Durham, North Carolina
Durham is a city in and the county seat of Durham County in the U. S. state of North Carolina. The U. S. Census Bureau estimated the city's population to be 251,893 as of July 1, 2014, making it the 4th-most populous city in North Carolina, the 78th-most populous city in the United States. Durham is the core of the four-county Durham-Chapel Hill Metropolitan Area, which has a population of 542,710 as of U. S. Census 2014 Population Estimates; the US Office of Management and Budget includes Durham as a part of the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill Combined Statistical Area, which has a population of 2,037,430 as of U. S. Census 2014 Population Estimates, it is the home of Duke University and North Carolina Central University, is one of the vertices of the Research Triangle area. The Eno and the Occoneechi, related to the Sioux and the Shakori and farmed in the area which became Durham, they may have established a village named Adshusheer on the site. The Great Indian Trading Path has been traced through Durham, Native Americans helped to mold the area by establishing settlements and commercial transportation routes.
In 1701, Durham's beauty was chronicled by the English explorer John Lawson, who called the area "the flower of the Carolinas." During the mid-1700s, Scots and English colonists settled on land granted to George Carteret by King Charles I. Early settlers built gristmills, such as West Point, worked the land. Prior to the American Revolution, frontiersmen in what is now Durham were involved in the Regulator movement. According to legend, Loyalist militia cut Cornwallis Road through this area in 1771 to quell the rebellion. William Johnston, a local shopkeeper and farmer, made Revolutionaries' munitions, served in the Provincial Capital Congress in 1775, helped underwrite Daniel Boone's westward explorations. Large plantations, Hardscrabble and Leigh among them, were established in the antebellum period. By 1860, Stagville Plantation lay at the center of one of the largest plantation holdings in the South. African slaves were brought to labor on these farms and plantations, slave quarters became the hearth of distinctively Southern cultural traditions involving crafts, social relations, life rituals and dance.
There were free African-Americans in the area as well, including several who fought in the Revolutionary War. Prior to the arrival of the railroad, the area now known as Durham was the eastern part of present-day Orange County and was entirely agricultural, with a few businesses catering to travelers along the Hillsborough Road; this road followed by US Route 70, was the major east-west route in North Carolina from colonial times until the construction of interstate highways. Steady population growth and an intersection with the road connecting Roxboro and Fayetteville made the area near this site suitable for a US Post Office, established in 1827. Durham's location is a result of the needs of the 19th century railroad industry; the wood-burning steam locomotives of the time had to stop for wood and water and the new North Carolina Railroad needed a depot between the settled towns of Raleigh and Hillsborough. The residents of what is now downtown Durham thought their businesses catering to livestock drivers had a better future than a new-fangled nonsense like a railroad and refused to sell or lease land for a depot.
A railway depot was established on land donated by Bartlett S. Durham in 1849. Durham Station, as it was known for its first 20 years, was just another depot for the occasional passenger or express package until early April 1865 when the Federal Army commanded by Major General William T. Sherman occupied the nearby state capital of Raleigh during the American Civil War; the last formidable Confederate Army in the South, commanded by General Joseph E. Johnston, was headquartered in Greensboro 50 miles to the west. After the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia by Gen. Robert E. Lee at Appomattox, Virginia on April 9, 1865, Gen. Johnston sought surrender terms, which were negotiated on April 17, 18 and 26 at Bennett Place, the small farm of James and Nancy Bennett, located halfway between the army's lines about 3 miles west of Durham Station; as both armies passed through Durham and surrounding Piedmont communities, they enjoyed the mild flavor of the area's Brightleaf Tobacco, considered more pleasant to smoke or chew than was available back home after the war.
So they started sending letters to Durham to get more. The community of Durham Station grew before the Civil War, but expanded following the war. Much of this growth attributed to the establishment of a thriving tobacco industry. Veterans returned home after the war, with an interest in acquiring more of the great tobacco they had sampled in North Carolina. Numerous orders were mailed to John Ruffin Green's tobacco company requesting more of the Durham tobacco. W. T. Blackwell partnered with Green and renamed the company as the "Bull Durham Tobacco Factory"; the name "Bull Durham" is said to have been taken from the bull on the British Colman's Mustard, which Mr. Blackwell believed was manufactured in Durham, England. Mustard, known as Durham Mustard, was produced in Durham, England, by Mrs Clements and by Ainsley during the eighteenth century. However, production of the original Durham Mustard has now been passed into the hands of Colman's of Norwich, England; as Durham Station's population increased, the station became a town and wa
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
War (American band)
War is an American funk band from Long Beach, known for several hit songs. Formed in 1969, War is a musical crossover band that fuses elements of rock, jazz, Latin and blues, reggae, their album The World Is a Ghetto was the best-selling album of 1973. The band transcended cultural barriers with a multi-ethnic line-up. War was subject to many line-up changes over the course of its formation, leaving member Leroy "Lonnie" Jordan as the only original member in the current line-up. In 1962, Howard E. Scott and Harold Brown formed a group called The Creators in Long Beach, California. Within a few years, they had added Charles Miller, Morris "B. B." Dickerson and Lonnie Jordan to the lineup. Lee Oskar and Papa Dee Allen joined as well, they all shared a love of diverse styles of music, which they had absorbed living in the racially mixed Los Angeles ghettos. The Creators recorded several singles on Dore Records while working with Tjay Contrelli, a saxophonist from the band Love. In 1968, the Creators became Nightshift and started performing with Deacon Jones, a football player and singer.
The original War was conceived by singer Eric Burdon. In 1969, Goldstein saw musicians who would become War playing at the Rag Doll in North Hollywood, backing Deacon Jones, he was attracted to the band's sound. Jordan claimed that the band's goal was to spread a message of brotherhood and harmony, using instruments and voices to speak out against racism, gangs and turf wars, promote hope and the spirit of brotherhood. Eric Burdon and War began playing live shows to audiences throughout Southern California before entering into the studio to record their debut album Eric Burdon Declares "War"; the album's best known track, "Spill the Wine", launched the band's career. Eric Burdon and War toured extensively across the United States; the subtitle of a 1970 review in the New Musical Express of their first UK gig in London's Hyde Park read: "Burdon and War: Best Live Band We've Ever Seen". Their show at Ronnie Scott's Club in London on September 18, 1970 is notable for being the last public performance for Jimi Hendrix, who joined them onstage for the last 35 minutes of Burdon's & War's 2nd set.
A second Eric Burdon and War album, a two-disc set titled The Black-Man's Burdon was released in 1970, before Burdon left the band in the middle of its European tour. They returned to record their first album as War. War met with only modest success, but that year, the band released All Day Music which included the singles "All Day Music" and "Slippin' into Darkness"; the latter single sold over one million copies, was awarded a gold disc by the R. I. A. A. in June 1972. In 1972 they released The World Is a Ghetto, more successful, its second single, "The Cisco Kid" shipped gold, the album attained the number two spot on Billboard Hot 100 chart, was Billboard magazine's Album of the Year as the best-selling album of 1973. The next album, Deliver the Word contained the hits "Gypsy Man" and a studio version of "Me and Baby Brother", which peaked at #8 and #15 on the Billboard chart; the album went on to sell nearly two million copies. The next album, Why Can't We Be Friends? was released in 1975. It included "Low Rider" and the title track.
In 1976, War released a greatest hits record which contained one new song "Summer", which, as a single, went gold and peaked at number 7 on the Billboard chart. Released that year were Love is All Around by Eric Burdon and War, containing unreleased recordings from 1969 and 1970, Platinum Jazz, a one-off album for jazz label Blue Note; the latter double album had cover art to match the greatest hits album, was half new material and half compilation, focusing on instrumental music. The group continued to attain success with their next album, Galaxy whose title single was inspired by Star Wars. War's next project was a soundtrack album for the movie Youngblood in 1978. In 1979, following the departure of B. B. Dickerson during recording sessions for their next album, the band considered changing their name to The Music Band, but decided at the last minute to continue as War, use The Music Band as the title of a series of albums; the series consisted of two studio albums and a live album, but after the band left MCA in 1981 and had made records for other labels, MCA expanded the series with a compilation and a third original album of left-over material.
The group lost another member when Charles Miller was murdered in 1980. He had been replaced by Pat Rizzo in 1979. Other new members joining at this time were Alice Tweed Smith on percussion and vocals, Ronnie Hammon as a third drummer. After making the one-off single "Cinco de Mayo" for LA Records in 1981 (Jerry Goldstein's own label, which reissued Eric Burdon Declares "War"
Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time, it has been contrasted with classical styles. The term originated in the 19th century. Starting in the mid-20th century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music; this process and period is reached a zenith in the 1960s. This form of music is sometimes called contemporary folk music or folk revival music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms. Smaller, similar revivals have occurred elsewhere in the world at other times, but the term folk music has not been applied to the new music created during those revivals; this type of folk music includes fusion genres such as folk rock, folk metal, others. While contemporary folk music is a genre distinct from traditional folk music, in U.
S. English it shares the same name, it shares the same performers and venues as traditional folk music; the terms folk music, folk song, folk dance are comparatively recent expressions. They are extensions of the term folklore, coined in 1846 by the English antiquarian William Thoms to describe "the traditions and superstitions of the uncultured classes"; the term further derives from the German expression volk, in the sense of "the people as a whole" as applied to popular and national music by Johann Gottfried Herder and the German Romantics over half a century earlier. Though it is understood that folk music is music of the people, observers find a more precise definition to be elusive; some do not agree that the term folk music should be used. Folk music may tend to have certain characteristics but it cannot be differentiated in purely musical terms. One meaning given is that of "old songs, with no known composers", another is that of music, submitted to an evolutionary "process of oral transmission....
The fashioning and re-fashioning of the music by the community that give it its folk character". Such definitions depend upon " processes rather than abstract musical types...", upon "continuity and oral transmission...seen as characterizing one side of a cultural dichotomy, the other side of, found not only in the lower layers of feudal and some oriental societies but in'primitive' societies and in parts of'popular cultures'". One used definition is "Folk music is what the people sing". For Scholes, as well as for Cecil Sharp and Béla Bartók, there was a sense of the music of the country as distinct from that of the town. Folk music was "...seen as the authentic expression of a way of life now past or about to disappear" in "a community uninfluenced by art music" and by commercial and printed song. Lloyd rejected this in favour of a simple distinction of economic class yet for him true folk music was, in Charles Seeger's words, "associated with a lower class" in culturally and stratified societies.
In these terms folk music may be seen as part of a "schema comprising four musical types:'primitive' or'tribal'. Music in this genre is often called traditional music. Although the term is only descriptive, in some cases people use it as the name of a genre. For example, the Grammy Award used the terms "traditional music" and "traditional folk" for folk music, not contemporary folk music. Folk music may include most indigenous music. From a historical perspective, traditional folk music had these characteristics: It was transmitted through an oral tradition. Before the 20th century, ordinary people were illiterate; this was not mediated by books or recorded or transmitted media. Singers may extend their repertoire using broadsheets or song books, but these secondary enhancements are of the same character as the primary songs experienced in the flesh; the music was related to national culture. It was culturally particular. In the context of an immigrant group, folk music acquires an extra dimension for social cohesion.
It is conspicuous in immigrant societies, where Greek Australians, Somali Americans, Punjabi Canadians, others strive to emphasize their differences from the mainstream. They learn songs and dances that originate in the countries their grandparents came from, they commemorate personal events. On certain days of the year, such as Easter, May Day, Christmas, particular songs celebrate the yearly cycle. Weddings and funerals may be noted with songs and special costumes. Religious festivals have a folk music component. Choral music at these events brings children and non-professional singers to participate in a public arena, giving an emotional bonding, unrelated to the aesthetic qualities of the music; the songs have been performed, by custom, over a long period of time several generations. As a side-effect, the following characteristics are sometimes present: There is no copyright on the songs. Hundreds of folk songs from the 19th century have known authors but have continued in oral tradition to the point where they are considered traditional for purposes of music publishing.
This has become much less frequent since the 1940s. Today every folk song, recorded is credited with an arranger. Fusion of cultures: Because cultures interact and change over time
A bass drum, or kick drum, is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. A bass drum is cylindrical with the drum's diameter much greater than the drum's depth. There is a struck head at both ends of the cylinder; the heads may be made of calf plastic. There is a means of adjusting the tension either by threaded taps or by strings. Bass drums are built in a variety of sizes, but size has little to do with the volume produced by the drum; the size chosen being based on convenience and aesthetics. Bass drums are used in several musical genres. Three major types of bass drums can be distinguished; the type seen or heard in orchestral, ensemble or concert band music is the orchestral, or concert bass drum. It is the largest drum of the orchestra; the kick drum. It is struck with a beater attached to a pedal seen on drum kits; the pitched bass drum used in marching bands and drum corps, is tuned to a specific pitch and is played in a set of three to six drums. In many forms of music, the bass drum is used to keep time.
The bass drum makes a low, boom sound. In marches it is used to project tempo. A basic beat for rock and roll has the bass drum played on the first and third beats of a bars of common time, with the snare drum on the second and fourth beats, called back beats. In jazz, the bass drum can vary from entirely being a timekeeping medium to being a melodic voice in conjunction with the other parts of the set. Bass drums have many synonyms and translations, such as gran cassa, grosse caisse, Grosse Trommel, bombo; the earliest known predecessor to the bass drum was the Turkish davul, a cylindrical drum that featured two thin heads. The heads were stretched over hoops and attached to a narrow shell. To play this instrument, a person would strike the right side of the davul with a large wooden stick, while the left side would be struck with a rod; when struck, the davul produced a sound much deeper than that of the other drums in existence. Because of this unique tone, davuls were used extensively in war and combat, where a deep and percussive sound was needed to ensure that the forces were marching in proper step with one another.
The military bands of the Ottoman Janissaries in the 18th century were one of the first groups to utilize davuls in their music. Davuls were ideal for use as military instruments because of the unique way in which they could be carried; the Ottoman janissaries, for example, hung their davuls at their breasts with thick straps. This made it easier for the soldiers to carry their instruments from battle to battle; this practice does not seem to be limited to just the Ottoman Empire, however. The davul, was used extensively in non-military music. For example, davuls were a major aspect of Turkish folk dances. In Ottoman society and shawm players would perform together in groups called davul-zurnas, or drum and shawm circles. Long drumsAt its peak, the Ottoman Empire stretched from the Caucuses down to northern Africa and parts of the middle east; this long reach meant that many aspects of Ottoman culture, including the davul and other janissary instruments, were introduced to other parts of the world.
In Africa, the indigenous population took the basic idea of the davul – that is, a two-headed cylindrical drum that produces a deep sound when struck – and both increased the size of the drum and changed the material from which it was made, leading to the development of the long drum. The long drum can be made a variety of different ways but is most constructed from a hollowed out tree trunk; this is vastly different from the davul, made from a thick shell. Long drums were 2 meters in length and 50 centimetres in diameter, much larger than the Turkish drums on which they were based; the indigenous population believed that the tree from which the long drum was made had to be in perfect shape. Once an appropriate tree was selected and the basic frame for the long drum was constructed, the Africans took cow hides and soaked them in boiling hot water, in order to stretch them out. Although the long drum was an improvement on the davul, both drums were played in a similar fashion. Two distinct sticks were used on the two distinct sides of the drum itself.
A notable difference between the two is that long drums, unlike davuls, were used for religious purposes. Gong drumsAs the use of the long drum began to spread across Europe, many composers and musicians started looking for deeper tones that could be used in compositions; as a result of this demand, a narrow-shelled, single-headed drum called the gong drum was introduced in Britain during the 19th century. This drum, 70-100 centimetres in diameter and deep-shelled, was similar to the long drum in both size and construction; when struck, the gong drum produced a deep sound with a rich resonance. However, the immense size of the drum, coupled with the fact that there was not a second head to help balance the sound, meant that gong drums tended to produce a sound with a definite pitch; as a result, they fell out of favour with many composers, as it became nearly impossible to incorporate them in an orchestra in any meaningful way. Orchestral bass drums and drum kitsB
The lead vocalist in popular music is the member of a group or band whose voice is the most prominent in a performance where multiple voices may be heard. The lead singer either sets against the ensemble as the dominant sound. In vocal group performances, notably in soul and gospel music, early rock and roll, the lead singer takes the main vocal part, with a chorus provided by other band members as backing vocalists. In rock music, the lead singer or solo singer is the front man or front woman, who may play one or more instruments and is seen as the leader or spokesman of the band by the public; as an example in rock music, Freddie Mercury was the lead singer of Queen. In soul music, Smokey Robinson was the lead singer of The Miracles, it is uncertain when the term "lead vocals" was first used, but it may have emerged in the late 1930s, when rich vocal interplay with multiple voices where one or more voices may dominate began to impact on North American popular music, dominated by solo vocals.
The practice of using a lead singer in vocal groups, has a longer history: an early form is the "call and response" found in work songs and spirituals sung by African-American slaves. Songs of the late nineteenth century used a leading solo voice, followed by a choral response by other singers; as the style developed through early commercial recordings and performances in the early 20th century, the role of the lead vocalist became more established, although popular groups of the 1930s and 1940s such as the Ink Spots and the Mills Brothers used different lead singers on different songs rather than keeping the same lead singer throughout. By the 1950s, singers such as Sam Cooke and Clyde McPhatter took on more defined roles as lead singers, by the end of the decade credited group names changed to reflect the leading roles of the main vocalists, with examples such as Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers and Dion & the Belmonts. Academic David Horn has written:The influence of US rhythm and blues recordings may well be a crucial one in the assimilation of the format of lead singer plus backing group into the guitar-based British'beat' groups of the 1960s, in US groups such as The Beach Boys.
From these various points - including Motown - it went on to become a standard device in much rock and pop music. In some bands - most famously, The Beatles - the role of lead singer alternated, while in others - for example, Herman's Hermits - one lead singer dominated. There are as many styles of lead singer as there are styles and genres of music. However, the lead singer of a group or band is the main focus of audiences' attention; the lead vocalist of band is sometimes called the "front man" or "front woman," as the most visible performer in a group. While most bands have a singular lead singer, many others have dual lead singers, or other member of the band that sing lead on particular songs. While the lead singer defines the group's image and personality to the general public, this is not always the case. In modern rock music, the lead singer is but not always the band's leader and spokesperson. While lead singers or spokespersons for any musical ensembles can be called a front man, the term is used widely in rock music.
Since the position has an expanded role from simple lead vocalists, there have been cases in which the front man for a band is someone other than the lead vocalist. For example, while the lead vocalist for the band Fall Out Boy is guitarist Patrick Stump, the bassist and lyricist, Pete Wentz, is called the front man, both in the media and by the band members themselves, since he represents the band in most interviews and contributes most to the band's image in the popular media. Another example is Angus Young of AC/DC, the band's lead guitarist, co-leader with his brother Malcolm Young. In many bands, such as The Who, Led Zeppelin, Living Colour, The Stone Roses and Oasis, the lead guitarist may share spokesman responsibilities with the lead singer; this is derived from that guitarist's specific role as a co-songwriter, co-founder and/or co-vocalist. In some cases, there are two frontmen, such as Alice in Chains, with singer Layne Staley sharing vocal duties with guitarist Jerry Cantrell, or Underoath, with singers Spencer Chamberlain and Aaron Gillespie sharing vocal duties.
Another example is Blink-182, in which vocal duties are split between bassist Mark Hoppus and guitarist Tom DeLonge. Hoppus carries out most media either by himself or together with DeLonge, while the band's other member, drummer Travis Barker remains quiet. Linkin Park had two vocalists as well, Mike Shinoda and Chester Bennington, both considered as frontmen. Another example is the thrash metal band Metallica, in which James Hetfield and Lars Ulrich share the spokesperson duties for being both founders and the only members who have never left the band. List of lead vocalists
Soul music is a popular music genre that originated in the African American community in the United States in the 1950s and early 1960s. It combines elements of African-American gospel music and blues and jazz. Soul music became popular for dancing and listening in the United States, where record labels such as Motown and Stax were influential during the Civil Rights Movement. Soul became popular around the world, directly influencing rock music and the music of Africa. According to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, soul is "music that arose out of the black experience in America through the transmutation of gospel and rhythm & blues into a form of funky, secular testifying". Catchy rhythms, stressed by handclaps and extemporaneous body moves, are an important feature of soul music. Other characteristics are a call and response between the lead vocalist and the chorus and an tense vocal sound; the style occasionally uses improvisational additions and auxiliary sounds. Soul music reflected the African-American identity and it stressed the importance of an African-American culture.
The new-found African-American consciousness led to new styles of music, which boasted pride in being black. Soul music dominated the U. S. R&B chart in the 1960s, many recordings crossed over into the pop charts in the U. S. Britain and elsewhere. By 1968, the soul music genre had begun to splinter; some soul artists developed funk music, while other singers and groups developed slicker, more sophisticated, in some cases more politically conscious varieties. By the early 1970s, soul music had been influenced by psychedelic rock and other genres, leading to psychedelic soul; the United States saw the development of neo soul around 1994. There are several other subgenres and offshoots of soul music; the key subgenres of soul include a rhythmic music influenced by gospel. Soul music has its roots in traditional African-American gospel music and rhythm and blues and as the hybridization of their respective religious and secular styles – in both lyrical content and instrumentation – that began in the 1950s.
The term "soul" had been used among African-American musicians to emphasize the feeling of being an African-American in the United States. According to musicologist Barry Hansen,Though this hybrid produced a clutch of hits in the R&B market in the early 1950s, only the most adventurous white fans felt its impact at the time. According to AllMusic, "oul music was the result of the urbanization and commercialization of rhythm and blues in the'60s." The phrase "soul music" itself, referring to gospel-style music with secular lyrics, was first attested in 1961. The term "soul" in African-American parlance has connotations of African-American culture. Gospel groups in the 1940s and'50s used the term as part of their names; the jazz style that originated from gospel became known as soul jazz. As singers and arrangers began using techniques from both gospel and soul jazz in African-American popular music during the 1960s, soul music functioned as an umbrella term for the African-American popular music at the time.
Important innovators whose recordings in the 1950s contributed to the emergence of soul music included Clyde McPhatter, Hank Ballard, Etta James. Ray Charles is cited as popularizing the soul music genre with his series of hits, starting with 1954's "I Got a Woman". Singer Bobby Womack said, "Ray was the genius, he turned the world onto soul music." Charles was open in acknowledging the influence of Pilgrim Travelers vocalist Jesse Whitaker on his singing style. Little Richard, who inspired Otis Redding, James Brown both were influential. Brown was nicknamed the "Godfather of Soul Music", Richard proclaimed himself as the "King of Rockin' and Rollin', Rhythm and Blues Soulin'", because his music embodied elements of all three, since he inspired artists in all three genres. Sam Cooke and Jackie Wilson are acknowledged as soul forefathers. Cooke became popular as the lead singer of the gospel group The Soul Stirrers, before controversially moving into secular music, his recording of "You Send Me" in 1957 launched a successful pop music career.
Furthermore, his 1962 recording of "Bring It On Home To Me" has been described as "perhaps the first record to define the soul experience". Jackie Wilson, a contemporary of both Cooke and James Brown achieved crossover success with his 1957 hit "Reet Petite", he was influential for his dramatic delivery and performances. Writer Peter Guralnick is among those to identify Solomon Burke as a key figure in the emergence of soul music, Atlantic Records as the key record label. Burke's early 1960s songs, including "Cry to Me", "Just Out of Reach" and "Down in the Valley" are considered classics of the genre. Guralnick wrote: "Soul started, in a sense, with the 1961 success of Solomon Burke's "Just Out Of Reach". Ray Charles, of course, had enjoyed enormous success, as had James Brown and Sam Cooke — in a pop vein. E