Cayetano Valdés y Flores
Cayetano Valdés y Flores Bazán was a commander of the Spanish Navy and captain general who served in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, fighting for both sides at different times due to the changing fortunes of Spain in the conflict. He took part in a number of naval battles, including the Great Siege of Gibraltar, the Battle of Cape St Vincent, the Battle of Trafalgar, he was an explorer, most notable in the Pacific Northwest, where he and Dionisio Alcalá Galiano conducted the first circumnavigation of Vancouver Island, in partial cooperation with George Vancouver. Over his long career he achieved the highest ranks in the Spanish Navy being named Captain General of Cadiz and Captain General of the Spanish Navy, he was born in Seville in 1767, was the nephew of Antonio Valdés y Fernández Bazán. Cayetano Valdés joined the Naval Academy in Cadiz as a guardiamarina in 1781. After finishing his studies he sailed with the fleet of Luis de Córdova and in 1782 saw action in the naval battle with the English fleet under Admiral Richard Howe, during the Great Siege of Gibraltar.
In 1783 Valdés took part in a Spanish operation against Algiers in an effort to crush the rampant piracy and white slavery sponsored by the Dey. In 1789 Valdés achieved a position as a lieutenant on the scientific expedition of Alessandro Malaspina. In 1791 Malaspina gave him command of the "goleta" Mexicana and orders to explore the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Strait of Georgia in an expedition under the command of another of Malaspina's officers, Dionisio Alcalá Galiano The term "goleta" is Spanish for a schooner-like ship but not necessary rigged as a schooner; the Mexicana began rigged as a topsail schooner but was changed during the voyage to a brig. During the summer of 1792 Valdés and Galiano circumnavigated Vancouver Island, meeting George Vancouver along the way. After working together for a time the two expeditions split up and arrived at Nootka Sound separately; because Valdés and Galiano had begun their voyage around the island from Nootka Sound while Vancouver had begun at the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the Spaniards became the first Europeans to circumnavigate the island.
In 1797 Valdés was in command of the ship of the line Pelayo at the Battle of Cape St Vincent when the British fleet of Sir John Jervis with Horatio Nelson defeated the Spanish. For valor during battle Valdés was promoted to Captain and gained a reputation as a strong fighter. By the terms of the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso the Pelayo was given to Napoleonic France and Valdés was given command of the Neptuno stationed at Brest, France. In 1801 he conveyed the commander of Spanish forces in Hispaniola on a joint Franco-Spanish operation against the rebellious slaves in Haiti during the Haitian Revolution. After stopping in Havana he returned to Cadiz in 1802, where he was appointed brigadier de la Real Armada. In 1805, Valdés and the Neptuno were based in Cadiz as commodore of a squadron of ships, so they were called on to fight when the French fleet attempted to make the open sea during the Trafalgar Campaign. On the 21 October the combined fleet was attacked in the Battle of Trafalgar. Valdés fought hard, his ship was leading the combined fleet and turned back into the melee behind him.
The French ships accompanying the Neptuno under Admiral Dumanior did not turn back and so the isolated Neptuno was surrounded and suffered great damage. Valdés himself was wounded and lost consciousness; the disabled Neptuno was forced to surrender. Although his ship was wrecked in the storm which followed the battle, Valdés and many of his shipmates survived, thus he was in England when the Peninsular War broke out in Spain in 1808. Released and returning home, Valdés enlisted in the land army and participated in a battle at Espinosa de los Monteros on the staff of General Blake but contented himself with administration and involvement in the Cadiz Cortes. For this service during the war he was appointed the Captain General in charge of Cadiz, but on the return of Ferdinand VII of Spain, he was stripped of his titles and was lucky to escape death during the repression which followed the restitution of an absolute monarchy. In the uprising of 1820 he was again involved on the liberal side, defended the Liberal Government although without much success, proving more adept as the short-lived government's minister for war.
Under a sentence of death, he fled to Gibraltar and to England, where he lived for ten years. In 1833 Isabella II of Spain recalled Valdés and named him Captain General of Cadiz and of the Spanish Navy. Vayetano Valdés died on June 1835, in San Fernando, Cadiz. Valdes Island, an island on the Strait of Georgia, is named for Cayetano Valdés, as is Cayetano Point on that island's southwestern end. Other features on Valdes Island that relate to the 1792 voyage include Mexicana Hill, named for Valdés's ship the Mexicana, Dibuxante Point, named for the artist José Cardero who sailed on board the Mexicana, Vernaci Point, for Juan Vernacci y Retamal, one of Valdés's officers; this article is based on a translation of an article from the Spanish Wikipedia. A portrait of Cayetano Valdés, by Arturo Pérez-Reverte
Desolation Sound is a deep water sound at the northern end of the Sunshine Coast in British Columbia, Canada. Flanked by Cortes Island and West Redonda Island, its spectacular fjords and wildlife make it a global boating and sea kayaking destination; the Government of British Columbia created Desolation Sound Provincial Marine Park in 1973, under the advocacy of MLA Don Lockstead and the NDP government, out of an area comprising 8,449 hectares and over 60 kilometres of shoreline.. Its many inlets, islets and bays attract many pleasure craft each summer, when it is not uncommon for a hundred boats to share a small anchorage; the sound is home to a wide variety of wildlife and still free from development, although some areas, such as Theodesia Inlet, show signs of clear-cut logging. Prideaux Haven, a cove on Homfray Channel Grace Harbour Tenedos Bay Gorge Harbour, Cortes Island Camp Cordero Desolation Sound was inhabited by tribes of the Mainland Comox prior to the arrival of Europeans. In the summer of 1792, two expeditions led by Captains George Vancouver, Dionisio Alcalá Galiano and Cayetano Valdés y Flores arrived and cooperated in mapping the sound.
Vancouver named it Desolation Sound, cryptically claiming that "there was not a single prospect, pleasing to the eye"
Dionisio Alcalá Galiano
Dionisio Alcalá Galiano was a Spanish naval officer and explorer. He mapped various coastlines in Europe and the Americas with unprecedented accuracy using new technology such as chronometers, he commanded an expedition that explored and mapped the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Strait of Georgia, made the first European circumnavigation of Vancouver Island. He died during the Battle of Trafalgar, he sometimes signed his full surname, Alcalá-Galiano, but used just Galiano. The published journal of his 1792 voyage uses just the name Galiano, this has become the name by which he is most known. Galiano was born in Cabra, Córdoba, Spain, in 1760, he entered the Spanish navy in 1771, at the age of 11, enrolled in the Spanish naval school in 1775. After graduation in 1779 he entered active service, he became skilled in cartography. As a junior officer he spent time in the Falkland Islands, he returned to Spain in 1783. In 1784 Galiano met and worked with Alessandro Malaspina, with whom he would journey to America.
Both men were among a group of officers studying astronomy at the Royal Observatory in Cádiz under Admiral Vicente Tofiño. The association was brief, as Tofiño was called upon to create an atlas of the coast of Spain, he chose Galiano to work on the project, thus Galiano assisted Tofiño's great hydrographic study, which resulted in the Atlas Maritímo de España, published in 1789. This experience was the basis of Galiano's expertise as a professional cartographer. In 1785 Galiano married María de la Consolación Villavicencio. Soon after the marriage he left on a survey of the Strait of Magellan under another influential teacher, Antonio de Córdoba. In 1788 he was given charge of a mission to fix the location of the Azores, during which he was in command of the brig Natalia. In the same year he assisted in the final stages of Tofiño's mapping project. In 1789 was selected as the hydrographer for Malaspina's ambitious scientific and political voyage. Aboard the expedition's second ship, commanded by José Bustamante, he helped map the coastline Patagonia and most of the Pacific coast from southern Chile to Mexico.
In addition, he engaged in various scientific tasks including astronomical observations, gravity and magnetic measurements. The expedition arrived in Acapulco in March 1791. Galiano was put in charge of a group of Malaspina's scientific officers assigned to stay in Mexico for a year. Malaspina's letter to the viceroy of New Spain, Juan Vicente de Güemes, Count of Revillagigedo, read in part: Under the orders of Ship Lieutenant Don Dionisio Galiano, he, together with, will proceed to... will be charged with coordinating in that capital, in Spain, all the notes of our past tasks... Besides, he must extract all that information conducive to giving an exact idea of the former and present state of, thus Galiano remained in Mexico, compiling the expedition's hydrographic and astronomical data, making maps. He investigated the colonial archives and collected information useful in assessing the state of the colony; this was one of the political tasks of the Malaspina expedition, for which Malaspina and his officers had royal authority above that of the viceroy, authorizing access to any and all documents they might think relevant.
He spent about a year at this task, while the Malaspina expedition sailed to Alaska and Vancouver Island. Malaspina's voyage to Alaska was for the purpose of determining whether a rumored Northwest Passage existed there. Finding none, he returned to Mexico, stopping at Nootka Sound, on Vancouver Island, Monterey, California; the Spanish had been exploring the Pacific Northwest for some years, just as Malaspina was returning to Mexico another Spanish expedition, led by Francisco de Eliza, had discovered a large body of water inland beyond the eastern end of the Strait of Juan de Fuca. This was the Strait of Georgia; the pilots José María Narváez and Juan Carrasco had not had time to explore it, but had noted a promising opening leading to the east. It was the last reasonable chance of a possible Northwest Passage. One of the ships of the exploring party, the schooner Santa Saturnina, had been unable to return to Nootka and instead sailed south to Monterey, where Malaspina had just arrived, thus Malaspina learned about the Strait of Georgia before the viceroy himself, preparing another exploration expedition to the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
In 1791 he had appointed Francisco Antonio Mourelle as commander and ordered two new schooners and Sutil, to be built for the mission. When Malaspina returned to Acapulco in late 1791 he managed to have Mourelle replaced with his own officer, Alcalá Galiano. Another of Malaspina's officers, Cayetano Valdés, was assigned to command the second schooner, replacing another of the viceroy's pilots; this removed the two schooners from the viceroy's jurisdiction and placed them under Malaspina's authority. The vessels were moved from the shipyard at San Blas, where they had been built, to Acapulco, where they were fitted out under Malaspina's direction. Thus, although said have been given the command by the viceroy Revillagigedo, Galiano's exploration expedition was part of the larger Malaspina expedition. In addition, the artist José Cardero, who had accompanied Malaspina, sailed with Galiano; the expedition left Acapulco on 8 March 1792. Galiano commanded the Sutil, the expedition overall, while Valdés commanded the Mexicana.
These ships were "goletas", a Spanish term transl
Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier. There are many fjords on the coasts of Alaska, British Columbia, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, Kamchatka, the Kerguelen Islands, New Zealand, Novaya Zemlya, Nunavut, Quebec, South Georgia Island, Washington state. Norway's coastline is estimated at 29,000 kilometres with nearly 1,200 fjords, but only 2,500 kilometres when fjords are excluded. A true fjord is formed when a glacier cuts a U-shaped valley by ice segregation and abrasion of the surrounding bedrock. According to the standard model, glaciers formed in pre-glacial valleys with a sloping valley floor; the work of the glacier left an overdeepened U-shaped valley that ends abruptly at a valley or trough end. Such valleys are fjords. Thresholds above sea level create freshwater lakes. Glacial melting is accompanied by the rebounding of Earth's crust as the ice load and eroded sediment is removed. In some cases this rebound is faster than sea level rise.
Most fjords are deeper than the adjacent sea. Fjords have a sill or shoal at their mouth caused by the previous glacier's reduced erosion rate and terminal moraine. In many cases this sill causes large saltwater rapids. Saltstraumen in Norway is described as the world's strongest tidal current; these characteristics distinguish fjords from rias, which are drowned valleys flooded by the rising sea. Drammensfjorden is cut in two by the Svelvik "ridge", a sandy moraine that during the ice cover was under sea level but after the post-glacial rebound reaches 60 m above the fjord. Jens Esmark in the 19th century introduced the theory that fjords are or have been created by glaciers and that large parts of Northern Europe had been covered by thick ice in prehistory. Thresholds at the mouths and overdeepening of fjords compared to the ocean are the strongest evidence of glacial origin, these thresholds are rocky. Thresholds are related to sounds and low land where the ice could spread out and therefore have less erosive force.
John Walter Gregory argued that fjords are of tectonic origin and that glaciers had a negligible role in their formation. Gregory's views were rejected by subsequent research and publications. In the case of Hardangerfjord the fractures of the Caledonian fold has guided the erosion by glaciers, while there is no clear relation between the direction of Sognefjord and the fold pattern; this relationship between fractures and direction of fjords is observed in Lyngen. Preglacial, tertiary rivers eroded the surface and created valleys that guided the glacial flow and erosion of the bedrock; this may in particular have been the case in Western Norway where the tertiary uplift of the landmass amplified eroding forces of rivers. Confluence of tributatry fjords led to excavation of the deepest fjord basins. Near the coast the typical West Norwegian glacier spread out and lost their concentration and reduced the glaciers' power to erode leaving bedrock thresholds. Bolstadfjorden is 160 m deep with a treshold of only 1.5 m, while the 1,300 m deep Sognefjorden has a threshold around 100 to 200 m deep.
Hardangerfjord is made up of several basins separated by thresholds: The deepest basin Samlafjorden between Jonaneset og Ålvik with a distinct treshold at Vikingneset in Kvam. Hanging valleys are common along U-shaped valleys. A hanging valley is a tributary valley, higher than the main valley and were created by tributary glacier flows into a glacier of larger volume; the shallower valley appears to be ` hanging' above a fjord. Waterfalls form at or near the outlet of the upper valley. Hanging valleys occur under water in fjord systems; the branches of Sognefjord are for instance much shallower than the main fjord. The mouth of Fjærlandsfjord is about 400 m deep; the mouth of Ikjefjord is only 50 meters deep while the main fjord is around 1,300 m at the same point. During the winter season there is little inflow of freshwater. Surface water and deeper water are mixed during winter because of the steady cooling of the surface and wind. In the deep fjords there is still fresh water from the summer with less density than the saltier water along the coast.
Offshore wind, common in the fjord areas during winter, sets up a current on the surface from the inner to the outer parts. This current on the surface in turn pulls dense salt water from the coast across the fjord threshold and into the deepest parts of the fjord. Bolstadfjorden has a threshold of only 1.5 m and strong inflow of freshwater from Vosso river creates a brackish surface that blocks circulation of the deep fjord. The deeper, salt layers of Bolstadfjorden are deprived of oxygen and the seabed is covered with organic material; the shallow threshold creates a strong tidal current. During the summer season there is a large inflow of river water in the inner areas; this freshwater gets mixed with saltwater creating a layer of brackish water with a higher surface than the ocean which in turn sets up a current from the river mouths towards the ocean. This current is more salty towards the coast and right under the surface current there is a reverse current of saltier water from the coast.
In the deeper
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011; the Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada with over 5,400 people per square kilometre, which makes it the fifth-most densely populated city with over 250,000 residents in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, Mexico City according to the 2011 census. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada according to that census. 30% of the city's inhabitants are of Chinese heritage. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. Vancouver is named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city ranked among the top-ten of the world's most well-living cities for five consecutive years.
Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place; the original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on July 1, 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B. I.. As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the Canadian Pacific Railway, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886.
By 1887, the Canadian Pacific transcontinental railway was extended westward to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport to the Pacific Ocean, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient / East Asia, Eastern Canada, Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third-largest port by tonnage in the Americas, 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and nearby Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the nickname "Hollywood North"; the city takes its name from George Vancouver, who explored the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet in 1792 and gave various places British names. The family name "Vancouver" itself originates from the Dutch "Van Coevorden", denoting somebody from the city of Coevorden, Netherlands.
The explorer's ancestors came to England "from Coevorden", the origin of the name that became "Vancouver". Archaeological records indicate that Aboriginal people were living in the "Vancouver" area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the city is located in the traditional and presently unceded territories of the Squamish and Tseil-Waututh peoples of the Coast Salish group. They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Point Grey and near the mouth of the Fraser River. Europeans became acquainted with the area of the future Vancouver when José María Narváez of Spain explored the coast of present-day Point Grey and parts of Burrard Inlet in 1791—although one author contends that Francis Drake may have visited the area in 1579; the explorer and North West Company trader Simon Fraser and his crew became the first-known Europeans to set foot on the site of the present-day city. In 1808, they travelled from the east down the Fraser River as far as Point Grey.
The Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 brought over 25,000 men from California, to nearby New Westminster on the Fraser River, on their way to the Fraser Canyon, bypassing what would become Vancouver. Vancouver is among British Columbia's youngest cities. A sawmill established at Moodyville in 1863, began the city's long relationship with logging, it was followed by mills owned by Captain Edward Stamp on the south shore of the inlet. Stamp, who had begun logging in the Port Alberni area, first attempted to run a mill at Brockton Point, but difficult currents and reefs forced the relocation of the operation in 1867 to a point near the foot of Dunlevy Street; this mill, known as the Hastings Mill, became the nucleus. The mill's central role in the city waned after the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, it remained important to the local economy until it closed in the 1920s. The settlement which came to be called Gastown grew around
Captain George Vancouver was a British officer of the Royal Navy best known for his 1791–95 expedition, which explored and charted North America's northwestern Pacific Coast regions, including the coasts of what are now the American states of Alaska and Oregon, as well as the province of British Columbia in Canada. He explored the Hawaiian Islands and the southwest coast of Australia. Vancouver Island and the city of Vancouver, British Columbia are named for him, as is Vancouver, Washington. Mount Vancouver of Yukon and Alaska, on the Canadian-American border and New Zealand's sixth highest mountain, are named for him. George Vancouver was born in the seaport town of King's Lynn on 22 June 1757 as the sixth, youngest, child of John Jasper Vancouver, a Dutch-born Deputy Collector of Customs, Bridget Berners. In 1771, at the age of 13, Vancouver entered the Royal Navy as a "young gentleman," a future candidate for midshipman, he was selected to serve as a midshipman aboard HMS Resolution, on James Cook's second voyage searching for Terra Australis.
He accompanied Cook's third voyage, this time aboard Resolution's companion ship, HMS Discovery, was present during the first European sighting and exploration of the Hawaiian Islands. Upon his return to Britain in October 1780, Vancouver was commissioned as a lieutenant and posted aboard the sloop HMS Martin on escort and patrol duty in the English Channel and North Sea, he accompanied the ship. On 7 May 1782 he was appointed fourth Lieutenant of the 74-gun ship of the line HMS Fame, at the time part of the British West Indies Fleet and assigned to patrolling the French-held Leeward Islands. Vancouver returned to England in June 1783. In the late 1780s the Spanish Empire commissioned an expedition to the Pacific Northwest; the 1789 the Nootka Crisis developed, Spain and Britain came close to war over ownership of the Nootka Sound on contemporary Vancouver Island, of greater importance, the right to colonise and settle the Pacific Northwest coast. Henry Roberts had taken command of the survey ship HMS Discovery, to be used on another round-the-world voyage, Roberts selected Vancouver as his first lieutenant, but they were diverted to other warships due to the crisis.
Vancouver went with Joseph Whidbey to the 74-gun ship of the line HMS Courageux. When the first Nootka Convention ended the crisis in 1790, Vancouver was given command of Discovery to take possession of Nootka Sound and to survey the coasts. Departing England with two ships, HMS Discovery and HMS Chatham, on 1 April 1791, Vancouver commanded an expedition charged with exploring the Pacific region. In its first year the expedition travelled to Cape Town, New Zealand and Hawaii, collecting botanical samples and surveying coastlines along the way, he formally claimed at Possession Point, King George Sound Western Australia, now the town of Albany, Western Australia for the British. Proceeding to North America, Vancouver followed the coasts of present-day Oregon and Washington northward. In April 1792 he encountered American Captain Robert Gray off the coast of Oregon just prior to Gray's sailing up the Columbia River. Vancouver entered the Strait of Juan de Fuca, between Vancouver Island and the Washington state mainland on 29 April 1792.
His orders included a survey of every inlet and outlet on the west coast of the mainland, all the way north to Alaska. Most of this work was in small craft propelled by both oar. Vancouver named many features for his officers, friends and his ship Discovery, including: Mount Baker – after Discovery's 3rd Lieutenant Joseph Baker, the first on the expedition to spot it Mount St. Helens – after his friend, Alleyne Fitzherbert, 1st Baron St Helens Puget Sound – after Discovery's 2nd lieutenant Peter Puget, who explored its southern reaches. Mount Rainier – after his friend, Rear Admiral Peter Rainier. Port Gardner and Port Susan, Washington – after his former commander Vice Admiral Sir Alan Gardner and his wife Susannah, Lady Gardner. Whidbey Island – after naval engineer Joseph Whidbey. Discovery Passage, Discovery Island, Discovery Bay and Port Discovery. Vancouver was the second European to enter Burrard Inlet on 13 June 1792, naming it for his friend Sir Harry Burrard, it is the present day main harbour area of the City of Vancouver beyond Stanley Park.
He surveyed Jervis Inlet over the next nine days. On his 35th birthday on 22 June 1792, he returned to Point Grey, the present-day location of the University of British Columbia. Here he unexpectedly met a Spanish expedition led by Dionisio Alcalá Galiano and Cayetano Valdés y Flores. Vancouver was "mortified" to learn they had a crude chart of the Strait of Georgia based on the 1791 exploratory voyage of José María Narváez the year before, under command of Francisco de Eliza. For three weeks they cooperatively explored the Georgia Strait and the Discovery Islands area before sailing separately towards Nootka Sound. After the summer surveying season ended, in August 1792, Vancouver went to Nootka the region's most important harbour, on contemporary Vancouver Island. Here he was to receive any British buildings and lands returned by the Spanish from claims by Francisco de Eliza for the Spanish crown; the Spanish commander, Juan Francisco Bodega y Quadra, was cordial and he and Vancouver exchanged the maps they had made, but no agreement was reached.
At this time, they decided to name t
Sunshine Coast (British Columbia)
The Sunshine Coast is a region of the southern mainland coast of British Columbia, Canada, on the eastern shore of the Strait of Georgia, just northwest of Greater Vancouver. The region includes the coastal areas of the regional district of Sunshine Coast, where the name originated, the regional district of Powell River up to and including the village of Lund and into Desolation Sound, much farther up the coast. While populous and visited by tourists, the Sunshine Coast can be reached only by ferry or by float/airplane. Population centres on the Southern Sunshine Coast include Gibsons. On the Sechelt Peninsula are Halfmoon Bay, Secret Cove and Pender Harbour. At the north end of the peninsula, the ferry to Powell River docks north of Egmont at Earl's Cove; these small settlements are near Skookumchuck Narrows, where the skookumchuck or "strong water", the world's biggest tidal marine rapids, channels the tidal flow in and out of the fjord known as Sechelt Inlet. On the Northern Sunshine Coast, a popular boating destination is Desolation Sound, beyond the end of Highway 101 in Lund.
The Sunshine Coast boasts some of the best outdoor recreation. Mountain biking and ocean paddling draw in locals; some of the most popular outdoor recreation activities include: Mountain biking Kayaking/Paddle Board/Canoe Cycling Hiking/Backpacking Snowshoe and skiing Scuba diving Fishing Rock climbing The Sunshine Coast Trail is Canada's longest hut-to-hut hiking trail, at 180km stretching from mountains to shorelines to lakes. It begins at Sarah Point in Desolation Sound, ends at Saltery Bay. Not only is it free, but hikers can access the trail at multiple points along the length if they do not feel like tackling the entire route; the Powell Forest Canoe Route is a 57-km, 8-lake, 5-portage journey that takes 5 days. Portages range from 0.7 km – 2.8 km, paddling stretches from 1 km – 28.5 km. The best time to travel the route is from June – October. Coast Gravity Park - Canada's first low elevation mountain bike park. Located 10km from Sechelt the park has trails for all riding levels, as well as a shuttle system to access the trails crafted by world-renowned builders and riders.
Sprockids Mountain Bike Park - Sprockids Mountain Bike Park is the first recognized mountain bike skills park in North America, is perfect for younger riders. The park is located in Langdale and contains 14km of downhill, ramps and teeter-bars. Powell River Bike and Skate Park - Funded and supported by the Powell River Community Forest Foundation and the City of Powell River, this dynamic park contains a beginner pumptrack, slopestyle dirt jump trails, downhill flow trails, a beginner flow line. Admission is open to the public year round. There are four breweries on the Sunshine Coast, together they make up the Sunshine Coast Ale Trail. Three are located in Gibsons: Persephone Brewing Company, Gibsons Tapworks, The 101 Brewhouse + Distillery. One is located in Powell River: Townsite Brewing; the Bricker Cider Company is a recent addition to the Sunshine Coast, serves a variety of drinks on a beautiful 5-acre farm. The four breweries along with Bricker Cider Company, comprise Brewers Coast; the Sunshine Coast is home to more artists per capita than any other Canadian region.
Throughout the year you can follow the Purple Banner Flags - artists hang them outside their studios to signal they are open - from Langdale to Lund and see everything from painting to pottery to glass-blowing. The Sunshine Coast Art Crawl is one of the signature events of the region. Occurring annually in the Fall, visitors flock to the area from all over the world for a three day journey through 100+ galleries and studios; this is Canada´s longest running summer gathering of Canadian writers and readers, features established literary stars alongside new voices. Powell River Historical Museum and Archives - Telling the rich stories of Sliammon First Nations and the first pulp and paper mill on the west coast of Canada, the museum is open year round. Sunshine Coast Museum and Archives - Located in Gibsons, the Sunshine Coast Museum and Archives tells the story of the region and its inhabitants Tems Swiya Museum - Located in Sechelt, this museum is home to an extensive and growing collection of artifacts from the shíshálh Nation Texada Island Heritage Society - Texada Island Heritage Society operates two museums that tell the history of the area.
Sunshine Coast Arts Council and Arts Centre - Located in Sechelt, the Sunshine Arts Centre houses a public gallery of local and guest artists, a music studio and a public art studio. The Arts Centre hosts a variety of events such as concerts, literary readings, lectures. Wildlife that can be encountered include cougars, black bears, marbled murrelet, great blue herons, sea lions, bald eagles. There are abundant tide pools where hikers can see a variety of molluscs, sea anemones and fish. Hikers are instructed how to react to possible encounters with dangerous animals at the mandatory orientation session prior to starting the trail. During certain times of the year, there is the possibility of encountering seal pups on the beach, they should not be approached, as the mother may abandon them. All wildlife on the trail sh