Martin Kemp (art historian)
Martin Kemp is emeritus professor of the history of art at University of Oxford. He is considered one of the world's leading experts on the art of Leonardo da Vinci and visualisation in art and science. Kemp was trained in natural sciences and art history at Downing College and the Courtauld Institute of Art, University of London, he was British Academy Wolfson Research Professor. For more than 25 years he was based in Scotland. From 1995 to 2008 he was Professor of Art History at the University of Oxford, he has held visiting posts in New York, North Carolina, Los Angeles and Montreal. Kemp has written books about Leonardo da Vinci, including Leonardo, he has published on imagery in the sciences of anatomy, natural history and optics, including The Science of Art: Optical Themes in Western Art from Brunelleschi to Seurat. Kemp has focused on issues of visualisation and representation, he has written a regular column called Science in Culture in Nature. The Nature essays are developed in Seen and Unseen, in which his concept of "structural intuitions" is explored.
His most recent book is Christ to Coke:. Several of his books have been translated into various languages, he has curated a series of exhibitions on Leonardo and other themes, including Spectacular Bodies at the Hayward Gallery in London, Leonardo da Vinci: Experience, Design at the Victoria and Albert Museum in 2006 and Seduced: Sex and Art from Antiquity to Now, Barbican Art Gallery, London, 2007. He was guest curator for Circa 1492 at the National Gallery of Art in Washington in 1992. In 2000, he advised skydiver Adrian Nicholas as he constructed a parachute according to Leonardo's drawings from materials which would have been available in his day. In 1485 Leonardo had scribbled a simple sketch of a four-sided pyramid covered in linen. Alongside, he had written: "If a man is provided with a length of gummed linen cloth with a length of 12 yards on each side and 12 yards high, he can jump from any great height whatsoever without injury." In June 2000, Nicholas launched himself from a hot air balloon 10,000 feet over South Africa.
He parachuted for five minutes as a black box recorder measured his descent, before cutting himself free of the device and releasing a conventional parachute. Leonardo's parachute made such a smooth and slow descent that the two jumpers accompanying Nicholas had to brake twice to stay level with him. Kemp's projects include: Leonardo da Vinci. Experience and Design an exhibition about how Leonardo thought on paper, it contains some of his most challenging designs. Although many other artists and scientists have brainstormed on paper, none of his predecessors, contemporaries or successors used paper quite like he did; the intensity and unpredictability of what happens on a single sheet are unparalleled. This project was last exhibited at the Victoria and Albert Museum, from 14 September 2006 to 7 January 2007. Universal Leonardo A project aimed at deepening our understanding of Leonardo da Vinci through a series of international exhibitions, scientific research and educational resources. A web site is available for details of the ongoing exhibitions and to discover Leonardo's fascinating thought and work in the realms of art and technology: http://www.universalleonardo.orgIn 2010 he published a monograph together with French engineer Pascal Cotte, recounting the story of how a team of experts – under his guidance – pieced together the evidence for the extraordinary discovery of a major artwork by Leonardo, now named La Bella Principessa.
The book, entitled La Bella Principessa, narrates the steps Kemp and Cotte took in authenticating the painting, including the use of forensic methods reserved for criminal investigation, matching a fingerprint found on La Bella Principessa to the great Renaissance master. The 2012 Italian edition, La bella principessa di Leonardo da Vinci. Produces evidence about its origins; as emeritus professor at Oxford University, since 2010 he is full-time writing and broadcasting.'A Drawing for the Fabrica and Some Thoughts on the Vesalius Muscle-Men', Medical History, XIV, 1970, pp. 277–88. Dr. William Hunter at the Royal Academy of Arts, Glasgow University Press, 1975.'Dr. William Hunter on the Windsor Leonardos and his Volume of Drawings Attributed to Pietro da Cortona', The Burlington Magazine, CXVII, 1976, pp. 228–31.'Science, Non-Science and Nonsense: the Interpretation of Brunelleschi's Perspective', Art History, I, 1978, pp. 134–61.'Glasgow University, Bicentenary Celebrations of Dr. William Hunter', The Burlington Magazine, CXXV, 1983, pp. 380–3.'Construction and Cunning: The Perspective of the Edinburgh Saenredam', Dutch Church Painters, ed. H. Macandrew, Edinburgh, 1984, pp. 30–7.'Red and Blue: the Limits of Colour Science in Painting', The Natural Sciences and the Arts, ed. A. Ellenius, Uppsala, 1984, pp. 98–105.'Geometrical Perspective from Brunelleschi to Desargues: a Pictorial means or an Intellectual End?', Proceedings of the British Academy, LXX, 1985, pp. 89–132.'Simon Stevin and Pieter Saenredam: A Study of Mathematics and Vision in Dutch Science and Art', The Art Bulletin, LXVIII, 1986, pp. 237–51.'"Perspective Rectified".
Some Alternative Systems in the 19th Century', AA Files, XV, 1987, pp. 30–4.'Perspective and Meaning: Illusion and Collusion', Philosophy and the Visual Arts, ed. A. Harrison, Dordrecht, 1987, pp. 255–68. The Science of
Annunciation (Leonardo da Vinci)
Annunciation is a painting by the Italian Renaissance artists Leonardo da Vinci and Andrea del Verrocchio, dating from circa 1472–1475. It is housed in the Uffizi gallery of Italy; the subject matter is drawn from Luke 1.26-39 and depicts the angel Gabriel, sent by God to announce to a virgin, that she would miraculously conceive and give birth to a son, to be named Jesus, to be called "the Son of God" whose reign would never end. The subject was popular for artworks and had been depicted many times in the art of Florence, including several examples by the Early Renaissance painter Fra Angelico; the details of its commission and its early history remain obscure. In 1867, following Gustav Waagen methods, Baron Liphart identified this Annunciation, newly arrived in the Uffizi Gallery from a convent near Florence, as by the young Leonardo, still working in the studio of his master Verrocchio; the painting has since been attributed to different artists, including Leonardo and Verrocchio's contemporary Domenico Ghirlandaio.
It was more determined to be a collaboration between Leonardo and his master Verrocchio, with whom Leonardo collaborated on the Baptism of Jesus. The angel holds a symbol of Mary's virginity and of the city of Florence, it is supposed that Leonardo copied the wings from those of a bird in flight, but they have since been lengthened by a artist. When the Annunciation came to the Uffizi in 1867, from the Olivetan monastery of San Bartolomeo, near Florence, it was ascribed to Domenico Ghirlandaio, who was, like Leonardo, an apprentice in the workshop of Andrea del Verrocchio. In 1869, Karl Eduard von Liphart, the central figure of the German expatriate art colony in Florence, recognized it as a youthful work by da Vinci, one of the first attributions of a surviving work to the youthful Leonardo. Since a preparatory drawing for the angel's sleeve has been recognized and attributed to Leonardo. Verrocchio used lead-based paint and heavy brush strokes, he left a note for Leonardo to finish the angel.
Leonardo used no lead. When the Annunciation was x-rayed, Verrocchio's work was evident while Leonardo's angel was invisible; the marble table in front of the Virgin quotes the tomb of Piero and Giovanni de' Medici in the Basilica of San Lorenzo, which Verrocchio had sculpted during this same period. Some immature hesitancies are noted the Virgin's ambiguous spatial relation to the desk and the marble on which it rests. On March 12, 2007, the painting was at the center of a furor between Italian citizens and the Minister of Culture, who decided to place the picture on loan to exhibit in Japan. Leonardo da Vinci: anatomical drawings from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle, exhibition catalog online as PDF from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Annunciation
Madonna and Child with Flowers, otherwise known as the Benois Madonna, could be one of two Madonnas Leonardo da Vinci had commented on having started in October 1478. The other one could be Madonna of the Carnation from Munich, it is that the Benois Madonna was the first work painted by Leonardo independently from his master Verrocchio. There are two of Leonardo's preliminary sketches for this piece in the British Museum. Studies of these sketches and the painting itself suggest that Leonardo was concentrating on the idea of sight. At that time it was thought that human eyes exhibited rays to cause vision with a central beam being the most important; the child is thought to be guiding his mother's hands into his central vision. The composition of Madonna and Child with Flowers proved to be one of Leonardo's most popular, it was extensively copied by young painters, including Raphael, whose own version of Leonardo's design was acquired in 2004 by the National Gallery, London. For centuries and Child with Flowers was considered lost.
In 1909, the architect Leon Benois sensationally exhibited it in Saint Petersburg as part of his father-in-law's collection. The painting had been brought from Italy to Russia by the notable connoisseur Aleksey Korsakov in the 1790s. Upon Korsakov's death, it was sold by his son to the Astrakhan merchant Sapozhnikov for 1400 roubles and so passed by inheritance to the Benois family in 1880. After many a squabble regarding attribution, Leon Benois sold the painting to the Imperial Hermitage Museum in 1914; the purchase was made by Ernst Friedrich von Liphart, the curator of paintings who had identified the artist.. Since 1914 the painting has been exhibited in the Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg. Marian art in the Catholic Church
The Holy Infants Embracing
The Holy Infants Embracing is a lost painting attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. It represents the infant Christ embracing his cousin John the Baptist; the subject matter relates to the two paintings of the Virgin of the Rocks by Leonardo and numerous other Renaissance works by Raphael and others of the meeting of the two children on the road to Egypt while escaping the Massacre of the Innocents. The subject of two Infants kissing was an inspirational source of quite a few copies of pupils and followers of Leonardo da Vinci. An early sketch of the subject by da Vinci himself is held at Windsor in the Royal collection; the sheet shows various studies of Madonna and Baby playing with the cat, while at the bottom we see two infants kissing and embracing each other. The sketch is quite different from the version presented at numerous compositions, while the baby on the right is shown in a same pose as Jesus in Virgin of the Rocks; the connection between those paintings is evident in two copies made by Marco d'Oggiono and copy made by Bernardino dei Conti.
Madonna much like as the one depicted in Virgin of the Rocks is seen blessing two kissing children, representing Jesus and St John the Baptist. Other copies show half-length figure of Madonna leaning other the table with figures of embracing children; the painting of Holy Family by Bernardino Luini held at Prado, Madrid shows a similar representation. Most of the copies show only the group of two children in a quite different background; these include copies by Marco d'Oggiono, depicting holy children in a background of castle, rocky landscape. The subject of two children kissing was repeated many times by another Leonardo follower, Joos van Cleve, called Leonardo des Nordens or "Leonardo of the North": He produced identical paintings of the subject: like three paintings held at Museo Musei vicino Matteo Lampertico Arte antica e moderna, Milan. Other copies by artist are held at Naples and Vienna, sold at various auction houses recently. Joos van Cleve is responsible for introducing the composition among artists of Northern Europe, while numerous copies today are ascribed to the followers of Joos van Cleve.
73B832 search for iconclass code "the Christ-child and John the Baptist" in RKD
Saint Jerome in the Wilderness (Leonardo)
Saint Jerome in the Wilderness is an unfinished painting by Leonardo da Vinci, now in the Vatican Museums, Rome. The painting depicts Saint Jerome during his retreat to the Syrian desert, where he lived the life of a hermit; the saint kneels in a rocky landscape, gazing toward a crucifix which can be discerned faintly sketched in at the extreme right of the painting. In Jerome's right hand he holds a rock with which he is traditionally shown beating his chest in penance. At his feet is the lion which became a loyal companion after he extracted a thorn from its paw; the lion, the stone and a cardinal's hat are the traditional attributes of the saint. On the left-hand side of the panel the background is a distant landscape of a lake surrounded by precipitous mountains shrouded in mist. To the right-hand side, the only discernible feature is a faintly-sketched church, seen through the opening in the rocks; the church's presence may allude to Jerome's position in Western Christianity as one of the Doctors of the Church.
The composition of the painting is innovative for the oblique trapezoid form of the figure of the saint. The angular forms contrast with the sinuous form of the lion which transcribes an "S" across the bottom of the painting; the form of Saint Jerome prefigures that of the Virgin Mary in the Virgin of the Rocks. The rendering of the muscles in the neck and shoulders is seen as the first of Leonardo's anatomical drawings; the panel has been reduced in size and the remaining part was cut in two at some point in its history and was reassembled for the early 19th-century collector, Cardinal Fesch, the uncle of Napoleon Bonaparte. Popular legend has it that the Cardinal discovered the part of the panel with the saint’s torso being offered as a table-top in a shop in Rome. Many years he found another piece being used as a wedge for shoemaker’s bench. Whatever the circumstances of Fesch's finding the parts, the repaired panel was sold by his descendants to Pope Pius IX, who installed it in the Pinacoteca Vaticana, now part of the Vatican Museums.
The Saint Jerome was once believed to have been part of the collection of the painter Angelica Kauffman, but this theory too has been rejected by recent scholars
Virgin of the Rocks
The Virgin of the Rocks is the name of two paintings by Leonardo da Vinci, of the same subject, of a composition, identical except for several significant details. The version considered the prime version, the earlier of the two, hangs in The Louvre in Paris and the other in the National Gallery, London; the paintings are painted in oils. Both were painted on wooden panel, but the Louvre version has been transferred to canvas. Both paintings show the Madonna and child Jesus with the infant John the Baptist and an angel, in a rocky setting which gives the paintings their usual name; the significant compositional differences are in the right hand of the angel. There are many minor ways in which the works differ, including the colours, the lighting, the flora, the way in which sfumato has been used. Although the date of an associated commission is documented, the complete histories of the two paintings are unknown, lead to speculation about which of the two is earlier. Two further paintings are associated with the commission: side panels each containing an angel playing a musical instrument and completed by associates of Leonardo.
These are both in the National London. The Virgin of the Rocks in the Louvre is considered by most art historians to be the earlier of the two and dates from around 1483–1486. Most authorities agree that the work is by Leonardo, it is about 8 cm taller than the London version. The first certain record of this picture dates from 1625, when it was in the French royal collection, it is accepted that this painting was produced to fulfill a commission of 1483 in Milan. It is hypothesised that this painting was sold by Leonardo and that the London version was painted at a date to fill the commission. There are a number of other theories to explain the existence of two paintings; this painting is regarded as a perfect example of Leonardo's "sfumato" technique. A similar painting in the National Gallery, London, is ascribed to Leonardo da Vinci, ascribed a date before 1508. Thought to have been painted by Leonardo's assistants, close look of the painting during the recent restoration led the conservators from the National Gallery to conclude that the greater part of the work is by the hand of Leonardo, but debate continues.
The painting of the right hand of the Virgin, the flowers and rocks, are cited by doubters.. If not by Leonardo, it was most painted by Giovanni Ambrogio de Predis and Evangelista, it was painted for the chapel of the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception, in the church of San Francesco Maggiore in Milan. It was sold by the church likely in 1781, by 1785, when it was bought by Gavin Hamilton, who took it to England. After passing through various collections, it was bought by the National Gallery in 1880. Two paintings of angels playing musical instruments are believed to have been part of the composition, set into the altarpiece; these two pictures, now in the National Gallery, are thought to have been completed between 1490 and 1495. One, an angel in red, is thought to be the work of Ambrogio de Predis while the angel in green is thought to be the work of a different assistant of Leonardo Francesco Napoletano; the Chapel of the Immaculate Conception was founded prior to 1335 by Beatrice d'Este, wife of Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The Chapel was attached to the church of Milan. In 1479 the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception contracted Francesco Zavattari and Giorgio della Chiesa to decorate the vault of the chapel. In 1480 the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception contracted Giacomo del Maino to create a large wooden altarpiece with spaces for paintings and with carvings and decoration, to be placed above the altar of the chapel. Final payment was to be made on August 7, 1482. On April 25, 1483, Prior Bartolomeo Scorlione and the Confraternity contracted Leonardo da Vinci, the brothers Ambrogio and Evangelista de Predis to provide the painted panels for the altarpiece; the contract was not explicit about. Leonardo was referred to in the contract as "Master". Ambrogio de Predis was a painter, it is assisted in preparing the colours. The details of the painting and gilding are set out in the contract; the central panel was to be a painting showing the Virgin Mary and Christ child, with two prophets David and Isaiah, surrounded by angels.
Above them was to be a lunette containing a relief panel of God and the Virgin Mary, beneath, a panel showing the crib. The relief figures were to be brightly gilded. To either side of the central painting were to be painted panels showing four angelic musicians on one side and four singing angels on the other. A number of sculptured relief panels were to depict the life of the Virgin Mary. Details of the colours and the gilding of the major parts were specified in the contract; the due date of installation was December 8, 1483, the Feast Day of the Immaculate Conception, giving seven months for its completion. On May 1, 1483 there was an initial payment of 100 Lire; this was followed by payments of 40 Lire per month from July 1483 until February 1485 totalling 800 Lire. A final payment was to be negotiated upon completion and delivery of the work in December 1483. Between 1490–95, Ambrogio and Leonardo wrote to the Confraternity stating that the centrepiece had cost the whole 800 Lire and they asked for a further 1,200 Lire, according to the contract.
The Confraternity offered them only 100 Lire as a result of the petition. Leonardo and Ambrogio req
Madonna of the Carnation
The Madonna of the Carnation, a.k.a. Madonna with Vase or Madonna with Child, is a Renaissance oil painting by Leonardo da Vinci created around 1478-1480, it is permanently displayed at the Alte Pinakothek gallery in Germany. The central and centered motif is the young Virgin Mary seated with Baby Jesus on her lap. Depicted in precious clothes and jewellery, with her left hand Mary holds a carnation; the faces are put into light while all other objects are darker, e.g. the carnation is covered by a shadow. The child is looking up, the mother is looking down — there is no eye contact; the setting of the portrait is a room with two windows on each side of the figures. This painting was thought to have been created by Andrea del Verrocchio but subsequent art historians agree that it is Leonardo's work; the Madonna and Child was a common motif in Christian art during the Middle Ages. This painting is the only work by Leonardo, permanently on display in Germany