause of Hamlet's mood and behaviour. Additional news requires that Polonius wait to be heard: messengers from Norway inform Claudius that the King of Norway has rebuked Prince Fortinbras for attempting to re-fight his father's battles; the forces that Fortinbras had conscripted to march against Denmark will instead be sent against Poland, though they will pass through Danish territory to get there. Polonius tells Claudius and Gertrude his theory regarding Hamlet's behaviour and speaks to Hamlet in a hall of the castle to try to uncover more information.
Hamlet feigns madness but subtly insults Polonius all the while. When Rosencrantz and Guildenstern arrive, Hamlet greets his "friends" warm
A King in New York
A King in New York is a 1957 British comedy film directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin in his last leading role, which co-stars, among others, his young son Michael. The film presents a satirical view of the McCarthy communist-hunt era and certain other aspects of United States politics and society; the film, produced in Europe after Chaplin's exile from the U. S. in 1952, did not open in the United States until 1973. "One of the minor annoyances in modern life is a revolution." Due to a revolution in his country Estrovia, King Igor Shadov comes to New York City with no money, his securities having been stolen by his own Prime Minister. He tries to contact the Atomic Energy Commission with his ideas for using atomic power to create a utopia. At a dinner party, some of, televised live, he reveals he has had some experience in the theatre, he does not like the idea. He does make a few commercials in order to get some money. Invited to speak at a progressive school, he meets Rupert Macabee, who doesnt want to disclose his political affinity due to fear of McCarthyism, editor of the school paper, a ten-year-old historian who gives him a stern Marxist lecture.
Although Rupert himself says he distrusts all forms of government, his parents are communists who are jailed for not giving up names at a Joseph McCarthy-type hearing. Because young Rupert had spent time with him, Shadov is suspected of being a communist himself, has to face one of the hearings, he is cleared of all charges, but not before a scene in which Shadov accidentally directs a strong stream of water from a fire hose at the members of the "House Committee on Un-American Activities", who scatter in panic. He decides to join his estranged queen in Paris for a reconciliation. In the meantime, the authorities force the child to reveal the names of his parents' friends in exchange for his parents' freedom. Grieving and guilt-ridden, Rupert is presented to King Shadov as a "patriot". Shadov reassures him that the anti-communist scare is a lot of nonsense which will be over soon and invites him to come to Europe with his parents for a visit. In addition to its condemnation of HUAC's methods, the film takes witty potshots at American commercialism, popular music, celebrity culture, film.
A dinner party scene includes a number of satirical portrayals of actors and public figures of the period, including Sophie Tucker. Charlie Chaplin as King Shadov Maxine Audley as Queen Irene Jerry Desmonde as Prime Minister Voudel Oliver Johnston as Ambassador Jaume Dawn Addams as Ann Kay - TV Specialist Sid James as Johnson - TV Advertiser Joan Ingram as Mona Cromwell - Hostess Michael Chaplin as Rupert Macabee John McLaren as Macabee Senior Phil Brown as Headmaster Harry Green as Lawyer Robert Arden as Liftboy Alan Gifford as School Superintendent Robert Cawdron as U. S. Marshal George Woodbridge as Member of Atomic Commission The film did well in Europe, but its lack of U. S. distribution hampered its commercial impact. The film divides opinion over its merits; the film received a "fresh" rating of 80% on the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, based on 10 reviews. Chaplin biographer Jeffrey Vance, writing in 2003, believes A King in New York to be an important film within Chaplin's body of work.
He concludes his lengthy examination of the film with the statement, "Although A King in New York targets the social and political climate of the 1950s, its satiric commentary is timeless. Despite its flaws, the film remains a fascinating study of life in America through the eyes of its most famous exile". A King in New York on IMDb A King in New York at AllMovie A King in New York at the TCM Movie Database
Mr. William Shakespeare's Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies is the 1623 published collection of William Shakespeare's plays. Modern scholars refer to it as the First Folio, it is considered one of the most influential books published in the English language. Printed in folio format and containing 36 plays, it was prepared by Shakespeare's colleagues John Heminges and Henry Condell, it was dedicated to the "incomparable pair of brethren" William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke and his brother Philip Herbert, Earl of Montgomery. Although 18 of Shakespeare's plays had been published in quarto before 1623, the First Folio is arguably the only reliable text for about 20 of the plays, a valuable source text for many of those published; the Folio includes all of the plays accepted to be Shakespeare's, with the exception of Pericles, Prince of Tyre. On 23 April 1616, William Shakespeare died in Stratford-upon-Avon, was buried in the chancel of the Church of the Holy Trinity two days later. After a long career as an actor and sharer in the Lord Chamberlain's Men from c.
1585–90 until c. 1610–13, he was financially well off and among England's most popular dramatists, both on the stage and in print. But his reputation had not yet risen to the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. A funerary monument in Holy Trinity was commissioned by his oldest daughter, installed, most sometime before 1617–18, but a monument in Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey was not realised until 1740. William Basse wrote an elegiac poem on him c. 1618–20, but no notices were taken of his death in diplomatic correspondence or newsletters on the continent, nor were any tributes published by European contemporaries. William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke—who at the time held the post of Lord Chamberlain, with authority over the King's Men, directly in charge of Shakespeare as a Groom of the Chamber—made no note of his passing. Shakespeare's works—both poetic and dramatic—had a rich history in print before the publication of the First Folio: from the first publications of Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece, 78 individual printed editions of his works are known.
C. 30% of these editions are his poetry, the remaining c. 70% his plays. Counting by number of editions published before 1623, the best-selling works were Venus and Adonis, The Rape of Lucrece, Henry IV, Part 1. Of the 23 editions of the poems, 16 were published in octavo; the quarto format was made by folding a large sheet of printing paper twice, forming 4 leaves with 8 pages. The average quarto was made up of c. 9 sheets, giving 72 total pages. Octavos—made by folding a sheet of the same size three times, forming 8 leaves with 16 pages—were about half as large as a quarto. Since the cost of paper represented c. 50–75% of a book's total production costs, octavos were cheaper to manufacture than quartos, a common way to reduce publishing costs was to reduce the number of pages needed by compressing or abbreviating the text. Editions of individual plays were published in quarto and could be bought for 6d without a binding; these editions were intended to be cheap and convenient, read until worn out or repurposed as wrapping paper, rather than high quality objects kept in a library.
Customers who wanted to keep a particular play would have to have it bound, would bind several related or miscellany plays into one volume. Octavos, though nominally cheaper to produce, were somewhat different. From c. 1595–6 and 1598, Shakespeare's narrative poems were published in octavo. In The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare's First Folio, Tara L. Lyons argues that this was due to the publisher, John Harrison's, desire to capitalize on the poems' association with Ovid: the Greek classics were sold in octavo, so printing Shakespeare's poetry in the same format would strengthen the association; the octavo carried greater prestige, so the format itself would help to elevate their standing. However, the choice was a financial one: Venus and Adonis in octavo needed four sheets of paper, versus seven in quarto, the octavo The Rape of Lucrece needed five sheets, versus 12 in quarto. Whatever the motivation, the move seems to have had the intended effect: Francis Meres, the first known literary critic to comment on Shakespeare, in his Palladis Tamia, puts it thus: "the sweete wittie soule of Ouid liues in mellifluous & hony-tongued Shakespeare, witnes his Venus and Adonis, his Lucrece, his sugred Sonnets among his priuate friends".
Publishing literary works in folio was not unprecedented. Starting with the publication of Sir Philip Sidney's The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia and Astrophel and Stella, both published by William Ponsonby, there was a significant number of folios published, a significant number of them were published by the men who would be involved in publishing the First Folio, but quarto was the typical format for plays printed in the period: folio was a prestige format used, according to Fredson Bowers, for books of "superior merit or some permanent value". The contents of the First Folio were compiled by Henry Condell.