Normandy is one of the 18 regions of France referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy. Normandy is divided into five administrative departments: Calvados, Manche and Seine-Maritime, it covers 30,627 square kilometres, comprising 5% of the territory of metropolitan France. Its population of 3.37 million accounts for around 5% of the population of France. The inhabitants of Normandy are known as Normans, the region is the historic homeland of the Norman language; the historical region of Normandy comprised the present-day region of Normandy, as well as small areas now part of the departments of Mayenne and Sarthe. The Channel Islands are historically part of Normandy. Normandy's name comes from the settlement of the territory by Danish and Norwegian Vikings from the 9th century, confirmed by treaty in the 10th century between King Charles III of France and the Viking jarl Rollo. For a century and a half following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Normandy and England were linked by Norman and Frankish rulers.
Archaeological finds, such as cave paintings, prove that humans were present in the region in prehistoric times. Celts invaded Normandy in successive waves from the 4th to the 3rd century BC; when Julius Caesar invaded Gaul, there were nine different Celtic tribes living in Normandy. The Romanisation of Normandy was achieved by the usual methods: Roman roads and a policy of urbanisation. Classicists have knowledge of many Gallo-Roman villas in Normandy. In the late 3rd century, barbarian raids devastated Normandy. Coastal settlements were raided by Saxon pirates. Christianity began to enter the area during this period. In 406, Germanic tribes began invading from the east; as early as 487, the area between the River Somme and the River Loire came under the control of the Frankish lord Clovis. Vikings started to raid the Seine valley during the middle of the 9th century; as early as 841, a Viking fleet appeared at the mouth of the Seine, the principal route by which they entered the kingdom. After attacking and destroying monasteries, including one at Jumièges, they took advantage of the power vacuum created by the disintegration of Charlemagne's empire to take northern France.
The fiefdom of Normandy was created for Rollo. Rollo had besieged Paris but in 911 entered vassalage to the king of the West Franks, Charles the Simple, through the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. In exchange for his homage and fealty, Rollo gained the territory which he and his Viking allies had conquered; the name "Normandy" reflects Rollo's Viking origins. To this day, in Norwegian language the word nordmann denotes a Norwegian person; the descendants of Rollo and his followers adopted the local Gallo-Romance language and intermarried with the area's native Gallo-Roman inhabitants. They became the Normans – a Norman-speaking mixture of Norsemen and indigenous Franks and Romans. Rollo's descendant William became king of England in 1066 after defeating Harold Godwinson, the last of the Anglo-Saxon kings, at the Battle of Hastings, while retaining the fiefdom of Normandy for himself and his descendants. Besides the conquest of England and the subsequent subjugation of Wales and Ireland, the Normans expanded into other areas.
Norman families, such as that of Tancred of Hauteville, Rainulf Drengot and Guimond de Moulins played important parts in the conquest of southern Italy and the Crusades. The Drengot lineage, de Hauteville's sons William Iron Arm and Humphrey, Robert Guiscard and Roger the Great Count progressively claimed territories in southern Italy until founding the Kingdom of Sicily in 1130, they carved out a place for themselves and their descendants in the Crusader states of Asia Minor and the Holy Land. The 14th-century explorer Jean de Béthencourt established a kingdom in the Canary Islands in 1404, he received the title King of the Canary Islands from Pope Innocent VII but recognized Henry III of Castile as his overlord, who had provided him aid during the conquest. In 1204, during the reign of John Lackland, mainland Normandy was taken from England by France under King Philip II. Insular Normandy remained however under English control. In 1259, Henry III of England recognized the legality of French possession of mainland Normandy under the Treaty of Paris.
His successors, however fought to regain control of their ancient fiefdom. The Charte aux Normands granted by Louis X of France in 1315 – like the analogous Magna Carta granted in England in the aftermath of 1204 – guaranteed the liberties and privileges of the province of Normandy. French Normandy was occupied by English forces during the Hundred Years' War in 1345–1360 and again in 1415–1450. Normandy lost three-quarters of its population during the war. Afterward prosperity returned to Normandy until the Wars of Religion; when many Norman towns joined the Protestant Reformation, battles ensued throughout the province. In the Channel Islands, a period of Calvinism following the Reformation was suppressed when Anglicanism was imposed following the English Civil War. Samuel de Champlain founded Acadia. Four years
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
Hotot-en-Auge is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. In 2010, the town had 317 inhabitants. Population censuses have been conducted in the town since 1793 with some regularity as a census of municipalities with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants are held every five years. Communes of the Calvados department INSEE annuaire-mairie
Hottot-les-Bagues is a commune in the Calvados department and Normandy region of north-western France. Hottot-les-Bagues lies 14 kilometres south-east of Bayeux; the fiefdom of Normandy was created for the Viking leader Rollo. Many of the remaining place names are of Norse origin. Hottot is believed to have taken its name from the Old Norse word haugr meaning low hill. During World War II, the Allied offensive in north-western Europe began with the Normandy landings of 6 June 1944. Within the surrounding district, there was much heavy fighting through June and July 1944 as Commonwealth forces tried to press on from Bayeux in an encircling movement to the south of Caen. Hottot-les-Bagues military cemetery contains some 1,137 graves belonging to 965 British soldiers, 34 Canadians, 3 Australians, 2 New Zealanders and 1 South African, together with 132 German soldiers. Most of the war dead lost their lives in the second fortnight of June 1944, in the furious fighting around Tilly-sur-Seulles; the cemetery can be reached from Bayeux by taking the D6 southeast.
After passing through Tilly-sur-Seulles, turn westward at Juvigny onto the main road that runs from Caen towards Caumont l'Evente. Communes of the Calvados department Duchy of Normandy Battle for Caen INSEE Hottot les Bagues War Cemetery Normandy War Cemeteries Vikings in Normandy
Wibtoft is a small village and civil parish in the Rugby borough of Warwickshire, England. The village was within the civil parish of Claybrooke Magna in Leicestershire and, according to the 2001 Census, had a population of 50, it is an agricultural community. From the 2011 census the population has been included in Monks Kirby; the village is next to the A5 road, which here defines the border between Warwickshire and Leicestershire. Wibtoft is about 10 miles north of Rugby. Due to its location in a sheltered valley just south of High Cross, local finds of Roman coins and stonework, some historians have speculated that it sits upon the site of a Roman settlement. Due to its small size Wibtoft has neither shops nor pubs, but does have a small church dedicated to St Mary; the ecclesiastical parish crosses the county boundary and is'Claybrooke cum Wibtoft' and thus falls in the Diocese of Leicester. The name of the village has Danish origin, was mentioned in the Domesday Book as Wibetot. Media related to Wibtoft at Wikimedia Commons
Toft Newton is a civil parish in the West Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. It consists of the small villages of Toft next Newton and Newton by Toft, the hamlet of Newtoft, it is 4 miles west from Market Rasen. According to the 2001 Census it had a population of 522; the church of St Michael in Newton by Toft dates from the 12th century and was extensively rebuilt in 1860 by James Fowler. St Peter and Paul Church in Toft next Newton was built in the thirteenth century, but was extensively remodelled in 1891 by Hodgson Fowler, it is a grade II listed building, but was closed in 1986 and was sold for residential use in 1989. Toft Newton Reservoir on the upper reaches of the River Ancholme attracts fishing for trout, bird watching; the reservoir covers 41 acres, is supplied with water from Short Ferry, on the River Witham, through a 10.6-mile pipeline. It is used to maintain flows in the Ancholme during the summer months, is stocked with rainbow trout and brown trout. Facilities include a "wheelyboat", designed to allow wheelchair users to access the fishery.
Media related to Toft Newton at Wikimedia Commons Map sources for Toft Newton
Huttoft is a big village in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. It is situated about 4 miles east of the market town of Alford, on the A52 road between Ingoldmells and Sutton-on-Sea. Huttoft is listed three times in the 1086 Domesday Book as Hotoft, in the manors of both Huttoft and Greetham in the Calcewath Hundred of the South Riding of Lindsey; the combined listings record over 19 households, 20 villagers, 23 smallholders, 69 freemen, 20 ploughlands, meadows of 860 acres. Before the Norman Conquest Earl Harold was lord of Greetham; the 1086 tenant-in-chief of Huttoft was Alfred of Lincoln. Huttoft is an Anglo-Norse place name derived from Old English hoh "decline", "slope" and Old Norse topt "site of a house". However, the Dictionary of British Place Names defines Huttoft as a "homestead on a spur of land." De Beaurepaire states. St Margaret's Church is built of stone in the decorated style, is a Grade I listed building. Built of greenstone and with some brick patching, Restorations took place in 1869, 1882, 1910.
The west tower is 13th-century. The font is 15th-century; the churchyard cross, is a Grade II listed structure, restored in 1896 with the addition of a crucifix. The Poet Laureate John Betjeman was fond of Lincolnshire: Wolds and the Georgian town of Louth, he refers to Huttoft, in the second of his Lincolnshire poems, A Lincolnshire Church. This is one of his longer poems and mentions the vicar of 1943–59, Theophilus Caleb, whom he met; the Wesleyan Methodist chapel on Sutton Road, became part of the Alford and Wainfleet Methodist Circuit in 1997. The Primitive Methodists had a chapel, in Church Lane, on the Alford Methodist circuit until 1963, has since been demolished, although the graveyard remains. Huttoft windmill, standing in the centre of the village, is a Grade II listed building, it lost its sails in 1945 in a storm after a century of milling. Huttoft School was built as a National School in 1840 and enlarged in 1874, it was known as Huttoft CE School by 1914, became Huttoft County Primary in 1947.
It became a grant-maintained school and has been known as Huttoft Primary School since 1999. Huttoft Bank Pit, some 2.5 miles east of the village, is a nature reserve protected by the Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust. It provided clay for repairs to the sea bank after the North Sea flood of 1953, it includes extensive reed beds. Huttoft Bank leads to Huttoft Beach known as Moggs Eye. Huttoft is the location of the Radcliffe Donkey Sanctuary. Media related to Huttoft at Wikimedia Commons Website of the Radcliffe Donkey Sanctuary