Liang Fa known by other names, was the second Chinese Protestant convert and the first Chinese Protestant minister and evangelist. He was ordained by the first Protestant missionary in the Qing Empire, his tract Good Words to Admonish the Age was influential on Hong Xiuquan, who went on to lead the Taiping Rebellion. Liang Fa is the pinyin romanization of Liang's usual Chinese name. Leung Faat is the Jyutping romanization of the same name in Cantonese, the usual spoken dialect of Guangdong's natives, his personal name 發 is the common Chinese verb for "to send" but in Chinese grammar can be understood as its past participle, " sent". He is known as Liang A-fa, "A-Fa", "Afa", "Ah Fa" or "Ah-fa" from the Southern Chinese habit of forming affectionate nicknames using the prefix Ā-. Liang Gongfa was his complete name, although it was used less often, it variously appears as "Leang Kung-fa", "Leang Kung-fah", "Leong Kung Fa". Liang was born in the village of Gulao, Gaoming County, in Sanzhou, Guangdong, in 1789.
Although he came from a poor family, they made an effort to give him a classical Chinese education at the village school. This consisted of the Four Books, three of the Five Classics, the Sacred Edict, they were unable to afford his schooling until he was 11. He soon left this to apprentice as a printer. After four years, he left to a nearby village to ply the trade, he returned to Gulao in 1810 to mourn his mother's death and returned to the area around Guangzhou. In 1811 and 1812, Cai Luxing was helping Robert Morrison to publish his Chinese translation of the New Testament and in one of those years Liang began to assist in carving the work's printing blocks. An imperial edict of 1812 prohibited the publication of Christian texts in Chinese. Nonetheless, Cai's younger brother—probably named Gao—became the Protestants' first Chinese convert, baptized at a secluded seaside spring on July 16, 1814, Liang became their second; the missionary William Milne employed Liang as his Chinese teacher and Liang went with him to the Malacca mission in April 1815 to assist him with printing his Chinese-language tracts.
At his request, he was baptized by Milne at noon on November 3, 1816, so that there would be no shadows present. He adopted the pen name "Student of the Good". Liang returned to China in April 1819 to see his family. Under Morrison's supervision, he prepared 200 copies of a 37-page tract of Miscellaneous Exhortations for his friends and neighbors; the police reacted harshly, arresting him and burning both the copies and the printing blocks used to publish them. Morrison got him released two days but he had been beaten thirty times with a bamboo cane and compelled to pay $70, he remained forty days with his family and returned to Malacca. He returned again in 1820 converting and baptizing his wife before returning to Malacca the next year. Following Milne's death, he came home in 1823. On November 20, he had Morrison baptize his son Jinde. A month Morrison appointed him as a lay evangelist for the London Missionary Society and in 1827 ordained him as a full minister, the first native Chinese to do so.
He preached at hospitals and chapels and, after writing his own tracts, thought to distribute Christian literature to the scholars gathered for the prefectural and provincial imperial exams. He printed 7,000 or 70,000 tracts in a single year and distributed them to the thousands who came for the tests in Guangzhou and in the prefectural seats of Guangdong, it was at one such session that Hong Xiuquan first encountered Liang's work Good Words to Admonish the Age. He converted. Liang accompanied Wat Ngong, another Chinese Christian printer, on his 250-mile trek in 1830, distributing their Christian tracts across southwest Guangdong, he continued the practice for four more years. There are unclear references to some long-standing dispute between Wat and Liang, resolved; the 1833 Government of India Act ended the East India Company's legal monopoly on Britain's share of the Canton trade. Amid the diplomatic crisis occasioned by the uptick in opium smuggling and Lord Napier's resort to force to assert his right to act as the British consul in Guangzhou, the Emperor expressed disbelief that westerners were responsible for the Chinese-language magazines and broadsides being distributed by the English.
Qing subjects were forbidden to teach to the language, a crackdown was ordered. Morrison died in August 1834 and, several days into Liang's distribution of tracts at Guangzhou's provincial exams a few weeks the city's police came for him and his companions. Liang escaped to Macao, but an assistant in Guangzhou and several family members in Sanzhou were seized. Unlike his father, John Morrison helped Liang by paying the $800 for the ten captives himself, he again left for Malacca with his son Lou. He was formally attached to the London mission there in 1837 and, while working there with Wat Ngong, caused a "spike" in conversions, netting more than thirty converts in a span of months; when many of these new converts abandoned the faith, it prompted disputes within the LMS about the meaning and requirements for ba
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
Odoric of Pordenone
Odoric of Pordenone, OFM known as Odorico Mattiussi or Mattiuzzi, was an Italian late-medieval Franciscan friar and missionary explorer. His account of his visit to China was an important source for the account of John Mandeville. Many of the incredible reports in Mandeville have proven to be garbled versions of Odoric's eyewitness descriptions. Odoric was born at Villanova, a hamlet now belonging to the town of Pordenone in Friuli, in or about 1286, he came from the Italian family of the Mattiussi, one of the families in charge of defending the town of Pordenone in the name of Ottokar II, King of Bohemia. Otto Hartig, writing in the Catholic Encyclopedia, says. Andrea Tilatti, in Treccani, says. According to the ecclesiastical biographers, in early years he took the vows of the Franciscan order and joined their convent at Udine, the capital of Friuli. In 1296 Odoric went as a missionary to the Balkans, to the Mongols in southern Russia. Friar Odoric was dispatched to the East in April 1318. Starting from Padua, he went to Constantinople via Venice and crossed the Black Sea to Trebizond.
From there he traveled and preached in Armenia and Persia. In all these countries the Franciscans had founded mission centers. From Sultanieh he proceeded by Kashan and Yazd, turning thence followed a somewhat indirect route by Persepolis and the Shiraz and Baghdad regions, to the Persian Gulf. With another friar, James of Ireland, as his companion, he sailed from Ormus to India, landing at Thane, near Mumbai. At this city St Thomas of Tolentino and his three Franciscan companions had been martyred for "blaspheming" Muhammad before the local qadi during a domestic violence case, their remains had been gathered by Jordan of Severac, a Dominican who had left them a short time before and who became the first Catholic bishop in India. He interred them at the church near Vasai, about 26 miles north of Mumbai. Odoric relates that he carried them with him on his further travels, he visited Puri, giving one of the earliest accounts of the Chariot Festival of the Hindu God Jagannath to the western world In his own account of 1321, Odoric reported how the people put the "idols" on chariots, the King and Queen and all the people drew them from the "church" with song and music.
From India, Odoric sailed in a junk to Sumatra, visiting various ports on the northern coast of that island. Thence, he visited Java, Borneo and Guangzhou. From Guangzhou, he travelled overland to the great port of Quanzhou where there were two houses of his order. In one of these, he deposited most of the remains of the Four Martyrs of Thane, although he continued to carry St Thomas's head until he delivered it to the Franciscans of the martyr's hometown of Tolentino. From Fuzhou Odoric visited Hangzhou, it was at the time one of the great cities of the world and Odoric —like Marco Polo and Ibn Batuta—gives details of its splendors. Passing northward by Nanjing and crossing the Yangzi, Odoric embarked on the Grand Canal and travelled to the headquarters of the Great Khan at Khanbaliq, he remained there for three years from 1324 to 1327. He was attached, no doubt, to one of the churches founded by the Franciscan Archbishop John of Monte Corvino, at this time in extreme old age, he visited Yangzhou where Katarina Vilioni's tombstone was found.
Odoric did not return to Italy till the end of 1329 or the beginning of 1330. On one of his trips, his ship was nearly capsized by a typhoon but they landed safely in Bolinao, Philippines, he is said to have held a Mass there, in around 1324. That would have pre-dated the Mass celebrated in 1521 by Ferdinand Magellan, regarded as the first Mass in the Philippines, by some 197 years. However, historian William Henry Scott concluded after examining Odoric's writings about his travels that he never set foot on Philippine soil and, if he did, there is no reason to think that he celebrated Mass. Odoric's return voyage is less described. Returning overland across Asia, through the Land of Prester John, through Casan, the adventurous traveller seems to have entered Tibet, perhaps to have visited Lhasa. After this we trace the friar in northern Persia, in Millestorte, once famous as the Land of the Assassins, in the Elburz highlands. No further indications of his homeward route are given, though it is certain that he passed through Tabriz.
The vague and fragmentary character of the narrative, in this section, forcibly contrasts with the clear and careful tracing of the outward way. During a part at least of these long journeys the companion of Odoric was James of Ireland, an Irishman, as appears from a record in the public books of Udine, showing that shortly after Odoric's death a present of two marks was made to this Irish friar, Socio beau Fratris Odorici, amore Dei et Odorici. Shortly after his return Odoric betook himself to the Minorite house attached to the Friary of St. Anthony at Padua, it was there that in May 1330 he related the story of his travels, taken down in homely Latin by Friar William of Solagna. Travelling towards the papal court at Avignon, Odoric fell ill at Pisa, turning back to Udine, the capital of his native province, died there. Odoric's journey is bes
The Jingjiao Documents are a collection of Chinese language texts connected with the 7th-century mission of Alopen, a Church of the East bishop from Sassanian Mesopotamia. The manuscripts date from between 635, the year of Alopen's arrival in China, around 1000, when the cave at Mogao near Dunhuang in which the documents were discovered was sealed. By 2011, four of the manuscripts were known to be in a private collection in Japan, while one was in Paris, their language and content reflect varying levels of interaction with Chinese culture, including use of Buddhist and Taoist terminology. There is no agreed upon name for the collection of texts as a whole; the Japanese scholar P. Y. Saeki described them as the "Nestorian Documents," which has continued to be used by more recent studies have continued to use this term. More recent scholars have moved away from the language of "Nestorian" and use the Chinese term, describing them as "Jingjiao Documents."Martin Palmer has attempted to describe these collectively as sutras to connect the documents to Buddhism, given their tendency to use Buddhist terminology, but this is partly related to the names of individual texts which bear the character jing in its name.
However, this is a character, used by the Confucian Four Books and Five Classics and in the modern Chinese rendering of the word for the Bible, Shengjing. Other texts use the character lun, which carries a different meaning of "discourse" or "treatise." The following list gives some approximate English titles for the various writings and an indication of the present location of the manuscript where known. Scholars are still debating the best translation for many of the terms. Discourse on Almsgiving of the World-Honored One, Part Three. Discourse on the Oneness of Heaven. Parable, Part Two; the first three texts in this list appear together in a single manuscript entitled Discourse on the One God, Part Three. Sutra on the Origin of Origins. An inscribed pillar discovered in Luoyang in 2006 supplements the incomplete version from Dunhuang. Kojima manuscript B was at one time thought to be the conclusion of this work. Sutra of Hearing the Messiah. Da Qin Hymn of Perfection of the Three Majesties. Nat.
Collection Pelliot chinois, no. 3847. Let Us Praise or Venerable Books, a list of sacred books followed by a short note. Nat. Collection Pelliot, chinois no. 3847. The Sutra of Ultimate and Mysterious Happiness. Da Qin Hymn to the Transfiguration of the Great Holy One. Kojima manuscript A; this manuscript was stolen in Tianjin, China, in 1945 and its whereabouts are now unknown. This manuscript and Kojima manuscript B are suspected of being modern forgeries; the Xi'an Stele was erected in 781 to commemorate the propagation of the Da Qin Luminous Religion, covers the preceding 150 years of Christianity in China. Martin Palmer claimed, on the basis of research conducted by scholars in the 1930s, that the Daqin Pagoda near Lou Guan Tai was part of a Da Qin monastery. Lou Guan Tai was the traditional site of Lao Tze's composition of the Tao Te Ching. Buried during a time of religious persecution in the 9th century, the stele was re-discovered in 1625 and is now on display in nearby Xi'an, the ancient capital of the Tang Dynasty.
A. C. Moule, Christianity in China Before the Year 1550, London. P. Y. Saeki, The Nestorian Documents and Relics in China, Academy of Oriental Culture, Tokyo: Tokyo Institute, second edition, 1951. Contains the Chinese texts with English translations. Kazuo Enoki, "The Nestorian Christianism in China in mediaeval times according to recent historical and archaeological Researches", in Problemi Attuali de Scienza e di Cultura, 62, Atti del convegno internazionale sul tema: l'Oriente cristiano nella storia della civiltà, 45-81. W. Lin & X. Rong, “Doubts Concerning the Authenticity of Two Nestorian Chinese Documents Unearthed at Dunhuang from the Li’s Collection.” China Archaeology and Art Digest Vol. 1, No. 1, 5-14. Martin Palmer, The Jesus Sutras: Rediscovering the Lost Scrolls of Taoist Christianity, Wellspring/Ballantine, ISBN 0-345-43424-2. Texts translated by Palmer, Eva Wong, L. Rong Rong. Li Tang, A Study of the History of Nestorian Christianity in China and Its Literature in Chinese: Together With a New English Translation of the Dunhuang Nestorian Documents, Peter Lang Publishing, 2003 paperback: ISBN 0-8204-5970-4.
A fresh scholarly translation by a Chinese academic, with historical background and critical linguistic commentary on the texts. Thomas Moore and Ray Riegert The Lost Sutras of Jesus: Unlocking the Ancien
Christianity in China
Christianity in China appeared in the 7th century, during the Tang dynasty, but did not take root until it was reintroduced in the 16th century by Jesuit missionaries. Today, it comprises Catholics, Evangelicals and a small number of Orthodox Christians. Although its history in China is not as ancient as Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism or Confucianism, through various ways, has been present in China since at least the 7th century and has gained significant influence during the last 200 years; the number of Chinese Christians has increased since the easing of restrictions on religious activity during economic reforms in the late 1970s. Accurate data on Chinese Christians is hard to access. According to the most recent internal surveys there are 31 million Christians in China today. On the other hand, some international Christian organizations estimate there are tens of millions more, which choose not to publicly identify as such; the practice of religion continues to be controlled by government authorities.
Chinese over the age of 18 are only permitted to join sanctioned Christian groups registered with the government-approved Protestant Three-Self Church and China Christian Council and the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Church. On the other hand, many Christians practice in informal networks and unregistered congregations described as house churches or underground churches, the proliferation of which began in the 1950s when many Chinese Protestants and Catholics began to reject state-controlled structures purported to represent them. Members of such groups are said to represent the "silent majority" of Chinese Christians and represent many diverse theological traditions. There are various terms used for God in the Chinese language, the most prevalent being Shangdi, used by Protestants and by non-Christians, Tianzhu, most favoured by Catholics. Shen widely used by Chinese Protestants, defines the gods or generative powers of nature in Chinese traditional religions. Christians have adopted a variety of terms from the Chinese classics as referents to God, for example Ruler and Creator.
Terms for Christianity in Chinese include: "Protestantism". The whole of Orthodox Christianity is named Zhèng jiào. Christians in China are referred to as "Christ followers/believers" or "Christ religion followers/believers"; the Christian apologist Arnobius claimed in his work Against the Heathen: Book II, that Christianity had reached the land of Seres saying "For the deeds can be reckoned up and numbered which have been done in India, among the Seres and Medes. However to date there is little to no archaeological evidence or knowledge about the pre-Nestorian classical Chinese and/or Tocharian church. Two monks were preaching Christianity in India in the 6th century before they smuggled silkworm eggs from China to the Byzantine Empire; the first documentation of Christianity entering China was written on an 8th-century stone tablet known as the Nestorian Stele. It records that Christians reached the Tang dynasty capital Xi'an in 635 and were allowed to establish places of worship and to propagate their faith.
The leader of the Christian travelers was Alopen. Some modern scholars question whether Nestorianism is the proper term for the Christianity, practiced in China, since it did not adhere to what was preached by Nestorius, they instead prefer to refer to it as "Church of the East", a term which encompasses the various forms of early Christianity in Asia. In 845, at the height of the Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution, Emperor Wuzong decreed that Buddhism and Zoroastrianism be banned, their considerable assets forfeited to the state. In 986 a monk reported to the Patriarch of the East: Christianity is extinct in China. Karel Pieters noted that some Christian gravestones are dated from the Song and Liao dynasties, implying that some Christians remained in China; the 13th century saw the Mongol-established Yuan dynasty in China. Christianity was a major influence in the Mongol Empire, as several Mongol tribes were Nestorian Christian, many of the wives of Genghis Khan's descendants were Christian. Contacts with Western Christianity came in this time period, via envoys from the Papacy to the Mongol capital in Khanbaliq.
Nestorianism was well established in China, as is attested by the monks Rabban Bar Sauma and Rabban Marcos, both of whom made a famous pilgrimage to the West, visiting many Nestorian communities along the way. Marcos was elected as Patriarch of the