Tocopherols are a class of organic chemical compounds, many of which have vitamin E activity. Because the vitamin activity was first identified in 1936 from a dietary fertility factor in rats, it was given the name "tocopherol" using the Greek words "τόκος", "φέρειν", meaning in sum "to carry a pregnancy," with the ending "-ol" signifying its status as a chemical alcohol. Α-Tocopherol is the main source found in supplements and in the European diet, where the main dietary sources are olive and sunflower oils, while γ-tocopherol is the most common form in the American diet due to a higher intake of soybean and corn oil. Tocotrienols, which are related compounds have vitamin E activity. All of these various derivatives with vitamin activity may be referred to as "vitamin E". Tocopherols and tocotrienols are fat-soluble antioxidants but seem to have many other functions in the body. Vitamin E exists in four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. All feature a chromane ring, with a hydroxyl group that can donate a hydrogen atom to reduce free radicals and a hydrophobic side chain that allows for penetration into biological membranes.
Both the tocopherols and tocotrienols occur in α, β, γ, δ forms, determined by the number and position of methyl groups on the chromanol ring. The tocotrienols have the same methyl structure at the ring and the same Greek letter-methyl-notation, but differ from the analogous tocopherols by the presence of three double bonds in the hydrophobic side chain; the unsaturation of the tails gives tocotrienols only a single stereoisomeric carbon, whereas tocopherols have three centers. Each form has a different biological activity. In general, the unnatural l-isomers of tocotrienols lack all vitamin activity, half of the possible 8 isomers of the tocopherols lack vitamin activity. Of the stereoisomers that retain activity, increasing methylation full methylation to the alpha-form, increases vitamin activity. In tocopherols, this is due to the preference of the tocopherol binding protein for the alpha-tocopherol form of the vitamin; as a food additive, tocopherol is labeled with these E numbers: E306, E307, E308, E309.
All of these are approved in the US, EU, Australia and New Zealand for use as antioxidants. Alpha-tocopherol is the form of vitamin E, preferentially absorbed and accumulated in humans; the measurement of "vitamin E" activity in international units was based on fertility enhancement by the prevention of miscarriages in pregnant rats relative to alpha-tocopherol. Although the mono-methylated form ddd-gamma-tocopherol is the most prevalent form of vitamin E in oils, there is evidence that rats can methylate this form to the preferred alpha-tocopherol, since several generations of rats retained alpha-tocopherol tissue levels when those generations were fed only gamma-tocopherol through their lives. There are three stereocenters in alpha-tocopherol, so this is a chiral molecule; the eight stereoisomers of alpha-tocopherol differ in the arrangement of groups around these stereocenters. In the image of RRR-alpha-tocopherol below, all three stereocenters are in the R form. However, if the middle of the three stereocenters were changed, this would become the structure of RSR-alpha-tocopherol.
These stereoisomers may be named in an alternative older nomenclature, where the stereocenters are either in the d or l form. 1 IU of tocopherol is defined as ⅔ milligrams of RRR-alpha-tocopherol. 1 IU is defined as 1 milligram of an equal mix of the eight stereoisomers, a racemic mixture called all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate. This mix of stereoisomers is called dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate though it is more dl,dl,dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate). However, 1 IU of this racemic mixture is not now considered equivalent to 1 IU of natural α-tocopherol, the Institute of Medicine and the USDA now convert IU's of the racemic mixture to milligrams of equivalent RRR using 1 IU racemic mixture = 0.45 "milligrams α-tocopherol". Tocotrienols, although less known belong to the vitamin E family. Tocotrienols have four natural 2' d-isomers; the four tocotrienols have structures corresponding to the four tocopherols, except with an unsaturated bond in each of the three isoprene units that form the hydrocarbon tail, whereas tocopherols have a saturated phytyl tail.
Tocotrienol has been subject to fewer clinical studies and seen less research as compared to tocopherol. However, there is growing interest in the health effects of these compounds. Tocopherols are radical scavengers. At 323 kJ/mol, the O-H bond in tocopherols is 10% weaker than in most other phenols; this weak bond allows the vitamin to donate a hydrogen atom to the peroxyl radical and other free radicals, minimizing their damaging effect. The thus generated tocopheryl radical is unreactive, but reverts to tocopherol by a redox reaction with a hydrogen d
"To Godwin" or "To William Godwin" was written by Samuel Taylor Coleridge and published in the 10 January 1795 Morning Chronicle as part of the Sonnets on Eminent Characters series. William Godwin was admired by Coleridge for his political beliefs. However, Coleridge did not support Godwin's atheistic views. Although the poem praises Godwin, it invokes an argument that the two shared over theological matters. After the poem was written, the relationship between Coleridge and Godwin cooled and the poem was not reprinted. Coleridge's "To William Godwin, Author of Political Justice" became the ninth sonnet in the series Sonnets on Eminent Characters in the 10 January 1795 Morning Chronicle. Coleridge sent 6 lines of the poem to Robert Southey in a letter that read: "I have written one to Godwin—but the mediocrity of the eight first Lines is most miserably magazinish! I have plucked therefore these scentless Road flowers from the Chaptlet—and intreat thee, thou River God of Pieria, to weave into it the gorgeous Water Lily from thy stream, or the fair smelling Violets on thy Bank".
Coleridge was dissatisfied with the poem's quality and content, the poem was not republished in one of Coleridge's collections of poems after it appeared in the Morning Chronicle. In particular, his views of Godwin turned from the worse following the printing. By 1796, Coleridge's changed views on Godwin began to be shared by others, including his friend Charles Lamb. However, Lamb was to befriend Godwin in 1798. By 1800, Coleridge and others were still associating with Godwin, Coleridge joined others in helping Godwin produce a play at the end of the year; the poem reads: Southey's original sketch for eight lines of the poem, on Coleridge's request, read: The Sonnets on Eminent Characters contained many poems dedicated to those Coleridge considered his hero from many fields. Of the poems, "To Godwin" is similar to the poems "To Bowles" and "To Robert Southey" in that they talk about Coleridge's personal life and Godwin's influence over it. However, Coleridge's view of Godwin changed over time and he grew dissatisfied with the poem as a result.
Coleridge respected Godwin for Godwin's support of those put on trial during the 1794 Treason Trials, Coleridge owed much of his political beliefs to Godwin. However and Godwin differed on their views of religion, which became a source of dispute between the two. Following the reading of Coleridge's previous poem in the series "To Kosciusko" by Thomas Holcroft, Holcroft invited Coleridge to dinner with Godwin, Richard Porson, himself; the conversation turned to religion, Coleridge believed that Porson was a strong speaker while Godwin lacked intelligence in his speech. Godwin, unlike Coleridge, was an atheist. On Coleridge's admission, he was able to win the debate with Holcroft but was unable to convince Godwin about theism until 5 years later. Within "To Godwin", Coleridge addresses Godwin with religious terms in a manner to provoke while praising Godwin. In particular, lines 9 and 10 continue this previous dispute in poetic form. Coleridge's support of Godwin's politics appeared in his A Moral and Political Lecture given in Bristol during 1795.
However, in Coleridge's Political Lecture of the same year, he criticized Godwin's political beliefs that Coleridge suggests separated Godwin from the masses. Further works during 1795 continued to discuss the positives and negatives of Godwin, with Conciones ad Populum attacking philosophy, not dedicated to mankind, in reference to Godwin, Lectures on Revealed Religion, its Corruption, Politica Views in which he argued in support of Godwin's promotion of the removal of private property, the idea that government is problematic, that revolution shouldn't be violent, but Coleridge continued to Christianize Godwin's philosophy. By 1796, Coleridge turned against Godwin's beliefs. At the time, Coleridge planned to write a small essay against Godwin, he criticized Godwin's atheism in a 17 December 1796 letter to John Thelwall, one of the defendants in the 1794 Treason Trials. Ashton, Rosemary; the Life of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997. Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. Coleridge, Ernest Hartley.
The Poems of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Oxford University Press. Holmes, Richard. Coleridge: Early Visions, 1772-1804. New York: Pantheon, 1989. Marshall, Peter. William Godwin. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984. Mays, J. C. C.. The Collected Works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Poetical Works I Vol I. I. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001. Woodcock, George. William Godwin: A Biographical Study. London: The Porcupine Press, 1989
Frederick Richard Hugh Lavery was an Australian trade unionist and politician, a Labor Party member of the Legislative Council of Western Australia from 1952 to 1971. Lavery was born in Western Australia, to Mary and William Lavery, he began his schooling in Southern Cross, but moved away from the country and attended Fremantle Boys' School. After leaving school, Lavery worked for periods as a contractor, bus driver, truck driver, he joined the Road Transport Union in 1920, served as treasurer for 14 years and on the executive for 24 years, becoming a life member. Lavery entered parliament at the 1952 Legislative Council election, replacing the retiring Edmund Gray in West Province, he was re-elected in 1958, at the 1965 state election transferred to the new South Metropolitan Province, following a redistribution. Lavery died in office at St John of God Subiaco Hospital, he had been married firstly to Nora Newbold in 1925, with whom he had two sons. He was widowed in 1958, remarried in 1966 to Ruby Hutchison, a member of the Legislative Council.
They were the first married couple to serve together in an Australian parliament