Hollywood Park Racetrack
Hollywood Park sold and referred to as Betfair Hollywood Park, was a thoroughbred race course located in Inglewood, about 3 miles from Los Angeles International Airport and adjacent to the Forum indoor arena. In 1994 Hollywood Park Casino, with a poker card room, was added to the racetrack complex. Horse racing and training were shut down in December 2013 though the casino operations continued while a new state of the art casino building opened in October 2016; the former horse racetrack area will be the site of Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park, home of the Los Angeles Rams and the Los Angeles Chargers of the National Football League, when the stadium is completed in 2020. Until the Rams temporarily play home games at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum and the Chargers play at the StubHub Center; the track was opened on June 10, 1938 by the Hollywood Turf Club the racetrack was designed by noted racetrack architect Arthur Froehlich. Its chairman was Jack L. Warner of the Warner Bros. film studio.
Prominent shareholders included Jack Warner's brother and fellow Warner Bros. executive Harry, Hollywood studio executives Walt Disney, Samuel Goldwyn, Darryl Zanuck, actors Al Jolson, Bing Crosby, Joan Blondell, George Jessel, Ronald Colman and Ralph Bellamy. In addition to being shareholders film directors Raoul Walsh and Mervyn LeRoy were founding members of the track's Board of Directors with Jack and Harry Warner and Al Jolson. Hollywood Park closed from 1942 to 1944 due to World War II, where it was used as a storage facility. In 1949, the grandstand and clubhouse were destroyed by a fire. In 1984, the racetrack was extended from one mile around to 1 1⁄8 miles around prior to the first Breeders Cup race. Harness racing took place at Hollywood Park. By the late 1980s the racetrack Hollywood Park, though frequented by celebrities, was near the point of bankruptcy; as of 1989, a group of investors was working to buy Los Alamitos Racetrack in California for $68 million. Los Alamitos, owned by Hollywood Park, was still under its original ownership as of 1991, though a significant portion of the stock had been bought by external investors.
RD Hubbard became CEO of Hollywood Park in April 1991, after having purchased a portion of the company's stock in late 1990. He was assisted in the ouster of the former chairman Marje Everett, who had run Hollywood Park since 1972, by company shareholder Tom Gamel and sports businessman Harry Ornest. In 1991 $20 million was spent improving the racetrack; that year the park earned its first profit in five years, despite rioting in nearby Los Angeles in 1992, annual profits that year increased to $5.4 million. By 1993, the Los Angeles Times wrote that "shareholders at Hollywood Park... are enjoying substantial investment gains." A card club casino was added to the complex in 1994, as Hollywood Park underwent a $100 million expansion into Hollywood Park Casino, which opened in the summer of 1994. In 1994, Hollywood Park Inc. purchased the Arizona-based Turf Paradise Race Track for $34 million in stock. In May 1995 after the departure of the Rams for St. Louis, the owners of the National Football League teams approved with a 27-1 vote with two abstentions, a resolution supporting a plan to build a $200 million financed stadium on property owned by Hollywood Park for the Los Angeles Raiders.
Raiders owner Al Davis balked and refused the deal over a stipulation that he would have to accept a second team at the stadium. After the deal fell through the Raiders returned to Oakland, California. Hollywood Park Inc. suffered losses in 1995, though at the end of 1996, Hollywood Park bought Boomtown, Inc. for $188 million. Boomtown owned casinos in several cities such as Las Vegas and New Orleans. Boomtown merged with the casino operator Pinnacle Entertainment in 1998. Hollywood Park was purchased by Churchill Downs Incorporated on September 1999 for $140 million. Churchill Downs acquired Hollywood Park-Casino in the process, in turn leased by Hollywood Park Inc.. The previous owners of the track renamed their company Pinnacle Entertainment to concentrate on its gambling interests. In July 2005, Churchill Downs Incorporated sold the track to the Bay Meadows Land Company, owned by Stockbridge Capital Group for $260 million in cash. Under the terms of the deal, the company, which at the time operated Bay Meadows in San Mateo, was to continue thoroughbred racing at Hollywood Park for at least three years.
According to Bay Meadows officials, the continuation of Hollywood Park as a racing venue after that depended on California allowing more gambling, like slot machines, to the track. Some of the Hollywood Park land was sold to real estate developers to build a new housing community called the Inglewood Renaissance. Development began in 2005. New grass was planted on the turf course after Hollywood Park's spring-summer meet in 2005. Due to safety concerns, turf racing was not conducted for that year's autumn meet; as a result, several major stakes races that comprised Hollywood's Autumn Turf Festival were cancelled that year. After the conclusion of Hollywood's spring-summer meet in 2006, it was announced that a second chute would be built inside the turf course to accommodate sprint races at six furlongs; this followed a similar move by Monmouth Park to build a turf chute for sprint races. In 2010, Hollywood Park played host for the first time to Oak Tree; the Hollywood Park Racing Association and Betfair US, the Los Angeles-based subsidiary of Betfair that owns TVG Network, completed a historic agreement March 13, 2012 intended to transform the customer experience for fans at the venue as well as online and on television.
Under terms of the five-year deal, Hollywoo
Breeders' Cup Juvenile
The Breeders' Cup Juvenile is a Thoroughbred horse race for 2-year-old colts and geldings raced on dirt. It is held annually in late October or early November at a different racetrack in the United States or Canada as part of the Breeders' Cup World Championships; the current purse is $2,000,000, making it the most valuable race for two-year-olds in North America. It is run at a distance of 1 1⁄16 miles; the Breeders' Cup Juvenile is the first time that the best colts from the various racing circuits across North America meet up with each other. The winner earns the Eclipse Award for Champion Two-Year-Old Male Horse, becomes one of the early favorites for the next year's Kentucky Derby. In 2006, the National Thoroughbred Racing Association wrote in Part 2 of their special series titled Spiraling To The Breeders' Cup that "Arazi turned in what many still consider to be the single-most spectacular performance in Breeders' Cup history." Timber Country was the first Breeders' Cup Juvenile winner to win an American Triple Crown race when he went on to win the 1995 Preakness Stakes.
The 2006 winner, Street Sense, became the first to capture the Kentucky Derby. Beginning in 2007, the Breeders' Cup developed "The Breeders' Cup Challenge," a series of races in each division that allotted automatic qualifying bids to winners of defined races; each of the thirteen divisions has between two and twelve of these "Win and You're In" qualifying races. In the Breeders' Cup Juvenile division, the number of runners is limited to 14 with up to four automatic berths. Note though that one horse may win multiple challenge races, while other challenge winners will not be entered in the Breeders' Cup for a variety of reasons such as injury or travel considerations; the 2018 "Win and You're In" races are: the Iroquois Stakes, a Grade 3 race run in September at Churchill Downs in Kentucky the FrontRunner Stakes, a Grade 1 race run in October at Santa Anita Park in California the Champagne Stakes, a Grade 1 race run in October at Belmont Park in New York the Breeders' Futurity, a Grade 1 race at Keeneland in Kentucky Most wins by a jockey: 3 - Laffit Pincay, Jr. 3 - Jerry Bailey Most wins by a trainer: 5 - D. Wayne Lukas Most wins by an owner: 2 - Eugene V. Klein 2 - Overbrook Farm 2 - Michael Tabor & Susan Magnier 2 - Gary and Mary West Breeders' Cup Juvenile "top three finishers" and starters Breeders' Cup World Thoroughbred Championships American Thoroughbred Racing top Attended Events Road to the Kentucky Derby Racing Post: 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997, 1998 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2018 Official Breeders' Cup website Three Great Moments: Breeders' Cup Juvenile at Hello Race Fans
The Kentucky Derby is a horse race, held annually in Louisville, United States, on the first Saturday in May, capping the two-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. The race is a Grade I stakes race for three-year-old Thoroughbreds at a distance of one and a quarter miles at Churchill Downs. Colts and geldings fillies 121 pounds; the race is called "The Run for the Roses" on account of the blanket of roses draped over the winner. It is known in the United States as "The Most Exciting Two Minutes In Sports" or "The Fastest Two Minutes in Sports" in reference to its approximate duration, it is the first leg of the American Triple Crown and is followed by the Preakness Stakes the Belmont Stakes. Unlike the Preakness and Belmont Stakes, which took hiatuses in 1891–1893 and 1911–1912 the Kentucky Derby has been run every consecutive year since 1875; the Derby and Belmont all were run every year throughout the Great Depression and both World Wars. A horse must win all three races to win the Triple Crown.
In the 2015 listing of the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities, the Kentucky Derby tied with the Whitney Handicap as the top Grade 1 race in the United States outside the Breeders' Cup races. The attendance at the Kentucky Derby ranks first in North America and surpasses the attendance of all other stakes races including the Preakness Stakes, Belmont Stakes, the Breeders' Cup. In 1872, Col. Meriwether Lewis Clark, Jr. grandson of William Clark of the Lewis and Clark expedition, traveled to England, visiting Epsom in Surrey where The Derby had been running annually since 1780. From there, Clark went on to Paris, where in 1863, a group of racing enthusiasts had formed the French Jockey Club and had organized the Grand Prix de Paris at Longchamp, which at the time was the greatest race in France. Returning home to Kentucky, Clark organized the Louisville Jockey Club for the purpose of raising money to build quality racing facilities just outside the city; the track would soon become known as Churchill Downs, named for John and Henry Churchill, who provided the land for the racetrack.
The racetrack was incorporated as Churchill Downs in 1937. The Kentucky Derby was first run at 1 1/2 miles the same distance as the Epsom Derby; the distance was changed in 1896 to its current 1 1/4 miles. On May 17, 1875, in front of an estimated crowd of 10,000 people, a field of 15 three-year-old horses contested the first Derby. Under jockey Oliver Lewis, a colt named Aristides, trained by future Hall of Famer Ansel Williamson, won the inaugural Derby; that year, Lewis rode Aristides to a second-place finish in the Belmont Stakes. Although the first race meeting proved a success, the track ran into financial difficulties and in 1894 the New Louisville Jockey Club was incorporated with new capitalization and improved facilities. Despite this, the business floundered until 1902 when Col. Matt Winn of Louisville put together a syndicate of businessmen to acquire the facility. Under Winn, Churchill Downs prospered and the Kentucky Derby became the preeminent stakes race for three-year-old thoroughbred horses in North America.
Thoroughbred owners began sending their successful Derby horses to compete in the Preakness Stakes at the Pimlico Race Course, in Baltimore, followed by the Belmont Stakes in Elmont, New York. The three races offered large purses and in 1919 Sir Barton became the first horse to win all three races. However, the term Triple Crown didn't come into use for another eleven years. In 1930, when Gallant Fox became the second horse to win all three races, sportswriter Charles Hatton brought the phrase into American usage. Fueled by the media, public interest in the possibility of a "superhorse" that could win the Triple Crown began in the weeks leading up to the Derby. Two years after the term was coined, the race, run in mid-May since inception, was changed to the first Saturday in May to allow for a specific schedule for the Triple Crown races. Since 1931, the order of Triple Crown races has been the Kentucky Derby first, followed by the Preakness Stakes and the Belmont Stakes. Prior to 1931, eleven times the Preakness was run before the Derby.
On May 12, 1917 and again on May 13, 1922, the Preakness and the Derby were run on the same day. On eleven occasions the Belmont Stakes was run before the Preakness Stakes. On May 16, 1925, the first live radio broadcast of the Kentucky Derby was originated by WHAS and was carried by WGN in Chicago. On May 7, 1949, the first television coverage of the Kentucky Derby took place, produced by WAVE-TV, the NBC affiliate in Louisville; this coverage was aired live in the Louisville market and sent to NBC as a kinescope newsreel recording for national broadcast. On May 3, 1952, the first national television coverage of the Kentucky Derby took place, aired from then-CBS affiliate WHAS-TV. In 1954, the purse exceeded $100,000 for the first time. In 1968, Dancer's Image became the first horse to win the race and be disqualified after traces of phenylbutazone, an analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug, were found in the horse's urinalysis. Forward Pass thus became the eighth winner for Calumet Farm. Unexpectedly, the regulations at Kentucky thoroughbred race tracks were changed some years allowing horses to run on phenylbutazone.
In 1970, Diane Crump became the first female jockey to ride in the Derby, finishing 15th aboard Fathom. The fastest time run in the Derby was set in 1973 at 1
Curalina is a retired American Thoroughbred racehorse who as a 3-year-old won the first two legs of the New York Triple Tiara, the grade I Acorn Stakes and the grade I Coaching Club American Oaks. Curalina is a chestnut mare with a diamond shaped star on her forehead and a coronet marking on her hind legs. Curalina was bred by CASA Farms I, LLC, sold at the 2013 Keeneland September Yearling Sale for $125,000 to Eclipse Thoroughbred Partners & Dogwood Stable, she is a daughter of champion Curlin. Her dam, Whatdreamsrmadeof, a granddaughter of Smart Strike, was retired after injury with earnings of $137,080 from a 7:2-3-1 record with her best race being a second-place finish in the 2007 Fair Grounds Oaks, her fourth foal was Curalina. Curalina finished 2nd in her debut a Maiden Special Weight at Saratoga on July 27, 2014, she lost to High Dollar Woman. Curalina started her 3-year-old campaign by winning a Maiden Special Weight at Gulfstream Park on March 28, 2015 by 1 length being the Favorite, she went to an Allowance Optional Claiming on May 1, which she won by 8 1/4 lengths once again being the Favorite.
She made her graded stakes debut in the GI Acorn Stakes, she was squeezed back at the start and pushed back to last, she gained ground and moved up to 5th before the first turn, she stayed their until the final turn when By the Moon took the lead and opened up going into the stretch, Curalina started gaining ground and ran By the Moon down winning by a neck. She made next start in the GI Coaching Club American Oaks on July 26, she was bumped at the start, but moved up to 2nd and stayed their most of the way. Into the stretch Curalina battled with I'm a Chatterbox, with one final surge Curalina was about to pass I'm a Chatterbox but I'm a Chatterbox hit Curalina and made her trip so I'm a Chatterbox won by a nose over Curalina. After the race Saratoga stewards ruled I'm a Chatterbox came into Curalina's path deep in the stretch and disqualified the top finisher to second. Curalina finished her 3-year-old season with a 3rd in the GI Alabama Stakes, a 2nd against older mares in the GI Beldame Stakes, a strong 3rd in the GI Breeders' Cup Distaff.
Curalina started her 4-year-old campaign by romping in the GI La Troienne Stakes by 7 1/4 lengths on May 6. She went to the GI Ogden Phipps Stakes where she finished 4th while being the favorite, she rebounded with a 9 1/4 length romp in the GIII Shuvee Handicap on July 31. Her next start was the GI Personal Ensign Stakes. Curalina's next start was the GI Breeders' Cup Distaff where she finished a non-threatening flat 6th. Curalina was sold at the 2016 Fasig-Tipton Kentucky Fall Mixed Sale, as a racing or broodmare prospect. Curalina sold for $3,000,000 to Shadai Farm in Japan. Curalina retired with 6 wins in 2 shows with $1,535,940 in Earnings. In February 2018, Curalina gave birth to a dark bay colt with a star by Japanese Triple Crown winner Deep Impact. Http://www.equibase.com/profiles/Results.cfm?type=Horse&refno=9336837®istry=T http://www.aikenracinghalloffame.com/Curalina.html http://www.pedigreequery.com/curalina
Always Dreaming is an American Thoroughbred racehorse. He won the Florida Derby in his first graded stakes race appearance and won the 2017 Kentucky Derby. Always Dreaming is a dark bay colt, bred in Kentucky by Santa Rosa Partners, he is from the first crop of foals sired by Bodemeister, the runner-up in both the 2012 Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes. The dam of Always Dreaming, Above Perfection, was an exceptional sprinter who won the Las Flores Handicap in 2002. Above Perfection's earlier foals include Grade I winner Hot Dixie Chick. Although both Bodemeister and Above Perfection were known for their speed, there are multiple stamina influences further back in the pedigree. Always Dreaming was sold at the Keeneland September 2015 Yearling Sale for $350,000, he was bought by his wife Mary Ellen's MeB Stables. "My son was doing the bidding. I was working. I gave him the budget and thank God he went over it," said Bonomo. "I could tell you that two years ago, on the day we bought the horse, I was upset.
You flash forward two years and I can't kiss him enough. He has a keen eye."In the summer of 2016, Bonomo and Vincent Viola, both long-time racing fans from Brooklyn, decided to join forces, a move that affected the ownership of Always Dreaming. Viola owns his wife is the owner of Teresa Viola Racing Stable. "I'm a couple of years older, but we played baseball together and, you know each other from the neighborhood," said Viola before the 2017 Kentucky Derby. "When I got back into the Thoroughbreds, I called Anthony. We were doing the same thing separately, so we decided to do it together, that's what you see here."In early 2017, the Bonomos and Violas sold a minority interest in Always Dreaming to West Point Thoroughbreds and Siena Farm. Trained by Dominick Schettino, Always Dreaming was transferred to the barn of Todd Pletcher in September 2016. Always Dreaming raced twice at age two, finishing third in his debut on July 1, 2016 at Belmont Park and second in his next start at Saratoga on August 20.
In September, Always Dreaming was transferred to the barn of Todd Pletcher, who decided the colt would benefit from some time off. When Always Dreaming returned to training, Pletcher could see an improvement. "We could see right away," he said, "as soon as we were breezing him, that he had extra special talent." Always Dreaming made his three-year-old debut on January 25, 2017 at Tampa Bay Downs as the 1-5 favorite in a maiden special weight race. Pletcher chose the race from among several other maiden races being run on that date based on the distance of 1 1⁄16 miles, feeling 7 furlongs was too short for the colt but 1 1⁄8 miles would be too long after such a long layoff. Pletcher felt lucky to secure the services of jockey John Velazquez, with whom he had a long-term association, for the ride. Always Dreaming raced just off the early pace drew away from the field to win by 11 1⁄2 lengths, his next start was on March 4 in an Allowance Optional Claiming race at Gulfstream Park over a distance of 1 1⁄8 miles.
Pletcher chose this race rather than the Fountain of Youth Stakes held on the same day as part of a plan to keep the colt from peaking too early in the Derby prep season. Starting at odds of 1-10, Always Dreaming set an "almost unbelievably slow pace" pulled away to win by four lengths; the raced colt stepped up to face Grade I company in the Florida Derby on April 1 at Gulfstream. He was the second betting choice at nearly 3-1 behind Kentucky Derby hopeful Gunnevera. Always Dreaming vied for the early lead with Three Rules and State of Honor settled into second place down the backstretch. Rounding into the stretch, Always Dreaming kicked away from the rest of the field and won by 5 lengths, his time for the distance of 1 1⁄8 miles was 1:47.47. The Florida Derby win made Always Dreaming one of the leading contenders for the 2017 Kentucky Derby, he shipped to Churchill Downs to train for the race, but attracted concern by his headstrong behavior in his morning workouts. Pletcher added draw reins in an attempt to get the horse to settle.
After the second workout with the new equipment, Always Dreaming learned to stop fighting his rider. "The horse is moving fantastic. We want to be able to control that energy and I think we've made big strides in doing that overnight," said Pletcher. "I would much rather be in this position than to come in with a horse not feeling good or hanging his head." The 2017 Kentucky Derby was held on May 6 at Churchill Downs over a track, labelled as wet fast. After drawing post position five in a full field of 20 horses, Always Dreaming was made the 5-1 second choice on the morning line by track handicapper Mike Battaglia; when wagering opened, his odds shortened to 9-2, making him the post-time favorite. Always Dreaming broke well and settled just behind the early leader State of Honor with good position on the rail. After half a mile, jockey John R. Velazquez moved him to the outside of State of Honor and the two raced together into the far turn; when other horses started to challenge for the lead, Always Dreaming responded by drawing away and opening a lead of several lengths in the stretch.
Longshot Lookin At Lee made a late run to finish second, but Always Dreaming was never threatened, winning by 2 3⁄4 lengths. His time was 2:03.59 for the distance of 1 1⁄4 miles. After the race, Velazquez said, "I got a good position with him early and he relaxed; when we hit the quarter pole, I asked he responded. He did it himself from there."Always Dreaming became the first horse in 84 years to win the Derby having not won a race as
D. Wayne Lukas
Darrell Wayne Lukas is an American horse trainer and a U. S. Racing Hall of Fame inductee, he holds the record for the most Triple Crown race wins with fourteen, has won twenty Breeders' Cup races, received five Eclipse Awards for his accomplishments, his horses have won 25 year-end Eclipse Awards. Born and raised on a small farm, Lukas grew up with an interest in horses, he graduated from the University of Wisconsin–Madison with a master's degree in education taught high school where for nine years he was a head basketball coach. He began training quarter horses in California in 1968 and after 10 years of achievement that saw him train 24 world champions, he switched to training thoroughbreds; the first trainer to earn more than $100 million in purse money, he has been the year's top money winner 14 times. Lukas got his big break in 1980, his horses have won the Kentucky Derby four times, the Preakness Stakes on six occasions, have claimed victory four times in the Belmont Stakes, including winning all three of the Classics in 1995 with Thunder Gulch and Timber Country, making him the first trainer to sweep the Triple Crown Classic races with two different horses in a season.
In 2013, he surpassed Sunny Jim Fitzsimmons for the most Triple Crown race victories, with 14. He has won Breeder's Cup races a record 20 times. Fillies Lukas has trained have won the Kentucky Oaks four times. Three of his horses—Lady's Secret in 1986, Criminal Type in 1990 and Charismatic in 1999—won the Eclipse Award for Horse of the Year, he has a total of 25 horses. He has won the Eclipse Award for Outstanding Trainer four times. In 1999, the same year his horse Charismatic came within 2 lengths of the Triple Crown, he was inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame, he was inducted into the American Quarter Horse Hall of Fame in 2007, becoming the first person to enter both the Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse halls of fame. In 2013 he was awarded the Eclipse Award of Merit for his accomplishments. In 2014, at age 78, in his acceptance speech for the 2013 Eclipse Award of Merit, he stated, "hen they start giving you awards...they are trying to get you to retire. Well, you young trainers get ready.
We're coming after you, so you'd better get up a little more early in the morning from now on. We're coming after you with a vengeance." Lukas has been married four times. He had one son and two grandchildren, with his first wife. In December 1993, Lukas' derby contender, Tabasco Cat injured Jeff Lukas, who worked for his father as an assistant trainer and was the elder Lukas' hard-driving right-hand man. In a shedrow accident at Santa Anita Park, the colt broke loose and when Jeff Lukas tried to stop him, the horse slammed into him, throwing him into the air and when Jeff landed on the concrete, he suffered a skull fracture which left him in a coma for several weeks, he suffered permanent brain damage. By spring of 1994, he had recovered enough that he attempted to return to horse racing, but after a series of less-demanding jobs ending in 2003, it was clear he could not work safely around race horses, he tried living and working near horse farms, but his disabilities were too severe for him to be safe around horses at all.
He moved to Atoka, Oklahoma in 2007 to work for David Burrage, the accountant and general manager for Lukas Racing Stables. By that time, Burrage was a banker and owned the First Bank in Atoka, his father bought him a home there and Jeff lived a quiet life until his death at age 58 in March 2016. Kentucky DerbyWinning Colors Thunder Gulch Grindstone Charismatic Preakness StakesCodex Tank's Prospect Tabasco Cat Timber Country Charismatic Oxbow Belmont StakesTabasco Cat Thunder Gulch Editor's Note Commendable Breeders' Cup ClassicCat Thief Breeders' Cup Ladies' ClassicLife's Magic Lady's Secret Sacahuista Spain Breeders' Cup MileSteinlen Breeders' Cup SprintGulch Orientate Breeders' Cup JuvenileCapote Success Express Is It True Timber Country Boston Harbor Breeders' Cup Juvenile FilliesTwilight Ridge Open Mind Flanders Cash Run Folklore Take Charge Brandi Breeders' Cup Juvenile SprintHightail DeVito, Carlo. D. Wayne: The High-Rolling and Fast Times of America's Premier Horse Trainer McGraw-Hill ISBN 0-07-138737-4 D. Wayne Lukas at the United States National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame American Quarter Horse Association Hall of Fame - D. Wayne Lukas accessed on February 4, 2008 D. Wayne Lukas at the NTRA
Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing (United States)
In the United States, the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing known as the Triple Crown, is a title awarded to a three-year-old Thoroughbred horse who wins the Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes, Belmont Stakes. The three races were inaugurated in different years, the last being the Kentucky Derby in 1875; these races are now run annually in May and early June of each year. The Triple Crown Trophy, commissioned in 1950 but awarded to all previous winners as well as those after 1950, is awarded to a Triple Crown winner; the first winner of all three Triple Crown races was Sir Barton in 1919. Some journalists began using the term Triple Crown to refer to the three races as early as 1923, but it was not until Gallant Fox won the three events in 1930 that Charles Hatton of the Daily Racing Form put the term into common use. In the history of the Triple Crown, 13 horses have won all three races: Sir Barton, Gallant Fox, War Admiral, Count Fleet, Citation, Seattle Slew, American Pharoah, Justify; as of 2018, American Pharoah and Justify are the only living Triple Crown winners.
James E. "Sunny Jim" Fitzsimmons was the first trainer to win the Triple Crown more than once. Gallant Fox and Omaha are the only father-son duo to win the Triple Crown. Bob Baffert became the second trainer to win the Triple Crown twice, training American Pharoah and Justify. Belair Stud and Calumet Farm are tied as the owners with the most Triple Crown victories with two apiece. Calumet Farms won with Citation. Eddie Arcaro rode both of Calumet Farms' Triple Crown champions and is the only jockey to win more than one Triple Crown. Secretariat holds the stakes record time for each of the three races, his time of 2:24 for 1 1⁄2 miles in the 1973 Belmont Stakes set a world record that still stands. The three Triple Crown races had been run for decades; the term was in use at least by 1923, although Daily Racing Form writer Charles Hatton is credited with originating the term in 1930. Their order has varied. Before 1931, the Preakness was run before the Kentucky Derby eleven times. On May 12, 1917, May 13, 1922, the Kentucky Derby and Preakness were run on the same day.
Since 1931, the Kentucky Derby has been run first, followed by the Preakness, the Belmont. Each Triple Crown race is open to both fillies. Although fillies have won each of the individual Triple Crown races, none has won the Triple Crown itself. Despite attempts to develop a "Filly Triple Crown" or a "Triple Tiara" for fillies only, no set series of three races has remained in the public eye, at least four different configurations of races have been used. Two fillies won the series of the Kentucky Oaks, the Pimlico Oaks, the Coaching Club American Oaks, in 1949 and 1952, but the racing press did not designate either accomplishment as a "Triple Crown". In 1961, the New York Racing Association created a filly Triple Crown of in-state races only, but the races changed over the years. Eight fillies won the NYRA Triple Tiara between 1968 and 1993. Gelded colts may run in any of the three races today, but they were prohibited from entering the Belmont between 1919 and 1957. Geldings have won each of the individual races, but like fillies, no gelding has won the Triple Crown.
The closest was Funny Cide, who won the Derby and the Preakness in 2003. All the races are held on dirt tracks, rather than the turf used for important races in Europe. At completion of the 2016 season, the three Triple Crown races have attracted 4,224 entrants. Of these, 292 horses have won a single leg of the Triple Crown, 52 horses have won two of the races, 13 horses have won all three races. Pillory won both the Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes in 1922, a year when it was impossible to win the Triple Crown because the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes were run on the same day. 10 of the 13 winners have owned at the time of their win by their breeders. Jim Fitzsimmons and Bob Baffert are the only two trainers to have two horses win the Triple Crown, with Fitzsimmons training the sire/son combination of 1930 winner Gallant Fox and 1935 winner Omaha and Baffert training 2015 winner American Pharoah and 2018 winner Justify; the wins by Fitzsimmons were the first time that an owner and the first time that a breeder, Belair Stud holding both duties, had a repeat win of the Triple Crown.
Calumet Farm is the only other owner with two Triple Crown horses, 1941 winner Whirlaway and 1948 winner Citation. Eddie Arcaro is the only jockey to ride two horses to the Triple Crown, both for Calumet and Citation; those two horses' trainers, Ben Jones and Jimmy Jones, were son. All 13 horses, most owners and jockeys were born in the United States; the exceptions were jockey Johnny Longden, raised in Canada. Secretariat's trainer, Lucien Laurin and jockey, Ron Turcotte were both Canadians. Owner Fannie Hertz was married to John D. Hertz, born in Slovakia. Jockey Willie Saunders is considered a Canadian jockey because he grew up and established his career there, but was born in Montana; the horse Sir Barton was foaled in the United States but had a Canadian