An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Manuel Rodriguez, better known as Spain or Spain Rodriguez, was an American underground cartoonist who created the character Trashman. His experiences on the road with the motorcycle club, the Road Vultures M. C. provided inspiration for his work. Influenced by 1950s EC Comics illustrator Wally Wood, Spain pushed Wood's sharp, crisp black shadows and hard-edged black outlines into a more simplified, stylized direction, his work extended the eroticism of Wood's female characters. Manuel Rodriguez was born March 1940, in Buffalo, New York, he picked up the nickname Spain as a child, when he heard some kids in the neighborhood bragging about their Irish ancestry, he defiantly claimed Spain was just as good as Ireland. Rodriguez studied at the Silvermine Guild Art School in Connecticut. In New York City, during the late 1960s, he became a contributor to the East Village Other, which published his own comics tabloid, Zodiac Mindwarp, he covered the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago as a reporter for the East Village Other, adventures which were chronicled in My True Story.
One of his earliest strips, "Manning," featured a hard-boiled, over-the-top cop and was cited as an influence on the British comic Judge Dredd. A co-founder of the United Cartoon Workers of America, he contributed to numerous underground comics in the 1960s–2000s, including Zap Comix, San Francisco Comic Book, Young Lust, Bijou Funnies and Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, he drew Salon's continuing graphic story, The Dark Hotel, which ran on the website in 1998–1999. Spain's starkly forceful, naturalistic style matched Conan Doyle's eerie stories in Sherlock Holmes' Strangest Cases. In such classics as Mean Bitch Thrills, Spain’s women are raunchy, explicitly sexual, sometimes incorporated macho sadomasochistic themes. Spain's work included an illustrated biography of Marxist revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara, Che: A Graphic Biography. Published in several different languages, it was described by comics artist Art Spiegelman as "brilliant and radical." Rodriguez died at his home in San Francisco on November 28, 2012, after battling cancer for six years.
In July 2013, during the San Diego Comic-Con, Rodriguez was one of six inductees into the Will Eisner Hall of Fame. The award was presented posthumously by Mad magazine cartoonist and Groo the Wanderer creator Sergio Aragonés; the other inductees were Lee Falk, Al Jaffee, Mort Meskin, Joe Sinnott, Trina Robbins. 1988 Galería Esquina de la Libertad — "Spain: a View from the Bottom: Posters, Comic Strips and More" 2012 Burchfield Penney Art Center at Buffalo State College — "Spain: Rock, Rumbles, Rebels & Revolution" Subvert Comics #1–2. United Front Press, 1973. Trashman Lives!: The Collected Stories from 1968 to 1985. She: Anthology of Big Bitch. San Francisco: Last Gasp, 1993. My True Story. Seattle: Fantagraphics Books, 1994. Nothing in This Book Is True. Berkeley: Frog Ltd. 1994. Alien Apocalypse 2006. Berkeley: Frog Ltd. 2000. Sherlock Holmes' Strangest Cases by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. San Francisco: Word Play Publications, 2001. Spain's Zodiac Mindwarp, with S. Clay Wilson Nightmare Alley by William Lindsay Gresham.
Seattle: Fantagraphics Books, 2003. ISBN 1-56097-511-3 You Are a Spiritual Being Having text by Bob Frissell. Berkeley: Frog Ltd. 2003. Che: A Graphic Biography, edited by Paul Buhle. London/New York: Verso, 2008. Devil Dog: the Amazing True Story of the Man Who Saved America, text by David Talbot. Simon & Schuster, 2010. Ascher, Jon. "Sifting Through the Trash: Spain and Trashman," JonAscher.com. Hodler, Tim. "Spain Rodriguez: Tributes," The Comics Journal. Talbot, David. "Death of an American original: Cartoonist Spain Rodriguez subverted the youth of America," Salon. Vallen, Mark. "Trashman Lives!" Art for a Change website. Viglietta, Sal. "Road Vultures and Rumbles," Artvoice Weekly Editionvol. 8, #42. Spain Rodriguez on IMDb Cartoonist Tributes to Spain Spain Rodriguez Fought the Good Fight, Comics Journal website Spain bio, Lambiek's Comiclopedia New York Times obituary "SPAIN: ROCK, ROLL, RUMBLES, REBELS, & REVOLUTION" exhibition, Burchfield Penney Art Center website A Salute to Spain by Ed Sanders
Joe Sacco is a Maltese-American cartoonist and journalist. He is best known for his comics journalism, in particular in the books Palestine and Footnotes in Gaza, on Israeli–Palestinian relations. Sacco was born in Malta on October 2, 1960, his father Leonard was an engineer and his mother Carmen was a teacher. At the age of one, he moved with his family to Melbourne, where he spent his childhood until 1972, when they moved to Los Angeles, he began his journalism career working on the Sunset High School newspaper in Oregon. While journalism was his primary focus, this was the period of time in which he developed his penchant for humor and satire, he graduated from Sunset High in 1978. Sacco earned his BA in journalism from the University of Oregon in 1981 in three years, he was frustrated with the journalist work that he found at the time saying, " a job writing hard-hitting, interesting pieces that would make some sort of difference." After being employed by the journal of the National Notary Association, a job which he found "exceedingly, exceedingly boring," and several factories, he returned to Malta, his journalist hopes forgotten.
"... I sort of decided to forget it and just go the other route, take my hobby, cartooning, see if I could make a living out of that," he told the BBC, he began working for a local publisher writing guidebooks. Returning to his fondness for comics, he wrote a Maltese romance comic named Imħabba Vera, one of the first art-comics in the Maltese language. "Because Malta has no history of comics, comics weren't considered something for kids," he told The Village Voice. "In one case, for example, the girl got pregnant and she went to Holland for an abortion. Malta is a Catholic country where, at the time, not divorce was allowed, it was unusual, but it's not like anyone raised a stink about it, because they had no way of judging whether this was appropriate material for comics or not."Eventually returning to the United States, by 1985 Sacco had founded a satirical, alternative comics magazine called Portland Permanent Press in Portland, Oregon. When the magazine folded fifteen months he took a job at The Comics Journal as the staff news writer.
This job provided the opportunity for him to create and edit another satire: the comics anthology Centrifugal Bumble-Puppy, published by The Comics Journal's parent company Fantagraphics Books. But Sacco was more interested in travelling. In 1988, he left the U. S. again to travel across a trip which he chronicled in his autobiographical comic Yahoo. The trip led him towards the ongoing Gulf War, in 1991 he found himself nearby to research the work he would publish as Palestine; the Gulf War segment of Yahoo drew Sacco into a study of Middle Eastern politics, he traveled to Israel and the Palestinian territories to research his first long work. Palestine was a collection of short and long pieces, some depicting Sacco's travels and encounters with Palestinians, some dramatizing the stories he was told, it was serialized as a comic book from 1993 to 1995 and published in several collections, the first of which won an American Book Award in 1996 and sold more than 30,000 copies in the UK. Sacco next travelled to Sarajevo and Goražde near the end of the Bosnian War, produced a series of reports in the same style as Palestine: the comics Safe Area Goražde, The Fixer, the stories collected in War's End.
Safe Area Goražde won the Eisner Award for Best Original Graphic Novel in 2001. He has contributed short pieces of graphic reportage to a variety of magazines, on subjects ranging from war crimes to blues, was a frequent illustrator of Harvey Pekar's American Splendor. In 2005 he drew two eight-page comics depicting events in Iraq published in The Guardian, he contributed a 16-page piece in April 2007's issue of Harper's Magazine, entitled "Down! Up! You're in the Iraqi Army Now". In 2009, his Footnotes in Gaza was published, which investigates two forgotten massacres that took place in Khan Younis and Rafah in November 1956. In June 2012, a book on poverty in the United States, Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt, co-written with journalist Chris Hedges, was published. Sacco lives in Portland, Oregon. In addition to his 1996 American Book Award, 2001 Guggenheim Fellowship, 2001 Eisner Award, Sacco's Footnotes in Gaza was nominated for the 2009 Los Angeles Times Book Prize Graphic Novel award. Sacco was awarded the 2010 Ridenhour Book Prize for Footnotes in Gaza.
He was award the 2012 Oregon Book Award for Footnotes in Gaza and 2014 Oregon Book Award Finalist for Journalism. 1988–1992: Yahoo #1–6. Fantagraphics Books 1993–1995: Palestine #1–9. Fantagraphics Books 1994: Spotlight on the Genius, Joe Sacco. Fantagraphics Books 1998: Stories From Bosnia #1: Soba. Drawn and Quarterly 1987–1988: Centrifugal Bumble-Puppy Fantagraphics Books 1993: Palestine: A Nation Occupied. Fantagraphics Books. ISBN 978-1560971504 1996: Palestine: In the Gaza Strip. Fantagraphics Books. ISBN 978-1560973003 1997: War Junkie. Fantagraphics Books. ISBN 1-56097-170-3. 2000: Safe Area Goražde: The War in Eastern Bosnia 1992–1995. Fantagraphics Books. ISBN 1-56097-470-2 2001: Palestine. Fantagraphics Books. ISBN 1-56097-432-X (
A nerd is a person seen as overly intellectual, introverted or lacking social skills. Such a person may spend inordinate amounts of time on unpopular, little known, or non-mainstream activities, which are either technical, abstract, or relating to topics of science fiction or fantasy, to the exclusion of more mainstream activities. Additionally, many so-called nerds are described as being shy, quirky and unattractive. Derogatory, the term "nerd" was a stereotype, but as with other pejoratives, it has been reclaimed and redefined by some as a term of pride and group identity; the first documented appearance of the word nerd is as the name of a creature in Dr. Seuss's book If I Ran the Zoo, in which the narrator Gerald McGrew claims that he would collect "a Nerkle, a Nerd, a Seersucker too" for his imaginary zoo; the slang meaning of the term dates to 1951. That year, Newsweek magazine reported on its popular use as a synonym for drip or square in Detroit, Michigan. By the early 1960s, usage of the term had spread throughout the United States, as far as Scotland.
At some point, the word took on connotations of social ineptitude. An alternate spelling, as nurd or gnurd began to appear in the mid-1960s or early 1970s. Author Philip K. Dick claimed to have coined the "nurd" spelling in 1973, but its first recorded use appeared in a 1965 student publication at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Oral tradition there holds that the word is derived from knurd, used to describe people who studied rather than partied; the term gnurd was in use at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by 1965. The term "nurd" was in use at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as early as 1971. According to Online Etymology Dictionary, the word is an alteration of the 1940s term "nert", itself an alteration of "nut"; the term was popularized in the 1970s by its heavy use in the sitcom Happy Days. Because of the nerd stereotype, many smart people are thought of as nerdy; this belief can be harmful, as it can cause high-school students to "switch off their lights" out of fear of being branded as a nerd, cause otherwise appealing people to be considered nerdy for their intellect.
It was once thought. However, Paul Graham stated in his essay, "Why Nerds are Unpopular", that intellect is neutral, meaning that you are neither loved nor despised for it, he states that it is only the correlation that makes smart teens automatically seem nerdy, that a nerd is someone, not adept enough. Additionally, he says that the reason why many smart kids are unpopular is that they "don't have time for the activities required for popularity." Stereotypical nerd appearance lampooned in caricatures, can include large glasses, buck teeth, severe acne and pants worn high at the waist. Following suit of popular use in emoticons, Unicode released in 2015 its "Nerd Face" character, featuring some of those stereotypes:. In the media, many nerds are males, portrayed as being physically unfit, either overweight or skinny due to lack of physical exercise, it has been suggested by some, such as linguist Mary Bucholtz, that being a nerd may be a state of being "hyperwhite" and rejecting African-American culture and slang that "cool" white children use.
However, after the Revenge of the Nerds movie franchise, the introduction of the Steve Urkel character on the television series Family Matters, nerds have been seen in all races and colors as well as more being a frequent young East Asian or Indian male stereotype in North America. Portrayal of "nerd girls", in films such as She's Out of Control, Welcome to the Dollhouse and She's All That depicts that smart but nerdy women might suffer in life if they do not focus on improving their physical attractiveness. In the United States, a 2010 study published in the Journal of International and Intercultural Communication indicated that Asian Americans are perceived as most to be nerds, followed by White Americans, while non-White Hispanics and Black Americans were perceived as least to be nerds; these stereotypes stem from concepts of Orientalism and Primitivism, as discussed in Ron Eglash's essay Race and Nerds: From Black Geeks to Asian American Hipsters. Some of the stereotypical behaviors associated with the "nerd" stereotype have correlations with the symptoms of Asperger's Syndrome or other autism-spectrum disorders.
The rise of Silicon Valley and the American computer industry at large has allowed many so-called "nerdy people" to accumulate large fortunes and influence media culture. Many stereotypically nerdy interests, such as superhero and science fiction works, are now international popular culture hits; some measures of nerdiness are now considered desirable, as, to some, it suggests a person, intelligent, respectful and able to earn a large salary. Stereotypical nerd qualities are evolving, going from awkwardness and social ostracism to an more widespread acceptance and sometimes celebration of their differences. Johannes Grenzfurthner, self-proclaimed nerd and director of nerd documentary Traceroute, reflects on the emergence of nerds and nerd culture: I think that the figure of the nerd provides a beautiful template for analyzing the transformation of the disciplinary society into the control society; the nerd, in his cliche form, first stepped out upon the world stage in the mid-1970s, when we were beginning to hear the first rumblings of what would become the Cambrian explosion of the information society
Harvey Lawrence Pekar was an American underground comic book writer, music critic, media personality, best known for his autobiographical American Splendor comic series. In 2003, the series inspired a well-received film adaptation of the same name. Described as the "poet laureate of Cleveland", Pekar "helped change the appreciation for, perceptions of, the graphic novel, the drawn memoir, the autobiographical comic narrative." Pekar described his work as "autobiography written. The theme is about staying alive, getting a job, finding a mate, having a place to live, finding a creative outlet. Life is a war of attrition. You have to stay active on all fronts. It's one thing after another. I've tried to control a chaotic universe, and it's a losing battle. But I can't let go. I've tried, but I can't." Harvey Pekar and his younger brother Allen were born in Ohio, to a Jewish family. Their parents were immigrants from Białystok, Poland. Saul Pekar was a Talmudic scholar who owned a grocery store on Kinsman Avenue, with the family living above the store.
Although Pekar said he wasn't close to his parents due to their dissimilar backgrounds and because they worked all the time, he still "marveled at how devoted they were to each other. They had so much love and admiration for one another."Pekar's first language as a child was Yiddish and he learned to read and appreciate novels in the language. Pekar said; the neighborhood he lived in had once been all white but became black by the 1940s. One of the only white kids still living there, Pekar was beaten up, he believed this instilled in him "a profound sense of inferiority." This experience, however taught him to become a "respected street scrapper."Pekar graduated from Shaker Heights High School in 1957 attended Case Western Reserve University, where he dropped out after a year. He served in the United States Navy. After being discharged, he returned to Cleveland and worked odd jobs before he was hired as file clerk at the Veteran's Administration Hospital, he held this job after becoming famous, refusing all promotions, until he retired in 2001.
Pekar was married from 1960 to 1972 to Karen Delaney. His second wife was Helen Lark Hall. Pekar's third wife was writer Joyce Brabner with whom he collaborated on Our Cancer Year, a graphic novel autobiography of his harrowing yet successful treatment for lymphoma, he lived in Cleveland Ohio with Brabner and their foster daughter Danielle Batone. Pekar's friendship with Robert Crumb led to the creation of the self-published, autobiographical comic book series American Splendor. Crumb and Pekar became friends through their mutual love of jazz records when Crumb was living in Cleveland in the mid-1960s. Crumb's work in underground comics led Pekar to see the form's possibilities, saying, "Comics could do anything that film could do, and I wanted in on it." It took Pekar a decade to do so: "I theorized for maybe ten years about doing comics."Around 1972, Pekar laid out some stories with crude stick figures and showed them to Crumb and another artist, Robert Armstrong. Impressed, they both offered to illustrate.
Pekar & Crumb's one-pager "Crazy Ed" was published as the back cover of Crumb's The People's Comics, becoming Pekar's first published work of comics. Including "Crazy Ed" and before the publication of American Splendor #1, Pekar wrote a number of other comic stories that were published in a variety of outlets: "Crazy Ed", with Robert Crumb, in The People's Comics "A Mexican Tale," with Greg Budgett and Munan, in Flaming Baloney X "It Pays to Advertise" with Willy Murphy, in Flamed-out Funnies #1 "Ain' It the Truth" with Willy Murphy, in Flamed-out Funnies #1 "The Boys on the Corner: A Good Shit Is Best" with Willy Murphy, in Flamed-out Funnies #1 "The Kinsman Cowboys: How'd Ya Get Inta This Bizness Ennyway?" with Greg Budgett & Gary Dumm, in Bizarre Sex #4 "Famous Street Fights: The Champ" with Robert Armstrong in Comix Book #4 "Don't Rain on My Parade" with Robert Armstrong in Snarf #6 The first issue of Pekar's self-published American Splendor series appeared in May 1976, with stories illustrated by the likes of Crumb, Dumm and Brian Bram.
American Splendor documented Pekar's daily life in the aging neighborhoods of his native Cleveland. Pekar's best-known and longest-running collaborators include Crumb, Budgett, Spain Rodriguez, Joe Zabel, Gerry Shamray, Frank Stack, Mark Zingarelli, Joe Sacco. In the 2000s, he teamed with artists Dean Haspiel and Josh Neufeld. Other cartoonists who worked with him include Jim Woodring, Chester Brown, Alison Bechdel, Gilbert Hernandez, Eddie Campbell, David Collier, Drew Friedman, Ho Che Anderson, Rick Geary, Ed Piskor, Hunt Emerson, Bob Fingerman, Brian Bram, Alex Wald. Stories from the American Splendor comics have been collected in many anthologies. A film adaptation of American Splendor was released in 2003, directed by Robert Pulcini and Shari Springer Berman, it starred Paul Giamatti as Pekar, as well as appearances by Pekar himself. Pekar wrote about the effects of the film in American Splendor: Our Movie Year. In 2006, Pekar released a four-issue American Splendor miniseries through the DC Comics imprint Vertigo.
This was collected in the American Splendor: Another Day paperback. In 2008 Vertigo released a secon
James Sherman (comics)
James Sherman is an artist known for his work in American comic books and logos. James Sherman is an artist and colorist who worked for DC Comics and Marvel Comics in the 1970s and 1980s, his first professional comics art appeared in Tarzan Family #65 and Blackhawk #248. He drew the Challengers of the Unknown lead feature in Super-Team Family #8-10 in collaboration with writer Steve Skeates and inker Jack Abel. Sherman is best known for his pencil work on Superboy and the Legion of Super-Heroes in the late 1970s, when he took over as regular artist following Mike Grell, he and writer Paul Levitz introduced the Dawnstar character in Superboy and the Legion of Super-Heroes #226. Sherman's run ended halfway through the multiple issue "Earthwar" story arc due to his displeasure with the direction of the storyline, he did not like the ending which had Mordru the magician turn out as the final villain behind all the different factions attacking Earth. He was replaced by Joe Staton. Sherman's run as the regular penciller on Superboy and the Legion of Super-Heroes ran from issue #225 to #242.
At Marvel Comics, Sherman worked on various titles including The Spectacular Spider-Man Annual #3 which featured a guest appearance by the Man-Wolf. Sherman was the artist on Elaine Lee's 1991 noir space opera The Transmutation of Ike Garuda, he has done fill-in work from time-to time on a number of titles, but works in commercial art. Sherman created the logo for the supermarket chain ShopRite. Sherman claimed to have created the logo for Major League Baseball, he has since acknowledged that a logo he designed for MLB is similar to the original logo, but that he did not design the original logo. Comics work includes: James Sherman at the Comic Book DB James Sherman at Mike's Amazing World of Comics James Sherman at the Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators